(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "A first book in Latin; containing grammar, exercises, and vocabularies, on the method of constant imitation and repetition"

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at http : //books . google . com/| 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



FIRST BOOK m LATIIf ; 



OOMTAINIRO 



GRAMMAR, EXERCISES, AND VOCABULARIES, 



ON THE METHOD OP 



CONSTANT IMITATION AND REPETITION. 



JOHN Mve>L LNg?'% C K, A.M., 

PROFESSOR OF LANOUAOKB, 



GEORGE R. CROOKS, A.M., 

AOlUirCT PS0FB8S0B OF LANOUAGBS III DICKIM80X OOLLSOI. 




HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, 
89 CLIFF STREET, NEW YORK. 

* 1848. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1846, 

By Harper & Brothers, 

In the Clerk's Office of the Southern District of New York. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PREFACE. 



This book is designed, as the title-page states, to 
contain within itself Grammar, Exercises, Reading- 
book, and Dictionary; in short, all that the pupil will 
need before commencing the regular reading of Cae- 
sar or any other easy Latin author. It has been pre- 
pared, as far as possible, on the following principles : 

1. The object of studying languages is twofold : (1), 
the acquisition of the languages themselves ; and (2), 
the mental discipline gained in acquiring them. 

2. No language can he thoroughly acquired with- 
out the outlay of much la\)Our and time. All schemes 
which promise to dispense with such outlay must be 
pronounced visionary and chimerical. 

3. But labour without fruit does not contribute to 
mental cultivation. Labour and pain are not neces- 
sary companions: learning should not be "wrung 
from poor striplings like blood from the nose, or the 
plucking of untimely fruit."* 

4. The grammar of a language cannot be understood 
until the language itself is at least partially acquired. 

5. The vernacular may be learned, so far as its use 
is concerned, without grammar : a foreign living lan- 
guage may be so learned, but never so thoroughly, 
nor even so rapidly, as with grammatical aids. In the 
study of a dead language grammar is indispensable. 

6. "A grammar intended for beginners should be 
formed altogether differently from one intended for 

• MUton. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV PEErACE. 

the higher classes, both in the distribution of the mat- 
ter and in the mode of presenting it. Those who think 
that the pupil should use the same grammar from the 
beginning of his course to the end, are quite in error/'* 

7. In elementary books^ or in teaching, no etymo- 
logical form nor grammatical principle should be pre- 
sented to the pupil without an immediate application 
thereof to practice^ which should be kept up, both 
orally and in writing, from the very first lesson. 

8. The all-important rule of practice, in the acqui- 
sition of language, is imitation and repetition. This 
is no new invention; all good teachers have known 
and used it ; but yet it has been but slightly employ- 
ed in elementary books heretofore. 

9. Models for imitation should be simple at first, 
and gradually made more complicated; but they 
should always be selected from pure authors, say, in 
Latin, from Cicero and Caesar. 

10. The pupil's ear should be trained to correct- 
ness from the beginning, and the simplest rules of 
prosody learned and applied as soon as possible. 
For this purpose, the quantity of all syllables should 
be marked in elementary books, and attention to it 
should be strictly enforced by the teacher. 

11. The foreign idiom, both as to the use and ar- 
rangement of words, should be made familiar to the 
pupil by constant practice. Nothing can be more 
hurtful than exercises in which foreign words are used 
in the idiom, and according to the arrangement of the 
vernacular. 

How far we have been successful in carrying out 
these principles, the book itself must show, 

• Ktlhner. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PKEFACE. ▼ 

We have aimed to combine the advantages of con- 
stant repetition and imitation of Latin sentences from 
the beginning, with a more thorough drilling in ety- 
mological forms than is common. In order to effect 
this combination, we have necessarily deviated from 
the ordinary grammatical course to some extent ; but 
we trust that experienced teachers will find, from an 
examination of the table of contents alone» that our 
arrangement is not devoid of systematic and even 
logical order. 

While we have not gone out of our way to bring in 
novelties, we have yet adopted every new method 
which we have deemed to be an improvement. None 
of the class-books of any repute in England or Ger- 
many have escaped our notice in the preparation of 
this work ; and we have made free use of them all, 
without slavish adherence to any. Perhaps the most 
marked peculiarity of the etymological part of the 
book will be found to be the doctrine of the genders of 
nouns of the third declension, which we have reduced, 
for the first time, to a form at once philosophical, we 
hope, and practical.* Some steps toward the meth- 
od here presented have been taken by Madvig, Weis- 
SENBORN, and others in Germany ; but none of these 
writers has brought out a clear exposition of the doc- 
trine, adapted to the actual purposes of instruction. 
The arrangement, also, of the verbs,t according to 
the formation of the perfect-stem, founded mainly 
upon the classification of Grotefend (better set forth 
by Allen), will be found, we trust, to be an improve- 
ment upon any yet offered. 



• The Btiinmary of roles, witb all the exceptions, will be found to occu- 
py two pages only, viz., p. 132, 133, 
t Lessons IxiL-lxix^ and p. 868-279. 

1* 



Digitized by 



GooqIc 



VI PREFACE. 

The Syntax, in its details, generally follows Zumpt ; 
but in the arrangement, especially of Part IL, we 
have approached nearer to the plan of Billroth. 
The admirable syntax of Becker, adopted by Kuhner 
in his Greek and Latin Grammars, we deem too dif- 
ficult for beginners. 

The Exercises are selected, as far as possible, fi*om 
Caesar's Gallic War. Although we have laboured 
hard to keep out bad Latin, we do not hope that all 
our sentences will escape criticism. We have found, 
fi:om actual experiment in our classes, that the exer- 
cises to be rendered from Enghsh into Latin are 
within the capacity of any student of ordinary indus- 
try who studies the book in order ; and we do not 
know that thi^ can be said of any book of the kind, 
of equal extent, in use among us. 

A few words as to the use of the book may not be 
out of place. Our own method has been to employ 
the lessons, for a considerable time at least, entirely 
in oral instruction, the teacher pronouncing first the 
Latin sentences distinctly, and requiring the pupil to 
give the corresponding English without book ; and 
then pronouncing the English sentences, and requi- 
ring the pupil to give the corresponding Latin. As 
the quantities are marked (in Part I.) in all syllables 
except those to which the general r^tes apply, we 
require the pupil to observe quantity :iii his pronun- 
ciation from the very beginning, so that he learns 
prosody by practice before the rules are given. For 
the purpose of review, the summary of Etymology 
(Part III.), which contains, in short compass, all that 
is necessary to be learned by heart, will be found 
very convenient. After the student has passed 



Digitized by 



Google 



PREFACE. VU 

through Parts I. and IL, he will find little difliculty 
in committing accurately the Rules of Syntax (Part 
IV.), with most of which he will be already familiar. 
The Reading Lessons at the end will give him easy 
practice in the syntax* and in word-building. For 
the convenience of those who may need it, we have 
condensed into a few pages, in Appendix L, all of 
Prosody that is essential for the understanding of 
hexameter verse. 

The preparation of this book was originally sug- 
gested by our sense of the inadequacy of the ordina- 
ry modes of instruction, and especially by the ad- 
vantage which we ourselves had derived from the 
use of Ollendorff's method in the study of the Ger- 
man language. Finding that Rev. T. K. Arnold 
had prepared a series of books on the same principle, 
we used them in our own classes for some time, with 
a view to revising them for republication. They 
were found unsuited to our purpose in many respects, 
and we therefore formed the design of preparing an 
entirely new series, adapted to the use of American 
schools. The first of these is now presented to the 
public. 

DicJnnson. College, April 7, 1846. ^ 

%* In Fart L the qnantity is marked on all syllables except those to 
which the general roles apply. At the beginning of Part U. additional 
rales of quantity are given, and the marks are snbseqaently omitted on 
many syllables, in order to afford the pupil exercise npon the roles. In the 
Syntax and B.eading Lesscms they are omitted almost entirely. Great pains 
have been taken to ensore accuracy in the marks of quantity, hot we can- 
not hope to have avoided error entirely. 

* Oar Second Book in Latin will contain a fuller development of Syntax, 
in a series of progressive exercises in writing Latin. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION. 



In thits edition, a number of errors in the marks of 
quantity, which had crept into the first, are corrected. 
We have also placed a series of Examination Ques- 
tions at the end of the book, which will add, we hope, 
to its practical value. 

Carlisle, November, 1846. 



Digitized by 



Google 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Iin?aODU0TION. 

Pag* 
{ 1. Divisioii of the Letters 1 

^ 2. Syllables, Claantity, Accent ••••••.. 1 

$3. Proiraiiciation •••••3 

1 4. Division of Words 4 

PARTL 

PARTIAL EXHIBITION OF THE FORMS OF WORDS. 

Summary {f Ettential Point$ 8 

$5. FirstDeckmumofNouns.— First C(mjugatumcf Verbs. (L— V.) 10 
First Declension of Notins, Nominative, Vocative, and Gknitive 

Cases 10 

First Conjugation of Verbs, /»<ra»n^*v0 . . .^ . .14 
First Declension of Nonns, Aocosative Case. — ^First Conjuga- 
tion of Verbs, Transitive 17 

First Declension of Nonns, Dative and Ablative Cases . . 19 
$ 6, Second Declension of Nouns. — Second Conjugation of Verbs. 

(VI.— VOL) 23 

Second Declension, Masculine 22 

Second Declension, Neuter. — Second Conjugation of Verbs . 26 
$7. Adjectives of First Class, Three Endings. (IX.— X.) . . .28 

Forms of Adjectives in as, a, nm 28 

Someformsof Esse, to^ • . 30 

(8. Third and Fourth Conjugations ef Verbs. (XI.) . . .33 

i 9. Passive Verbs. (XIL— XHI.) 3« 

f 10. Third Declension of Nouns, PaHial Treatment. (XIV.— XV.) . 40 
f 11. Adjectives of Second Class, Two Endings. (XVI.) . . .44 
$ 12. Adjectives of Third Class, One Ending. (XVH) . . .46 

^13. Fourth Declension of NouTu. (XVIDL) 48 

i 14. Fifth Declension of Nouns. (XIX) 51 

i 15. Pronouns. (XX.— XXXI.) 53 

Pronoun, Personal, 1st Person. Verb, 1st Person . . .53 
Pronoun, Personal, 2d Person. Verb, 2d Person . . .5? 

Pronoun, Personal, 3d Person 61 

Pronouns, Demonstrative • • . 63 

Pronoun, Relative • • 68 

Pronoun, Interrogative • 7f 



Digitized by 



Google 



X TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

'PronowoB, Indefinite 73 

PronounB, Corrdative 74 

$ 16. Numerals. (XXXH.— XXXIIL) 77 

jl7. Verbs of Third Conjugation in io. PCXXIV.) ... 81 

$18. Verbs, Deponent. (XXXV.) 83 

$ 19. Adverbs. (XXXVL) 85 

^20. Prepositions. (XXXVn.— XXXVIH.) 88 

$ 21. AnalysU of TmsefwrmatwM. (XXXIX.— XI.L) ... 92 

PABT n. 

FULLKR EXHIBITION OF THK F0BM8 OF WOBBS. 

$ 1. Additional Rules of Quantity 99 

$ 2. Tenses of Verbs for Completed Action, Partial Treatment. 

(XLin.— XLVI.) 102 

Perfect Tenses of Esse 102 

Perfect Tenses of 1st, 2d, and 4tli Cpx^jngations .... 104 

Perfect Tenses of 3d Conjugation 106 

J 3. Third Declension of Nouns, Fuller Treatment. (XLVIL 

— LVn.) 110 

Irregalar Nouns 129 

Sommary of Rules of Gender, Third Declension. . . .132 
5 4. Comparison of Adjectives. (LVUL — ^LX.) .... 134 

$5. Comparison of Adverbs 140 

$6. Supine. (LXI.) 141 

J 7. Tenses of Verbs for Completed Action, Active Voice. Fuller 

Treatment. (LXn.—LXIX.) 144 

Forms of Perfect Stem, 1st Conjugation 144 

Forms of Perfect Stem, 2d Conjugation 146 

Forms of Perfect Stem, 3d Conjngation 149 

Fcnms of Perfect Stem, 4th Conjugation 159 

§ B. Tenses for Completed Action, Passive Voice. (LXX.) . .162 

$ 9. PaHiciples. (LXXL— LXXV.) 165 

Present Participle Active 165 

Futore Participle Active 168 

Perfect Participle Passive 170 

Ablative Absolnte 172 

$ 10. Infinitive. (LXXVI.— LXXIX.) 176 

Forms of Infinitive 176 

Accusative with Infinitive 178 

$ 11. Gerund. (LXXX.) 184 

$ 12. Gerundive. (LXXXL— LXXXII.) 187 

Gerundive used for Gerund • . 187 

Gerundive used to express Duty or Necessity • . . .189 

% 13. Imperative Mood. (LXXXHI.) 192 

$14. Sentences 194 

$ 15. Conjunctiont. (LXXXTVv-LXXXV.) 195 



Digitized by 



Google 



TABLE OP CONTENTS. XI 

jlB. Suijunetive Mood. (LXXXYI-^XCUL) iS 

Bubjanctiye Present . . . _ 199 

Sabjnnctive Perfect 209 

Bnbjimctiye Imperfect and Phiperfeot Conditional Sen- 
tences 205 

Babjunctxre withat^ne (P«f^<e) 209 

Snbjimctiye witli at {Consequence). Sncceision of Tenaes . 212 
Babjvnctive witli qnin, quo, quominna. Periphraatio Forma 214 

Bubjxmctiye with q«nm 217 

BabjnnctJTeiQ Belatiye Sentencea 220 

^n. Oratio Obliqua. (XCIV.) 223 

lis. Impersonal Verbs. (XCV.— XCYL) 226 

$ 19. Irregular Verbs. (XCVIL— CL) 230 

Poaae 230 

Velle, Nolle, Malle 239 

Ferre 234 

Fieri, Bdere •••••••• .236 

Ire, Claire, Neqaire 238 

ifiO. Defective Verbs. (CIL) 241 

PARTin. 

aUMMART OF STTMOLOOT. ' 

$ 1. Letters, Quantity , S^e. 247 

\ 2. Noun 248 

$3. Adjective 251 

\ 4. Numerals 254 

45. Pronoun .••••••••.. 255 

ie. Verb 258 

1. Claaaea of Verba 256 

2. PartaoftheVeib 258 

3. CoDJogation • 259 

4. The AoziliaiyBaae, to^ . • • • • • • •260 

5. ParadigmaofBegnlar Verba 261 

6. Verbsinioofthedd Coi^jagation • • • • • .266 

7. Deponent Verba 266 

8. Periphraatio Co^jogation 266 

9. Fonnation of Perfect Btem . . . • * . . . .267 

10. Lists of Verba, with yariona Perfiocta and Snpinca . . .268 

First Conjogation • • • . 268 

Second Conjogation • . . 269 

Third Co^iogation 271 

Foorth Conjogation 276 

Deponent Verba . • • • 277 

Inchoatiye Verba . • • • 279 

11. Irregular Verbs, Paradigma ^9 

12. Defectiye Verbs ^^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



XU TABLK OF CONTENTS. 

rac* 

13. Imperscmal Verbs S83 

$7. Adverb 285 

$8. PreposiHon 288 

$9. Conjunction 289 

$ 10. InteijecHon 290 

PART IV. 

•VXKABT OF STHTAX* 
PART I. 8IMPLX 0BNTUIOI0. 

L Subject and Prodicate 293 

n. UseofCaaes 295 

Nominative • • . • . Si95 

Genitive •••••••••.. 295 

Dative •••• 298 

Accusative, ••••• 300 

AMative 302 

m. Use of the Indefinite Veib •••••... 306 

InJinUioe .••••• 306 

Participle 907 

Gerund . . • 308 

Gerundive 308 

Supine 309 

PABT II. COMPOnHS 8B1ITB1ICX8. 

X. Co-ordinate Sentences 310 

XL Subordinate Sentences 810 

A. Participial Sentence^ 311 

B. Accusative with Infinitive 312 

C. Conjunctive Sentences 913 

D. Relative Sentences • ... 916 

E. Interrogative Sentences 318 

Oratio Obliqua •••••••••. 319 

Appendix I. Prosody , . . 323 

Appendix n. Greek Nouns ••••••.. 326 

Appendix DX The Calendar •••••,.. 327 

Appendix IV. AbbreTiations •••••••. 329 

WORD-BinLDINO ••••. 333 

Bjcadino Lessons •••• 340 

Latin-English Vocabvlabt ••••••••355 

English-Latin VocABVLAsr 383 



Digitized by 



Google 



^^ or IBS ^ A 

[TJinvLr.-viv/J 

INTRODUCTION.* 



^ 1. DIVISION OF THE LETTERS. 

(1.) The letters are the same as in English, with 
the omission ofw; k is used in but few words, and y 
and z only in words borrowed from the Greek. 

(2.J Six are vowels,^ viz., a, e, i, <?, w, y : the remaining 
nineteen are consonants.^ 

^ Sounds formed by an vninterrvpted emission of the air from the throat 
Called vowels (voc ale s = soundings letters), becaose capable of being 
sounded by themselves. 

' Sowids formed. by interrupting the emission of air fiom die throat 
Called consonants (con-sonare =to sonnd together), because incapable 
ci being sounded by themselves. 

(3.) The consonants are divided into 
(a) Liquids,' I, w, n, r; 
{h) Spirants,' fe, 5, j ; 

(c) Mutes,' 6, c, d,f, g, k, p, q, U v ; 

• The Liquids are formed by 9, partial inteiraption of the voice ; the Spi- 
rants chiefly by the breath ; and the Mutes by a more complete intermp^ 
turn of the passage of the air from the throat. J^is regarded, indeed, sim* 
ply as an aspiration, though in many words it fills the place of a conso- 
nant 

(d) Double consonants,* x, z. 

* JC\b compounded of c s, g s, and z (occurring only in Greek words) of d 8. 

(4.) The imion of two vowels into one syllable forms 
a diphthong. These are, in Latin, a u, e u, a e, o e (gen- 
erally written cb, as), and, in a few words, ei, oi, uL 

^ 2. SYLLABLES, QUANTITY, ACCENT. 

(5.) Every word contains as many syllables as vow- 
els ; 6. ^., m i 1 e s, a soldier, is not pronounced in one syl- 
lable, as the English word rnffe^, but in two, mi-les. 

(6.) The quantity of syllables (that is, their length 

♦ This Introduction may be omitted by very young puoils in their first 
study of the work ; but the references to it in the subsequent lessoui 
ihouid be carefully attended to. , 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 QUANTITY. ^ACCENT. 

or shortness) depends upon that of the vowels which 
they contam. The dash (~) placed over a vowel de- 
notes that it is long ; the semicircle (^, that it is short 
A vowel that may be used either as long or short is 
marked (^, and is said to be common. 

(7.) The following rules for the quantity of sylla- 
bles must be carefully observed: 

(a) All diphthongs are hng; e. g.^ mens-®, tables; 
au-rum, gold. 

(b) A vowel followed by another vowel is short; 
e. g.f DeuSy God. 

Thif rule applies, even tfaoagb h intenrens between die two ▼oweUi, aa 
h is not regarded as a ccmsonant (3, b,n.3); e. g., trkbo, vSha 

(c) A vowel followed by two consonants, or a doub- 
le one (3, d), is long by position; e. g.f in am ant, the 
a before nt is long by position. 

53^ [Every syllable to which none of ifuee three rvlee i$ apfUceble vnU he 
marked with its proper quantity in the foliowing pages, until other rules are given.] 

(8.) A word of but one syllable is called a Monosyl- 
lable ; of two, a JHssyllable ; of more than two, a Po/- 
y syllable. Thus, 1 e x is a monosyllable ; 1 e g i s, a dis- 
syllable; in c 51 as, a polysyllable. 

(9.) The last syllable of a word is called the ulti- 
mate ; the next to the last, the penuU ; the second from 
the last, the antepenult. Thus, in the word incdlas, 
the syllable las is the ultimate, c5, the penult, and in 
the antepenult. 

(10.) The accent of a syllable is a stress or eleva- 
tion of the voice in pronouncing it. Observe the fol- 
lowing rules : 

(a)^ Every dissyllable is accented on ihepenult; e. 
g.y b5nus, pono. 

(6) Every polysyllable is accented, 
1. On the penuU^ when the penult is long; e. g.^ 
kmire. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PEONUNCIATION. » 

2. On the antepenult, when the penult is short; 
e.g., animtig. ^ 

§ 3. PRONUNCIATION. 

(11.) [Almost every modem nation has its own way of pnnoondng Lat- 
in. Bat as the vowels have nearly the same sounds in all the Cerent 
countries of CorUtnenial Europe, there is something i^pioaching to uni- 
fiMmity in their pronunciation; the English, hpw9ver, give peculiar 
sounds to some of the vowels, and they pronounoe Latin, therefore, unlike 
all the rest of the world. Li this country two methods prevail, which, ibr 
flomrenience' sake, may he called the Continental and the English. We 
give them hoth, stating, at the same time, our decided preference for the 
first, both on the score of consistency and convenience. Li both methods 
tkaeoMoaonte are prcmounoed neariy as in Bngtish.} 

(a) The Continental Method. 

Table of Vowel Sound*. 

Short &, as m hat. Long i, as in machme. 

Long a, as in father. Short 6, as in not. 

Short 6, as in net. Long o, as in no. 

Long e, as in there. Short d, as in tub. 

Short 1, as in sit. Long u, as in fiill. 

Diphthongs. 

^ or oe, as e in there. 

au, as ou in our. 

eu, as eu in feud. 

ei (rarely occurring), as i in nice. : 

(b) The English Method. 
The vowels have the EngUsh long or short sounds, 
Exc. A final, in words of more than one syllable, 
has a broad sound ; as, fama (fame-ah). 

MonotyUailes. 

In monosyllables, if the vowel be the last letter, it 
has the long soimd ; as me, do ; if any other klUr, the 
ihort sound ; as «<, 6 ft. 



Digitized by 



GooqIc 



4 DIVISION OF WORDS. 

XXMyOsNet mnd Po^f§iflUble§, 

(1.) The vowel of an accented penult has the long 
sound, 

(a) Before another vowel ; as, D^us. 

(b) Before a single consonant; as, J 6 vis. 
It has the short sound, 

(a) Before two consonants, or a double consonant ; 
as, mundus, rexit. 

(2.) The vowel of an accented antepenult has the 
^Aor^ sound; as, r^gibus. 

(3.) An accented vowel before a mute and liquid 
has usually the long sound ; as, s&cra. 

§ 4. DIVISION OF WORDS. 

(12.) I. Words are divided, according to their sig^ 
nijication^ into eight classes, called Parts of Speech, 
viz., Noun, Adjective, Pronoun, Verb, Adverb, Prep- 
osition, Conjunction, Interjection. 

(13.) The Noun is the name of an object (person, 
or thing) ; e. g., John, man, house. 

Nouns are divided into, 

(a) Proper, denoting iniiutrfaaZ objects ; e.g.^John^ 
CcBsar, Rome. 

(b) Common, denoting one or more of a class of 
objects ; e. g., man, house, horses. 

(c) Abstrac't, denoting a quality; e. g., goodness, 
haste, virtue. 

(14.) The Adjective expresses a quality or property 
belonging to an object ; e. g., good, small; as, a good 
boy, a small house. 

(15.) The Pronoun is a substitute for the noun ; e. 
g., lie, she, it, are substitutes for man, woman, book. 

(16.) The Verb declares something of a person or 
thing. 



Digitized by 



Google 



DIVISION OF WORDS. O 

E. g^ the boy dances ; the boy tleeps ; the boy is good. (Id this 
last cue the quality " good" u affirmed of ** boy/' by meant of 
the verb is.) 
^^ Participles, Gerunds, and Supines are words partaking in ihe 
meaning of the verb, and in the form of the noon. 

(17.) The Adverb qualifies the meanmg of a verb, 
adjective, or other adverb ; e. g., the boy learns rapid- 
ly ; the boy is remarkably faithful ; the boy learns very 
rapidly. 

(18.) Prepositions express the relations of objects 
simply ; e. g.,from me ; in the house. 

(19.) Conjunctions connect words and sentences ; 
e. g-., Thomas and John went to town ; Thomas went, 
hut John remained. 

(20.) Interjections are merely signs of emotion ; e. 
g.^ alas! 

(21.) II. Words are divided, according to their 
form^ into, 

(1) Four inflected, viz.. Noun, Adjective, Pronoun, 
Verb. 

(2) Four uninfl^cted, viz.. Adverb, Preposition, Con- 
junction, Interjection. 

Rem. Infection is the variation of a word to express different rela- 
tions ; e. g., boy, boy<, &e boy** hat ; I love, I am laved, &c The in- 
flection of Nouns is called Declension ; of Verbs, Conjugation. The 
Latin langaage makes much more nse of inflection than the English. 

(22.) III. Words are divided, according to their/or- 
mation, into, 

(1) Derivative, i. c, derived from other words. 

(2) Primitive, i. e., not derived from other words. 

E. g., manly, manhood, are derivatives from the primitive man. 

(3) Compound, i. e,, made up by the union of two 
or more words. 

(4.) Simple, i. e., not so made up. 

E. g., man-kind is a compound, made up of the two simple words 
mtin and kind. 

A 2 



Digitized by 



GooqIc 



Digitized by 



Goc^Ie 



PART I. 



PARTIAL EXHIBITION OF THE FORMS OF WORDS, 
iircLubiiro 

TENSES OF VERBS FOR INCOMPLETE ACTION. 



I 



Digitized by 



Google 



SUMMARY. 



[The roles and statements on this pag^e and the fbUowing ere to be 
tlumnigbly learned^ as they must be appHed constantly.] 

(23.) Or THE Letters* 

(1) Six are vowels, a, «, t, o,u^y; 

(2) Four liquids, I, m, w, r ; 

(3) Three c-sounds, c, g, q ; 

(4) Two jp-sounds, &, J? ; 

(5) Two ^sounds, d, t ; 

(6) Two double consonants, x, z. 

(7) The diphthongs are au^ eu^ae^oe (and rarelj et, at, 
lit). 

(24.) General Rules of Quantity. 

(1) A vowel before another is short ; ۥ g-., tI a* 

(2) A vowel before two consonants, er a double one, is 
Umg hy position ; e. g.^ am ft nt. 

[As a mate followed l^ a Ixqvid caues some ezceptians to this 
role, we shall mark the quantity, in tiiat case, doubtful ; thus, 
IgrL] 

(3) An £phthongs are long ; e, g,^ mens s, au-mm. 

[In the following pages of Part I., tiie quantity of all syllables i» 
marked, except those which are covered by tiie above rales.} 

(25.) General Rules of Gender. 

[In English, gender is determined by sex alone ; e. g^ man is mas- 
culine, woman feminine. But in Latin, gender is determined partly by 
the meaning of nonns, and partly by their endings. The general roles 
here given from the meamngt apply to noons of all tiie declensions.] 



Digitized by 



Google 



SUMMARY. 9 

I. Masculines : Names of male beings ; of most rivers^ 
winds, mountains, months, and naiions. 

II. Feminines : Names affenude beings, cities, countries, 
trees, plants, and islands. 

III. Neuters : All indeclinable words. 

IV. Common : Such as have but one form for masculine 
and feminine; e. g,,exn I, an exile (male or female). 

[These four mlet are oontained in the foUowiag Tenet.] 

(25. a.) Males, rivers, winds, and mxmntain^ most we find 

With months and nations Masculine declined ; 

'But females, cities, countries, trees we name, 

As Feminine ; most islands, too, the same. 

Common are such as both the genders take. 

And Neuter all words undeclined we make. 

[There are many exceptiong from these roles, which must be learned 
by obserration.] 

Explanation of Marks and Abbreviations. 
The mark ^^ indicates a short vowel. 
" ** — indicates a long vowel. 
«« «« s= indicates that two words or phrases aid equiv* 

alent to each other. 
" *• + between two words shows that they are com- 
pounded together. 
e. g. means, ybr example (exempli gratia). 
Passages in brackets [ ] are not meant to be committed to 
memory. 

In the Exercises, words in parentheses ( ) are not meant 
to be translated. 

The References are made to paragraphs, not to pages. 
In a reference, R. means Remark ; N. mewaafoot-noU. 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 6. 

FIHST DECLENSION OF NOUNS^FIRST CON- 
JUGATION OP VERBS. (L— V.) 



LESSON L 
First Declension of Nouns. — Nominative^ VoeoHvef and 
Genitive Cases. 
(26.) Exampks. 

(a) ^lade or fhadow^ Umbr&* 
{h) Of the shade, Umbr». 

(c) The wood, Sylrft. 

(d) Of the wood, 'SylT». 

(27.) The Latin has no article. tJmbra may be a 
shade, or the shade, according to its connection with 
other words. 

(28.) The words umbra and sylva are names of 
things belonging to certain classes^ and are, therefore, 
common nouns (13, b)» 

(29.) In English, certain words (of, with, by, &c.) 
are generally placed before nouns, to express their re- 
lations to other words ; e. g,, of the wood, &c. ; but in 
Latin these relations are commonly indicated by dif- 
ferent endings of the noun (21, (2),R.) ; e. ^., sylv-a, 
the wood; sylv-ae, of <Ac wood. 

(30.) That part of the noim to which the ending is 
added is called the stem; e. ^., sylv- is the stem of 
sylv-a; t err- is the stem of terr-a, the earth. 

(31.) There are in Latin six endings, which, added 
to the stem, form six cases^ the Nominative, Genitive^ 
Dative, Accusative, Vocative, Ablative. 

(32.) And as we may speak of objects as oM ot 
wore, there are two numbers, the singular wii phnU^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



FIRST DBCLBNSAO^.^' . , It 

distinguished by their endings ; e. j^m ^nabr&t ^ shad^ 
ow ; umbrse, the shadows, 

(33.) In this lesson we shall use but three cases, the 
nominative, vocative, and genitive. 

(a) The nominative answers to the question who t 
or what ? and gives the simple name of the thing spok- 
en of. In the example (26, a), umbra, «A<ufe, is in the 
nominative. 

(b) The same form of the noun, when spoken to, is 
called the vocative ; e. ^., umbra, shade; O shade I 

(c) The genitive expresses, in general, those rela- 
tions which are expressed in English by the possessive 
case, or by the preposition of, and answers to the ques- 
tion whose? of whom? of what? e. g.^ umbra, the 
shade (of what ?), sy 1 vae (of tJte wood). Here syl vts 
is in the genitive. 

(34.) There are Jive declensions of nouns, distm- 
guished from each other by the endings of the geni' 
tive singular. In this lesson we shall use only nouns 
of the 

FIRST DBCLBNBION. 

Case-Endings and Paradigm. — Nominative and OeU' 
itive. 

(35.) (a) ENDINOS. 



Nom. and Voc. 
Gen. 



Sing; 
& 
IB 



&r(im. 



(b) By adding these endings to the stem sylv-, w© 
get the following 

PARTIAL PARADIOM. • 



[Nom. and Voc. 
Gen. 



Shif. 

Bjlr-i, the wood ; Oioood ! 
sylv-BB, of the wood. 



Wax. 
uylY-tB, the woods; Owoodi/ 
aylv-arum, of the ttodde. 



(36.) (a) Thus, nouns of the first declension hsferiStk& nom. 
ttid voc. ending & (short), and the gen. en^bng » {tong, 24, 3)* 



Digitized by 



Google 



12 FIRST DECLENSION. 

(b) The penult a of the gen. pi. is long, (c) They are of the 
feminine gender, except the names of men or nude beinp, or 
rivers: thus, sylv-ft is fern.; but naut-&, a. aailarf po6t-&, 
Bpoet, and the like, are masc. 

[A Uw Greek noxum of thii dedension end in e fern., and at, es, masc 
Bee Appendix.] 

(37.) EXERCISE. 

Jin the Vocabtdariei, &e nam, eate is always giyeD« with the gemHve 
%ng sabjoined.] 



I. Vocabulary. 



Gcdba, GalbS, a. (m.) 

Flight, fiigS, n. 

Province, proriDcil, as. 

Memory, recoUecHon, mimdrii, •. 

Oeml, OalliS, n. 

Eiigle, HqflSm, m. 

A Belgian, BelgS, n. 

Injury, ii^juriS, e. 

Language, lingofi, 0. 



Queen, reginS, as. 
Crown, cdronS, n. 
Wing, &li, a. 
Dove, cdlmnbS, a. 
Feather, plum&, a. 
Daughter, filiS, a. 
A Celt, Celts, a. 
Farmer, SgricdlS, a. (m.) 
Itoae, rosa, a. 
Maid-servant, ancillS, a. 

II. Translate into Latin. 

Of a crown. — Of a queen. — O Galba ! — Of crowns. — Of a 
feather.— Of eagles.— Of the Celt.— Wings.— Rosesi-— Of 
doves. — Of injuries. — Of a daughter. — O daughter! — Of the 
province. — Languages. — Provinces. — ^Belgians. — Of the prov- 
inces. — Of the maid-servant. — O maid-servant ! — The farmers. 
— O farmer! — Of memory. — O Belgian! — Of Gaul. — The 
eagles. 

III. Answer the qtiestions in the foot-note.* ^'^ 

[A few qaestions are inbjoined in tiie fix>t-note8, merely as specimens to 
the first lessons.] 



LESSON II. 
First Declension of Nouns. — Nominative, Vocative, and 
Grenitive Cases. 
(88.) Examples. 
(a) The queen^s crovm. \ Cdrdnft rSglnaS. 

• What is the quantity of u in umbri T (24, 2.) Of a in sylv-a t (84, 3.) 
Of u in cSlumbS? (24, 2.) Of the penult (9) in filia ? (24, 1.) Of i in 
linguSt OfiinanciUS? (24, 2.) 



Digitized 



by Google 



FIRST DEOLBNSION. 



13 



(a) Rule of Position. — The genitiye (when unemphatie) 
stands after the noun on which it depends; e. ^., r6- 
gi n SB in {a) stands after c 6 r o n &. 

(h) Theqtteeii^s crown (i.e., I Rdginae cdrdn&. 
not the king^s). \ 

(h) Rule of Position. — The genitive (when emphatie) 
stands hefore the noun on which it depends ; e. ^., in (h) 
rdginsB stands hefore cdron&. 
[Words in the exercises considered emphoHc are in ttolict.] 

(39.) EXERCISE. 

I. Translate into English. 



AUL c61mnb8B. Rds& ancillsB. 

P]um& ftquilae. Ocdba f ug&. 

O r6gin& (voc.). PrdTlnci& Gallise. 

Filift &gricd]ae. Mdmdri& fugs. 

Rgglna fm&. 6fili&! 

Cdlumb€e plumji. AquildrUm f ug&. 

II. Anstoer the questions in the foot-note.* 

III. Translate into Latin. 



Fiig& Belgftriim. 
PlQmaB &quil&riim. 
Inj&ridr&m m6mdri&. 
Lingu& Ceh&rftm. 
FilisB rdginftrum. 
Lingu& Belgftriim. 



The queen*s dove. 
The farmer's eagle. 
The flight of doves. 
The girVs rose. 
The queen's rose. 
The flight of the Celts. 
The wings of the doves. 
The recollection of an injury. 
O Celts! 



The wings of eagles. 

O eagle. 

Galba*s daughter. 

The shades of the woods. 

The memory of the queen. 

The girl's dove. 

The language of the province. 

O Belgians ! 

The flight of the queen. 



* 1. What is the quantity of the ultimate (9) of a n c i 1 1 ae ? Why ? (24, 
3.) Ofitspenult? (9.) Why? (24,2.) Ofthe penult of G alii e? Why? 
(24, 1.) 

2. What is the quantity of a in injuriarum? (36,6.)inmemoriaf 
(36, a.) 

3. What is the Btemofcolumba, ala,ro8a? &c. (30.) 

4. Whatis the^e7u2erofroBa, ala,fuga? &c. (36, c.) Whatisthe 
gender of G alba, agricol a? (25, o.) 

5. What is the case of rosa, provincise, injuriarum, memo- 
r i a ? What their number ? 

<t. How many cases have Latin nouns ? (31.) Wliat are ihey 7 (31.) 

B 



Digitized by 



Google 



14 riE8T DBGLSN0ION. 

LESSON III. 
First Declension of Nouns. — Nominative and Genitive 
Cases. — First Conjugation of Verbs. — Intransitives. 
(40.) Examples. 



Tofiy, 
Todance^ 

(a) The eagle JUe$, 

(b) The girl dances^ 



vdl&rd. 
salt&rd. 

ptiellft salt&t. 

(41.) SUBJECT AND PREDICATE. 

(a.) Every sentence (e. g,, the eagle flies) consists 
of two parts : 

1. The subject^ i. e., that of which something is de- 
clared (a noun, or some word used instead of a noun) ; 
e. g., eagle. 

2. The predicate^ i. e., that which is declared of 
the subject (generally a verb) ; e. g., flies. 

Rem. The predicate is frequently an adjective or participle oomid<ited 
with the sabject by the verb is ; e. g., the rose is stoeet. 

(b.) The verb in the predicate agrees with the sub- 
ject in number and person ; e. g.jthe eagle flies: here 
Jlies is in the third person singular, to agree with eagle. 



(42.) Active Verbs are those which express activi 
ty ; e. g., the eagle ^le*, the boy dances. Active verbs 
are either 

{a) Transitive, i. e., such as require an object to 
complete their meaning ; ^. g., the boy killed (Whom ? 
or what ?) the squirrel. Here killed is a transitive verb. 

(6) Intransitive, i. e., such as do not require an ob- 
ject; e* g., the birds ^y; the4>oy dances. 

[All the verbs used in this lesson are intransitives.] 

(43.) (a) The infinitive form of a verb expresses 
its action indefinitely, without reference to person or 
time : e. g,, to dance, to plough. 



Digitized by 



Google 



FIB8T CONJUC^ATIOlf OF VEEBS. 15 

(6) The indicixtive mood of a verb expresses its 
action definitely, as a fact or question ; e, g., he ploughs. 
Does he dance? 

[The imperative and subjunctive moods are treated of here- 
after.] 

(44.) Tenses. 

(a) The present teUse expresses incomplete action 
in present time ; e. g., I am ploughing, I plough. 

(6) The imperfect tense expresses incomplete ac- 
tion in past time ; e. g,, I was ploughing, I ploughed. 

{c) The future tense expresses incomplete action in 
future time ; e. g., I shall be ploughing, I shall plough. 

[RtM. Am liiese l^iree &tms all express imperfect or incompiae action, 
they should be called Present Imperfect, Past Imperfect, Future Im- 
p&rfect. Bat as the present lutmes are fixed by almost universal 
usage, we retain them ; advismg the student to fix distinctly in his 
mind the principle that tiiese fonns properly express action as ron- 
Hnuing or incomplete. The tense-forms for completed action will be 
given hereafter.] 

(45.) Con JUG ations. 

{a) In Latin, the different moods, tenses, numbers, 
and persons of verbs are expressed by various end- 
ings ; and the affixing of these to the proper stem of 
the verb is called conjugation. (21, Rem.) 

(b) There are four conjugations of verbs, distin- 
guished by their infinitive-endings. 

(c) The infinitive-ending of ihit first conjugation is 
are (silong) ; e.g., v5l-are, to fly ; ar-are, to plough. 

(^d) To find the stem of any verb, strike off the in- 
finitive-ending; e. g., vol-are, stem vol-; ar-are, 
stem ar-k To form any mood, tense, (fee, of a verb, 
affix the proper ending to the stem thus found. 



Digitized by 



Google 



16 



FIRST CONJUGATION. INTRANSITIVES. 



(46.) SOME ENDINGS OF THE FIRST CONJUGATION. 



iNFiNrnvB, ftr£. 



INDICATIVB. 



3d Sing. 
3dPluraL 



Present. 

ant 



Imperfect. 

ab&t 
fibant. 



Futote. 

fibit. 
fibant 



(47.) By affixing these endings to the stem v 5 1-, 
we get the following 



PARTIAL PARADIGM. 



IW F A N ITI V K, v6l-fa-6, to Ph. 



INDICATIVK. 



3d Sing. 
3d Plor. 



Present. 
v51-St ^> «^ 

itfiies, 
vdl-ant, ihey 



Imperfect. 

vdl-abSt, ^> «^ it 

tocuflyinji. 
v51-&bant they were 

flying. 



Fntara. 

vol-ibit he, the, U 

toiUfly. 
vdl-ibunt, they wiU 

fly- 



Rem. In Latin we need not use the personal pronoong he, she, it, or 
ihey, with the verb, as in English, because the peraon-endiogi t and 
n< indicate the person snflBciently.* 
(48.) EXERCISE. 

I. Vocabulary. 



Oirl, pnella, is. 
Forces, copioB^t arom (pi.). 
Sailor, nanta, ob (m.). 
A Belgian, Belga, m. 
To hasten, festin-arS. 
To watch, vigH-Sre. 



Galba, OalbS, e. 
To fly, v6l-§re. 
To dance, salt-firS. 
To cry out, exclSm-SrS. 
To sup, ccen-ire. 
To walk, ambul-arl. 



II. Example. 

The eagle fixes. \ AqullA v51&t. 
Rvle of Position, — The subject nominative generally ihtb- 
cedes the verb; e. g., in the above example, &quil& 
precedes vol&t. 



Jin the above example, which word is the subject ? Why 7 (41, a, 1.) 

Winch the predicate f W * - - — - 

SqniU? Why? (41,*.)] 



Wmch the predicate f Why? (41, a, 2.) How does volat agree witii 



III. Translate into English. 

Cdlumbse v51ant. — Ancil]& saltftt. — Puellae excl&mant. — R6- 
gin& coenab&t. — PueM ambtilab&t. — Copiae fesfinant. — ^Aqul- 
be v51abant. — Galb& festin&bit. — ^Rgginft salt&t. — Nautse vigi- 
l&bant. — Filift rdginae salt&fait. — Belgse festinant. — Filift Gal- 

* But when a new subject is introduced, or emphasis is required, tiie 
personal pronoon most be used in Latin. 
t CopiS, in the singular, means abundance; in the i^lani, forces. 



Digitized by 



Google 



FIRST CONJUGATION. ^TRANSITIVES. 17 

be excl&mllt. — PuellsB ambul&bant. — Copke Belg&riim festinA. 
bunt. — Saltabant. — Ambulabant. — Coenabunt. — ^Naut& ainbtil&« 
bit. — YigUabant. — ^Nauts saltant. — ^Agrlcdl& coen&bit. 

IV. Answer the questions in the foot-note.^ 

V. Translate into Latin. 

The dove flies. — The girl walks. — The maid-servant hastens. 
• — The sailors dance. — The queen's maid-servant cries out. — The 
farmer was supping. — The queen will sup. — The sailor was 
watching. — The farmer's daughtei' will dance. — The girl's dove 
will fly. — ^The queen's maid-servant will walk. — She was hast- 
ening. — They were watching. — He (or she) was supping. — 
The eagles were flying.— GalBa was hastening. — The forces of 
the Belgians will hasten. — Eagles will fly. — The sailors were 
crying out. — The queen was walking. 



LESSON IV. 

First Declension of Nouns^ Accusative Case, — First 

Conjugation of Verbs, Transitives. 



(49.) To love. 

Queen, 
Daughter, 

(a) The queen loves her 
daughter. 



&m-&rd. 

r3gin&. 

filift. 

Reginfi, fili&m &m&U 

The queen her-daughter loves. 

Rem. The possesnvei, his, her, dus., are not expressed in Latin, except 
ix the sake of perspicnity or emphasis. 

(50.) (a) It has been stated (41) that every sentence 
consists of two parts, subject and predicate ; so the 
English sentence (49, a) contains the subject, queen, and 
the predicate, loves. But this predicate is limited by 

• What is the quantity of the ultimate of Columba ? Why ? (24, 3.) Of 
die penult 7 Why? (24,2.) Of the ultimate a of;nie22a? (36, a.) Of the pe- 
nult t (24,2.) Why.t Of the antepenult t W^y? (24,1.) WTiatkindof 
action does t;o^n^ express ? (44, a.) In what time 7 Wliat kind does am< 
bOlibat ? (44, b.) In what time 7 In what tenses may inoomplete action 
be expressed 7 (Pres., past, and fat) What is the stem of wfcn^? Ofer- 
damafU f Of casftabant ? [The Jitem may be found by striking off any 
tense-en ding .] Why can the personal pronoun be omitted m Latin 7 (47, 
Rem.) Wben must it be usea 7 (47, Rem., N.) 

B2 



Digitized by 



Google 



18 OBJECT ACOUSATITE. 

the word daughter^ which is called the direct object of 
the yerb. So, in the Latin sentence (49, a), we have, 

Atfy'eet Dinct object, Pndkati. 

Regina. filiam. am&t 

(b) A verb thus taking an object is called a Trans' 
itive verb (42, a)j and its direct object is said to be 
in the Objective case in English (e. g,^ daughtet)* and 
in the Accusative case in Latin (e. ^., filiam). We 
have thus the following : 
(51.) Rules of Syntax, 
(a) The Accusative is the case of the direct object, 
(6) Transitive verbs govern the acctisative, 
(52.) The accusative-endings of the first declension are. 
Sing, ftm; c. ^., fiK-am, r3gin-am, daughter^ queen. 
Plur. as ; e. g-., fiK-S,s, rggin-as, daughters^ queens. 

(53.) EXERCISE. 

L Vocabulary. 

MOdHf lunS, OB. 

To delight, delect&rS. 

Medicine^ medioma, m. 



To te^ p68Mesiioh of; I QccfipSiC 

or, to teite, S 

Island, influla, sb. 
To call, v6car6. 
To (prep.), ad. (wiA aoooi.). 
Poet, poeti, as. 
To praiee, land&rd. 
To love, amire. 
Earth, terra, 89. 



To prepare, pSr&re. 

Shadow, ) 

To obscure, obscur&ri. 

To arm, anu&re. 

Through (prep.), p6r (with ace). 

II. Example. 

The poet praises the queen. | Po6t& r3gln&m laud&t. 

Ride of Position, — ^The object accusative stands before the 
transitive verb ; e. g., in the above example, the object 
r6gin&m stands befi>re the transitive verb laud&t. 

III. Translate into English. 

LQn& naut&s d&lect&t. — ^Agrlcdl&fifi&s &m&t. — ^AnciUsm^dX- 
cin&m p&rant. — Umbrfi, terrae (33, c) lan&m obscfir&t. — Nauta 
r6gin&m kudant. — Galb& copi&s arm&b&t. — UmbrS, sylv&riim 
agiYc51as dslect&t. — Galb& sylvas occup&t. — Copiae Belg&rftm 
sylvas occupabant. — C51umbas p6r sjlv&s v51&bant. — ^R^gin^ 
ancillas v5c&t. — Ancilke rd j^n&m imant. — Agricdl& f iH&m vdc&- 



Digitized by 



Google 



VIRST DECLENBION.-*^DATIVE AND ABLATIVE. 10 

Ut-— R6gm& podt£lm kudabit^-r-RdssB ancillas ddlectant — Cd- 
pi&s armabunt (47, Rem.). — Sylvas occupabunt (47 Kem.}. 

IV. Answer the questions in the foot-n^te* 

V. Translate into Latin. 

The moon delights the farmer. — The farmer's daughter (38, h) 
prepares the medicine. — The eaglets feathers delist the queen. 
^The Belgians arm (their) forces. — The shade of the wood de- 
fights the poet. — Galba will take possession of the wood. — 
(They) walk through the woodd. — (They) take possession of the 
island. — The farmer loves (his) daughter. — The farmer^s daugh- 
ter praises the poet. — The queen will call the maid-servants. — 
The queen loves (her) maid-servants. — The shadow of the 
Morth will obscure tlie moon. — The poet will praise the sailors. 



LESSON V. 

First Declension. — Dative and Ablative Cases. 

(54.) The dative case of nouns expresses the object 

to or for which any thing is done ; e.g.<, the man gives 

(to) the hoy a book. Here boy is in the dative case. 

Rem. The accusative ca«e, hook, is the direct object of the verb givet ; 
the dative, hoy, the rernote object 

(55.) {a) The ablative case of nouns expresses the 
person or thing with^from, in, or by which any thing 
is done ; e. g.j he filled the cup with wine. Here, with 
wine would be expressed in Latin by one word, in the 
ablative. 

{b) The ablative is also governed by prepositions 
expressing the relations with,from^ by, <fec. 

(56.) The Dative endings are, Sing, ae : Plur. is 
{long). 

* (1.) What pronoims are not ezpreiied in L atin 7 (47, "R., 49, E.) For what 
pwpose are wev sometimes used ? (2.) By what is the transitive verb 
Wtedt (By a direct object) What is the case of the direct object in 
Latinf (51, a.) Wliat ia the direct object of &mSt, land&tt &o. 



Digitized by 



Google 



30 



DATIVB AND ABLATIVE. 



The Ablative endings are, Sing, a {long) : Plur. is 
(long). 

(57.) FIBBT DECLENSION. 

CASE-ENDINeS AND FARADieM COMPLETE. 





Sincular. 




Norn. 


i. 


te. 


Qen. 


». 


irOxn. 


Dat. 


m. 


I8. 


Ace 


Sm. 


&8. 


Voc 


S. 


m. 


AbL 


i. 


18. 



"" j 


Singular. 


PluraL ll 


Norn. 


sylv-a, a wood. 


sylv-aB, woods. 


Gen. 


sylv-iB, ofatoood. 


sylv-firum, of woods. 


Dat 


Bylv-oB, to a wood. 


sylv-ia, to woods. 


Ace. 


Bylv-am, a wood. 


sylv-is, woods. 


Voc. 


sylv-fi, O wood I 




1 Abl. 


Bylv-S, toith, Ac, a wood. 


Bylv-is, withf &c., woods. 



Rem. Some nomui of this dedensioii are lued only in the phtral; 
"viz^^dlYltim, riches ; nuptise, Kmarriage; \nu\A\m,9Jiamlnuik. 
(58.) EXEBCISE. 

I. Vocabulary. 

ToestabUsK 7^^^^^^^^ 

To strengthen, ) 

With (prep.), dim (goveimng t^e ab. 

ktive caae). 
To abound, Sbandfir6,(witil abL). 
Deserter, perfugfi, m. 
Tear, lacr^^mi, 8b. 
Inhabiiant, incolS, m (25, IV.). 



Way, viS, 8B. 

To show, monstrflrS. 

Ambush, or sfiares, insldloe, arom 

(oBed only in the pL). 
Wild beast, fSrS, ab. 
To give, dar6.* 
To beseech, obsScrarS. 
Letter, littgne, aram.t 
Friendship, SmicItlS. 

11. Examples. 

(a) The fanner shows t^|Agrlc51& pueUis Ti&m mon- 

way to the girls. str&t. 

Rule of Position. — The remote object* usually precedes 

the direct ; e. g.y in example (a), puellls precedes vidm. 

{b) The queen walks with the \'R^^iA cUm ancillis ambii- 

maid'Servants. l&t. 

Rule of Position. — The preposition and its noun precede 

the verb ; e. g., in example (6), the words cUm ancillis 

precede amhuldt, 

* Bfirg has S short before r6. 

t Litter&, sinsr., means a letter (as of the alphabet) ; littSne, plur., a 
letter = an epistle. 



Digitized by 



Google 



FISST DECL£N8ION. 21 

III. Translate into English. 

6alb& insldias p&r&t.— 6alb& Belgis (54) in^di&s pftr&t.— Bel- 
gae &miciti&m confirmant. — ^Belgas cum rggina &miclti&iii confir- 
mant. — Insult f^ris* &bund&t. — Po3t& rSgiiis (dat., 54) rdsam 
d&b&t. — Copiae p^r insnUUn festiiiant. — Pdrfu^ rdgin&m obs£- 
crd,bant. — Perfugae cum ULcrj^mis regin&m obsficrftbant. — PSr- 
fuga r^ginae (dat., 54) littdr&s d&b&t. — Iiic5]ae r6gin&m obsd- 
crabant. 

IV. Translate into Latin. 

The poet praises the queen. — Galba establishes friendship. — 
Galba establishes friendship with the Belgians. — The Belgians 
wiD prepare snares. — The Belgians will prepare snares for the 
inhabitants (54). — ^The islands abound (in) herbs (58, III., note). 
— ^Poets give roses to queens (54). — The Belgians are beseech* 
ing Galba. — The Belgians are beseeching Galba with tears. — 
The queen will establish friendship. — The queen will establish 
friendship with the Belgians. — The deserters will beseech the 
queen. — The deserters will beseech the queen with tears. — 
The Belgians were preparing snares. — The Belgians were 
preparing snares for the deserters (54). 

* FSris is the abL Rule of Syntax.— The abl. case is used with aU^^B 
▼eibs and adjectives of aboujiding and wanHng. ^ 



Digitized by 



Google m 



§ 6. 

SECOND DECLENSION OF NOUNS.— SECOND 
CONJUGATION OF VERBS. (VI.— VIII). 



LESSON VL 


Nouns. — Second Declension^ Masculine. 


(59.) Example 

Orassus, 


s. 

Crass-iis. 


Of Orassus, 


Crass-!. 


Messenger, 
Tohasteuy 


nunti-tis. 
fesfinart. 


messengers. 


Dunti-i. 


The messenger of Or€ts8tts\ 
hastens. \ 


NuBtl-iis Crass-i festli 


The messengers hi 


uten. 1 


Nuntl-i festtnant. 



(60.) The Second Decleiiiion comprises all nouns 
whose gen. sing, ending is i (long). The nom. has 
two endings, us for masc. gender, and um for tb0 
neut. 

(61.) The case-endings for the masculine gender are 
as follows : 





Sing. 




Plur. 


Nom. 


Qs. 


Nom. 


1. 


Gten. 


L 


Gen. 


orum. 


Dat. 


6. 


Dat. 


18. 


Ace. 


tim. 


Ace. 


08. 


Voc. 


6. 


Voc. 


i. 


AbL 


0. 


Abl. 


18. 



Rem. The noons in its of this declension are the only Latin noons ia 
which the vocative-ending difiers from the nominative. 

(62.) By adding these endings to the stem serv- of 
the noun serv-us (a slave), we get the 

PARADIGM. 



\rz — 1 


Sing. 


Plur. 


Nom. 


serv-us, a slave. 


serv-i, slaves. 


Gen. 


serv-i, of a slave. 
serv-o, to or for a slave. 
gerv-um, a vnve. 


serv-orum, of slaves. 


Dat. 


serv-ls, to or for slaves. 


Ace. 


serv-oB, slaves. 


Voc. 


serv-e, O slave t 


serv-i, O slaves ! 


Abl. 


serv-6, with, by, &c., a slave. 


serv-Ts, with, by, &c., slaves. 



Digitized by 



Google 



SBCONB DEOLSN8ION. 88 

[Rem, 1. Nearly aUnowig in u« are «sasc.;b«ttii« xiamei of Ir0(t,j>^<(ra<i, 
&c, are fem,hj the general role (S5, a). The four noana, alrua, 
beUyi cdlus, diitqffi humua, ground ; y annua, /on, are alto 
fern, YiTUB, juice; pel&gua, the tea; vnlg^us, the common 
people, are neuter. 

Rem. 2. Filius, son, and proper namei in !u8, take i ibr tiie too- 
atire-ending; e. g.,fiU, Osonf Tulli, O TtiUy ! 

Rem. 3. DSus, G<m2, haadeua for vocting-; and iatbepbural K. 
and y. dii, Q. deorum, D. and AbL diis. Ace deos.] 
[For Greek nonna of this declension, see Appendix.] 

(63.) EXERCISE. 

1. Vocabulary. 

Matter (of a family or of slaves), do- 

min-iis, f. 
Slave, serv-us, 1. 
Village, vTc-UB, i. 

Ambattador, atlieutenanttlegS^ua,l, 
Garden, hort-us, L 
To, Sd (prep, with ace.). 
In, In (prep, with abL). 



Captive, captiv-tis, L 

A Chrman, Genn&i-&i, t 

To Gall, vdcarS. 

To recall, r6vdcar8.* 

To call together, oonrSciii.* 

An ^duan, JSdn-us, L 

To fog, verbgrftrt. 

To ride (on horseback), iqoItirS. 



^^ He rides to the village, ftd vlcnm SqnitSt When to implies 
motion, it most be translated by ad with the accnsatiye. 

11. Translate into English, 

Ddmonus servum vdc&t. — Servti8ddxi^yi5(54) mddlcin&in p&r- 
at, — Crasstis Tictim occtip&t. — ^Nuntitis Crassi vigil&t. — Servl 
&d viciam festinant. — Nuntiils ligato (54) vi&m monstr&t. — Servi 
domlnos laudant. — AgricdUi &d viciim Squit&t. — Captavi festSnft- 
bunt. — Galb& copias (48, I.) Germanorum conv6c&t.* — Nun- 
tius capfivos rfivdc&t. — Senri In horto ambul&buat. — Md\d 
Crassd (54) insidi&s p&r&bant. — Nimtitls c5piSB ^duordm rdvd- 
c&b&t. — Ddmlnus servos verb^r&t. 

IIL Translate into Latin, 

[Eacollect &at words in parentheses ( ) are dot to be translated.] 
The messengers caQ-together the ^duans.~The slaves pi^- 
pare medicines for (their) master (dat., 54). — The -^duans take- 
poasession-of the woods. — The master praises (his) slaves. — The 
slave is ha«tening to (ad, mth occ) the woods. — The ambassa* 
dors ride to $he village. — Crassus will prepare an ambush for the 

^ Th$ prefix con ^ea the verb the additional meaning of together ; ^e 
pirefix re oSback, as in revocdri and convocart 



Digitized by 



Google 



24 SECOND DECLENSION. 

JEduans. — The lieutenant calls together the Germans. — The 
messenger wiU show the way to the captives (64) — The 
slaves are watching. — The master flogs (his) slave. — Galba will 
ijkall the lieutenant. — The Germans were preparing an ambush 
for Galba (54). — The slave was showing the way to the mes- 
senger (64). — The messenger was hastening to the village. — 
The slaves are watching in the garden. 



LESSON VII. 
Nouns. — Second Declension^ Masculines continued. 

(64.) All nouns of the second declension whose 
stem ends in r reject the ending us in the nom. and e 
in the voc; e. g., N. and V. kger, field, instead of 
ager-u s, ager-e. Moreover, most of those which have 
e in the nominative drop it in the oblique* cases ; 
e. g,9 N. age r, G. Sgri instead of ager-i. 

(65.) Learn the following 

FARADIOM. 



Nom. 

Gen. 

Dat 

Ace. 

Voc. 

Abl 



4gr-i, of thejidd. 
igr-6, to or for field. 

5g6r, O^W.' 

ftgr-o, with, by, ^c, field. 



pu6r (m.), boy. 
pu6r-i, of the boy. 
pu6r-6, io or for. 
pugr-um, boy. 
pu6r, O bov ! 
pu€r-6, with, by, Sf-c. 



vJr, maTi. 
vir-i, of the man. 
vir-6, to or for. 
vir-Qm, man. 
vir, O man ! 
vir-o, with, by, ^c. 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Voc. 
AbL 



^-l,fields. 
agr-oriim, of fields. 
4gr-l8, to or for fields. 
igr-OB, fields. 
«gr-T, 6 fields I 
ftgr-is, with fields. 



pu6r-i, boys. 
pu6r-6rum, of boys. 
pu8r-is, to or for. 
pu6r-6s, boys. 
pu6r-T, O boys ! 
pa6r-is, with,by, ^c. 



vir-I, men. 
vir-orum, of men. 
vir-is, to or for. 
vir-5s, men. 
vir-i, O men ! 
vlr-f s, with, by,^c. 



Rem. Only the following nouns keep the e in all the ccuies, viz., adul- 
^r, adulterer; pu6r, boy; abdiT,father-in4aw; g€ngr, son-in-law ; res- 
p6r, evening ; Iib€ri (nied only in plural), children ; with the com- 
poonds of/er «nd ger; e. g., Liicifgr, iMcifer; comlgSr, homed. 

* l^e oblique cai et indnde all the casei except the nominative and 
▼ocatire. 



Digitized by 



Google 



SECOND I>ECLEN0ION. 



95 



(66.) 

I. Vocabulary. 



EXERCISE. 



Boy, paSr, L 

Master (of a school), mSgiitSr, tri (64). 

Faiker-inrkm, gdcSr, i (65, B.). 

Herb, heibS, a. 

Bdtolar, ducipul-iis, L 

^8(m,fm4l«,i(62,B.2). 

U. Exampk, 
(a) Tht wood abounds in 
wild leasts. 



Man, Tfr, L 
Game, lud-uf , L 
i9<m^»4Mo, gSaSr, i (65, B..). 
Children, liberi, omm (rarely oMd ia 

singular). 
i?VcM,5g€r;igri(64). 



Syhifdris ftbirndftt. 
T^ uxxM^ in- wUd 'beasts 
abounds. 

(a) J2uZ€ q/* Syntax. — The ablatave case is used witii ad* 
jectiYes and verbs of abounding and wanting. 

HI. Translate into English. 

Padr m&gistram &m&t. — Regin& sdcdr&m ftmftUt. — ^Pudri in 
ftgro ambulabunt. — Agri herbis (abl., 66, II., a) Abundant. — A.g- 
ricdlft p6r ftgros (58, II., b) 6qu!tftt.— Igrlcdlft sdcfirfim v6c&t^ 
Pudllae m&^trum laudant. — Vin in ftgris ambul&bant. — Lddi 
pnftros delectant. — Rdgin& gdndrds &m&bit. — Viri ad viciim 
festin&bant. — Agrlcdlft fibdr5s &m&t. — M&gistdr disclptUos con- 
Tdc&t. 

IV. franslate into Latin. 

The girls wait in the fields. — The field abounds in herbs (66, 
n., a). — The sailor calls back the boys. — The queen loves (Her) 
son-in-law. — The queen gives (her) son-in-law (dat., 54) arose. 
— The scholars love (their) master. — The fields abound in herbs 
(66, II., a). — ^The farmers were walking through the fields. — 
The son of the master calls the boys. — The master walks in 
the garden with (his) sons. — The herbs of the field delight the 
poet. — Gi^es delight girls. — The farmer shows the way to 
the boy. — ^The master will praise (his) scholar^. — ^The master 
wiU fiog (his) scholani. 

c 



Digitized by 



Google 



26 



SECOND CONJUGATION OF VESB8. 



LESSON VIII. •. 
Nouns. — Second Declension^ Neuter. — Verbs^ Second 
Conjugation. 



(67.) 


Slave. 




servtis 






Cup. 


pdciiltim (neut.). 


TojiU, 


impldrd. 


The slave fiUs hi$ mmter's 


Serviis pOcillilm ddnaSni 


cup. 


impldt. 




The-slave ihe-cup of-kU'-master 




fills. 


(68.) The case-endings of the second declension for 


the neuter gender are, 








Sioc. 


Plur. 






Nom. Ace., Yoc. 


nm. 


a. 






OeiL 


i. 


orum. 






Dat, AbL 


0. 


IS. 





Rem, The ending! of the nom., aoa, and yoc. are always the lame in 
aenter nouns. In this declension, those of dat. and abL are alike also. 

(69.) By adding these endings to the stem pocul-, 
we get the 

PARADieM. 



Nom. 


pocul-um, a cup. 


pOcul-a, cups. 


Gen. 


pocul-i, of a cup, 
p6cul-6, to or fir a cup. 


p6cul.drum,ef«^. \ 


pat 


p6cul-is, to or for cups. M 


Ace. 


pocul-um, a cup. 


pociU-S, cups. n 


Voc. 


pocul-um, O cup 1 


yocvU^Ocupt! U 


Abl. 


];>dcul-o, uiUht oy, &c, a cup. 


pocul-is, with, from, *«., cap».|| 



THE SECOND CONJUOATION OF VERBS. 

(70.) The second conjugation comprises all verbs 
whose infinitive-ending is ere (e long before r d) ; e. g.f 
mon-er^, to advise; dbC'er^f to teach. 

(71.) SOME EWPIWeS OF THE SECOND CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



INFINITIVK, %Ti. 



INDICATITB. 



3d Sing. 
SdPlm^ 



Pr«Mat 
St. 
ent 



Imperfect. 

ebftt 

fibant. 



Futar*. 

6brt 

6bnnt 



Digitized by 



Google 



SECOND CONJUGATION OP VEBBS. 



2'> 



(72.) By ajSixing these endings to the stem m on-, we 
get the following 



PARTIAL PARADIGM. 



Tsmnrivx, mon-ftrg, to advite. 



liwic. 



3d Sing. 
3dPlur. 



Present. 

mon-^t, he, she, &c., 

advises. 
mon-§nt| they ctdvise. 



Impeifect. 

mon-ehSX, he, she, &c., 
foas advising, 

mon-Sbant, th^ 
admsing. 



J. Fatare. 

wiHadpisf^ 
^n-ibwa^ they will 
advise. 



foere mdn-el 



(73.) EXERCISfl. 

I. Vocabulary. 

Assistance, auxaium, i (68). TofU, implerg (70). 

To ask, entreat, idgarS. Danger, pSriculuxn, L 

Camp, csfltra, drum (pi.) To fear, tlmerfi (70). 

To move, xnSverS (70). Forum, forum, L 

Cup, x>dciilum, i. Toum, oppidihn, L 
• Wine, vmum, L 

II. Translate into English. 

Legfttiis amdfiiim r5g&t.— -Galb& copias &d (63, 1., ^) castrft 
rdy5c&t. — Servus pociiluin vino (55, a) impldt. — CrassiiB castrft 
mdvdt. — CopiaB &d oppidum festinabant — jLgAchVk oppSdum 
kad&t. — Copias Germ&ndrum ftd castrft fesfinftbunt. — Nuntius 
pSriculum timdt. — ^Pueri p6r fbrum ambtilant. — Germftni p6ri- 
ciilft non limeDt. — Legafi p6r oppidum ambulabunt. — ^Agrfcftlft 
oppldft -Slduorum laudftbft't. — Crassiis oppidtim occtip&bftt. — 
Servi pdculft impl3bant. 

III. Translate into Latin. 

The iBduans were asking assistance. — The Germans will* 
more (their) camp. — The Germans were praising the town.— • 
The ambassadors of the iBduans hasten to (63, I., ^") the 
camp« — The forces of the Belgians fear the danger. — The mes- 
senger win recall the ambassadors to the camp. — Galba's mes- 
senger will recall the Germans to the town. — The ambassadors 
praise the towns of the Germans. — The farmers were walking 
through the forum. — The boy walks through the town. — The 
sailors wiD not fear the danger. — Crassus wiU not move (his) 
camp. — The Germans were-taking-possession-of the town.— 
The servant was filling the cup. 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 7. 
ADJECTIVES OF FIRST CJuASS. (IX— X.) 



LESSON IX. 
Adjectives. — Class /, i^Sfa^iim. 

(74.) Thb Adjective (14), in Latin, agrees with the 
noun in gender^ number^ and case^ and therefore has 
endings to distinguish these; e. g.j pu6r b5n-us, a 
good boy; pOeM bdn-d, a good girl; ddnum bdn- 
G m, a good gift. 

(75.) We divide adjectives into three classes, ac- 
cording to their endings. Those of the^r^^ class have 
the fern, endmg of the first decl. of nouns, and the nutsc. 
and netU. endings of the second* Thus, 



(76.) 


ENDINOS. 






PAKADIGM. 








8TN017X.AJU 








M. 


T. 


N. 


^ 


F. 


N. 


N. 


Ufw 


fi. 


dm. 


bte-iid. 


bdn-ft. 


b&i-iim. 


G. 


i 


e. 


1. 


bdn-i.. 


bdn-B. 


bdn-i 


D. 


& 


». 


a 


bdn-d 


bdtt-e. 


bdn-dw 


A. 


um. 


im. 


um. 


bdn-um. 


bte-im. 


ban-am. 


V. 


«. 


i. 


mw^ 


bdn^ 


b6n4u 


bdn^im. 


A. 


o. 


i. 


a 


bdn-d. 


bdn-a. 


bon-db 


PI.T7BAL. 






N. 


i 


». 


fi. 


bdii4. 


bdn-n; 


bdB4L 


o. 


oroixL 


ftnun. 


drum. 


bdn-onun. 


bdn-ftnun. 


bdn-oriSm. 


D. 


U. 


If. 


u. 


bdn-lf. 


bdniB. 


bdn-ii. 


A. 


di. 


fti. 


8. 


h6ori§. 


bftn-ai. 


bte4L 


i V. 


1. 


o. 


fi. 


bdn-i. 


bdn-89. 


bdn-&. 


!LL= 


U. 


ii. 


if. 


bdn-ii. 


bon-li. 


bdnlia. 



(77.) Adjectives whoie stom ends in ^r do not 
take the endings Qs of the nommative and d of the 
vocative, 
(a) Most of them drop the d in inflection ; e. g.^ 

pulch«r, pulchr-ft, pulchr-iim, heautyul; 
pulcbr-I, pnkhr-w, pokhr-i^ &c. 



Digitized by 



Google 



ADJB0TJVB6 OF FIl^T ChABB. 20 

{h) Butasp^r, rough; Hedr, tarn; lib^r^yVe^; mXs^r, 
miserable; ^r 09p 6 r, fortunate; tdndr, teiider{vid the com- 
pounds of gd rand f&r; e* g., cornig^r, flammif6r)i re- 
tain it; e. g.^ 

XB&a&Tf mig6r-&, n^(86r-uin» 
misdr^i, n^lsdr-as, xnlsdr-i, &c. 

(78.) BX8AGISE. 

I. Vocctbulary. 



Oooc^ b&i-uB, S, urn. 
dny^ magD-da, 8, tinL 
Manyt molt-uB, 8, um. 
Thick, dens-uSi 8, um. 
Broadf wide, lat-us, 8, tSm. 
3fy, xne-uB, 8, um. 
Tkf, tu-u8, 8, Um. 

II. Examples. 

(a) T^ slave fXU tkelarge ISenriis p^ciiliiinin&gniitn 



.&i«, hers, 4t» (own), ta-fii, S» um. 

Moiter (of slares), hiriii, u 
ToAof^hSberS. 
JExample, exemplum^ u 
River, fldvids, i. 
ToJHghten, terr6r6. 



oi;?. I impl&t. 

Rule of Position. — (a) The adjective, nnleBs em^iatic, fi^ 

lows the noon; e. g., in the above ezas^to, ^lagailm 

follows p o c ti 1 u m. 
(5) The slave fills the queen^s I Servils magniim t^gjim pdc- 
largecwp. \ tiliim impldt. 

Rule of Position. — (5) When the noun governs another in 

the genitive, die adjective stands first, and die genitive 

between it and its nonn ; e. ^., in example (&), magnum 

rOgpuue pocttlilm. 

III. Translate into EngUsh. 

Re^n& filUim snUm 8.m8.t. — Servi&s p6ctllilm mettm impldt. — 
Servi p6ciiUl magn& implent. — FxiM mSgistrftm bdntim &mant. 
— ^BelgSB vic6s moltOs h&bent. — ^AgilcdUL bdntis vi&m monstr&t. — 
M&gist^r pu^ros b5nd8 ddcSblt. — Mftgistii bdni exempUL bdnii 
pn^ris (54) dant. — Lfigftti&s magn&m regin» (78, II., b) cdr6n8in 
vfdftt. — FerffigsB &d fl6viiUn< Kbtiim festSnaat. — Serves magntim 
poigri (78, n., b) pOciiltLm impldbftt. — Sjlfm densse mmdos ter-^ 
reat.^ — ^Pudn sylv&m dens&m tifmebunt.-*-Serviis bdniis hSriim 
&mftt. 

rV. Translate into Latin. 

The JEdnans have many villages,— The qu©«» ^^^ (her) 
C2 



Digitized by 



Google 



30 aOafE FORMS OF EBBE. 

good son. — ^mie fimner shows die liiick wood. — Good slayes 
love (their) misters. — Good masters love (their) slaves. — The 
Belgians have' many towns. — The broad rivers frighten the de- 
serters. — The boy sees the large town. — Crassus recalls the good 
lieutenant. — The son praises the great queen. — The Germans 
have large villages.^^He praises thy slave. — He loves thy daugh- 
ter. — He will praise his own daughter. — The deserters were 
hastening to the broad river.— The slave will fill the large cup 
of his master (78, U., h). — The lieutenant will see many villages 
of the Belgians (78, U., &^The thick wood will fri^ten the 
boys. 



LESSON X. 
Some Forms ofjS s s e. — Adjectives continued. 
(79.) Learn ^the following forms of the irregular 
verb Esse, to be : 





XNDICATIVK. 


3d Sing. 
SdPlur. 


Pnvent. 
est, if. 
sunt;, ore. 


6nmt, xoere. 


Future. || 

grant, they wOl be. | 



(80.) (a) Jn<fofcnceM««ce. |^°"»'* '""!"" V*" 

I Indolence a vice w. 

Here Inertia is the subject of the sentence ; v i- 
t i li m is the predicate ; both in the nominative. 

Rule of Syntax. — (a) The noun in the predicate must be 
in the same case as the subject, when it denotes the same 
person or thing. 
(81.) (h) The rose is heauti-\'R,6B^ pulchr& est. 
jvl, I The rose beautiful is. 

Here rdsa is the subject, and pulchrS. thepred- 
icate ; both in nom. sing. fem. 

Bute of Syntax. — (5) The adjective in the predicate agrees 
with the subject in gender, number, and case. 
[As a general mJe, a sentence sbonld not end with a manosyttaMe ; bat 
in short passages, such as the above, especially when the word before est 
ends in a wnod, or m, it is admissible.! 



Digitized by 



Google 



ADJECTIVES, CLASS FIBST. 



31 



(82.) EXERCISE. 

[Eefer to Kales of Position (78, IL) and to Hem. on a4iectiTes ending in 

o-{77}.] 

I. Vocabulary. 

Ha/ppy^ beatus, S, um. 

True, verus, S, um. 

Friendship, Snilcitla, sb. 

Everlcistinff, seznpltemus, S, um. 

Labienus, LSbienus, i. 

FooUth, staltuB, i, um. 

Tender, tener, S, um (77, b). 

Flame, HomcaSi, a. 

Sed, ruddy, ruber, a, um (77, a). 

A lettf, f51ium, I. 

Butt, taurus, i. 

Homed, comiger, 8, um (77, b). 

iManh, fignus, 1. 



Europe, EurSpS, n. 

Peninsula, peninsulS, ib. 

Anger, Ira, ib. 

lUustriom, cl&rus, 8, um. 

Crow, corvuB, i. 

Black, niger, S, um (77, a). 

Not, ndn (always placed before the 

word which it qualifies) 
Always, semp&r (adv.). 
Cow, vaccfi, 8B. 
Attica, Attitc&f n. 
Britain, Biltann^ 8B. 
Ireland, Hibenizfi, 8b. 



B5m semper be&ti stint. 
Verae ftmicitiaB sempltenuB 

sunt. 
L&bieniis leg&tiis £r&t. 
Stolti non sunt be&ti. 



Miserable, miser, a, um (77, b). 

Hem. In such phrases as the good, the urise, &c., the noun fmenj is . 
omitted in Latin, as in English ; e. g., good mej^ = b 5 ni ; fools = 
stulti; the happy = he iti. Also, iik»»y^«^» =multa (neut); 
oU things = omnlS. 

II. Examples. 

The good are always happy. 

True friendships are everlast- 
ing. 

Lahiewus was a lieutenant. 
The foolish are not happy. 

III. Translate into English. 

PueMpulchrft est (81, 6).— Herb« ftgr6rftmt6nSr»sunt(81, 

h) Ate &qull&riim m&gnae sunt. — Flamm& rubr& est. — F6K& 

r5s&rum pulchrft sunt. — Tauri comigfiri sunt. — Agni tdndri in 
Agris sunt. — ^Reginft pulchrii in hort6 ambulftbftt.-t-Pu6r &gn5s 
pukhios vldftt. — V6r& Amicitia sempiternft est. — Stulti miseri 
sunt— Eur6p& peninsiilft (80, a) est.— Atticft pSninsiilft est.— Irft 
^titim est magntim.— Crassus legates 6rftt.— LabiSnfis Ifigftttls 
elirAs 6rftt.— Corvtis plum&s nlgrfts hftbSt.— Stulti n6n sunt 
be&ti. — ^Bdntis semper befttiis est. 

IV. Translate into Latin. 

The queen was beautiful.— The queen's daughter was beau- 



Digitized by 



Google 



92 AI>JECTIY£8 OF FIRST CLASS. 

tiful. — The beautifu] daughter walks m the garden. — ^The fields 
abound in tender herbs (66, 11^ a). — The feathers of doves are 
beautiful. — The feathers of crows are black. — The flames were 
ruddy. — ^The leaves oi roses are tender. — Cows are homed. — 
The queen walks in the garden with (cUm) her beautiful daugh- 
ters (f ^btis*). — The gill will see the tender lambs in the fields. 
— The good are not always happy. — ^Fools are not always mis- 
erable. — Crassus was a great lieutenant. — Britain is an island. — 
Ireland is an island. — Geneva is a large town. — Anger is always 
a vice. — Everiatting frienddiipe are true. — Fnendahips are not 
always everlasting. 

* Fills, daughter, and dei» goddnt, have abL pi. in abfts, instead of 
It, to digtingnian them firom fiUla» tona, dila» gpda. 



Digitized by 



GooglQ 



§ 8. 



THIED AND FOURTH CONJUGATIONS OF 
VERBS. 



LESSON XI. 
Verbs. — TTiird cmd Fourth ConjugatioM. 
(83.) Th» Third Conjugation compnses all verbs 
"Whose infiiiitive ending ia erS (6 short before r6) ; 
e. g.^ scrib-ere, to write. 

(84.) SOME ENDINGS OF THE THIRD CONJUOATION. 



Kfraonvs, Are. 



maaoAtvnL, 



Singular. 
PhinO. 



PrsMOt. 
it 

ont 



Inmerlbct. 

eto. 
Sbimt 



Fator*. 
St. 

ent. 



(85.) By affixiijig these endings to the stem sx^r ib-» 
we get the Mowing 



PARTIAL PA&ADieM. 



INDIOATXVX. 



3dBias. 



■cdb-i^ he, thtf &c., 

^ Fitir.|acifb-iii]t» ikey wrUeJifU!ir^^vA,thoywert 
writing. 



Imporfect. 

8onb-«bi^ hej tket 

(fjc,t was wriHng. 



■dlb^ he, she, &e, 

wiUwrite. 
■crib-en^ th^ wiU 

write. 



THE FOURTH OONJUOATION. 

(86.) The Fourth Gor^ugation comprises all verbs 
whose infinitive-ending is irS (i long before r6) ; e.g,f 
aud-ire, to hear. 

(87.) SOME ENDINeS OF THE FOURTH CONJUOATION. 



I MBbag. 



iwJtNATivj^i Irc 



XNDIOATIVIE. 



1^ 



Imperfect 

iibat 
iSbant 



rntuM. 

iee. 
lent 



(88.) By affixing these endings to the stem and-. 
We have the following 



Digiti'zed 



by Google 



84 THIRD AND FOURTH CONJUGATIONS OF VERBS. 
FARTIAI* FARADieM. 



mFmiTivjt, md-tnfto hear. 



DiDICAxxv*. 



Had Sing. 
HadPliir. 



PreMot 

aad-!t, he, she, &c., 

heca^. 
aiid-Iimt» they hear. 



Imperfect 

aad-iebat,A«,#A«, &c, 

weu hearing, 
and-iSbant, theytoere 

hearing. 



aod-iSt, he, ehe, Ac, 

toiUhear, 
aad-ient^ they wiU 

hear. 



(89.) 

I. Vocabulary. 



EXERCISE. 



To $end, mitterS (83). 
In (prep.). ™«* 
To $leep, domilre (86). 
Bed<ihamber, dihXcHl^aa, L 
To run, corr&rd (83). 
To rule, rtgeri (83). 

Tower, casteUiiiD, L 

II. Example* 
Crassus comes to the large 
totom 



Small, parrtfi, S, iSm. 

To come, T^re (86). 

A Roman, &dm&niii. S, tSm. 

To lead, duogrg (83). 

World, mondOs, L 

To conquer, vinoSre (83). 

Toforttfy, mubirfi (86). 

Dipitiac»s,'DiYitiM^L 



Crassiis magnftm ftd oppt- 
dtim vdnlt. 

Mide of Position. — ^The adjective belon^g to a noun gor- 
emed by a preposition is frequently placed bejore the 
preposition, «. ^., magntim in the example. 

Ill, Translate into English. 

Belgae l@gftt5s mittunt. — ^Belga Isgfttds &d Crassiim mittont. — 
Pndri in cubiculd donmont. — Puelte parv5 (89, II.) In ctibiciild 
domudbant. — RSginft magntim &d oppidiim vdnidt. — QdlhiSi cO- 
pi&s It5m&noriim dtkiAt. — Du (62, R., 3) mnndum rdgont. — 
Deds mundtim sempdr r60t. — Rdm&ni GhiUos vinc^bant. — Ld- 
g&tjis casteM munieb&t. — ^dui nuntium ad LabiSntim mittont. 
^-Copiae Belg&rum ftd oppidtim vdnient. — DMti&cils copi&s 
JBdnoriim dac@b&t 

' IV. Translate into Latin. 

The horse runs. — The boy sleeps. — The boy was running. — 
The slaye comes. — Crassus fortifies many towers. — The sla^e 
was coming to (63, J., 0^) his master. — The beautiful boy will 
deep in a little bed-chamber (89, II.). — The gods always govern 

* In, BigniiVing into or unto, govenui the accusative; signifying m 
gorernf the Mlaiwe, 



Digitized by 



Google 



THIRD AND FOURTH CONJUGATIONS OF VERBS* 85 

the world. — The Romans are coming to the large town. — ^The 
farmer was sleeping in the field. — Divitiaciis was leading tha 
forces of the ^duans. — The Belgians send messengers to Craa- 
SOS. — Crassus sends a messenger to the Belgians. — ^The girls 
win sleep iin a little bed-chamber. — Crassus wiQ fortify the 
towers. — The Romans take-possession-of the towers of GaoL 



Digitized by 



Google ^ 



§ 9. 
PASSIVE VERBS. (XII.— XIIL) 

LESSON XII. 

Verbs. — Passive Voice. — First and Second Conjuga- 
tions. 
(90.) The endings of the third persons of verbs, in 
the tenses for incompkte or continued action (44), are 
the same in the passive as in the active voice, with 
the addition of the syllable ur . Thus, we have in the 

(91.) FIRST CONJUGATION, 



3d Sing. 
SdPlur. 



ActiT*. 

SmSit he, shct it, lavet, 
im-ant, ihey love. 



un-&t^r, he, ike, it ii loved.* 
gm-anMIr, fJUy org laved. 



3d Sing. 
3dPlar. 



Ssa-dbat, he wa$ lavir^. I Sm-abat-ib-, he wa$ loved. 
Km-iUKmt,theyioerelomng. \ fim-abant-iJr, they were loved. 



3d Sing. 
SdPlur. 



im-diit, he shall or will 

love. 
im-abufU, ihey thaU or 

wiU love. 



fim-ablt-Ar, he shall or wilt be loved. 
Sin-&bimt-ifr, they thaU or wiU be 



(92.) 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 



3d Sing. 
3d Plur. 



▲cttT*. 

m6a-€t, he advises. 
mon-erU, they advise. 



mSn-^t-ir, he is advised. 
mSn-ent-dr, they are advised. 



3d Sing. 
3d Plur. 



m6n-U>at, he was advising. 
jaLhJXribant, they were advi- 
sing. 



mdn-Hhi^Hr, he was advised. 
m5n.€bant-t{r, they were advised. 



3d Sing. 
3d Plur. 



m6n-ebU, he wiU advise, 
mburibuni, they will ad- 
vise. 



mdn-^btt-fir, he will be advised. 
mdn-^bont-iir, they wiU be advised. 



* The English langaage has no fonns for incomplete action in tiie pass- 
ive voice. Re is loved, he was loved, &c., the house is buiU, &c., -pro '^^ 
express action complete. An awkward periphrasis— he is being i 



Digitized by 



Google 



Crassiis Ifigfttfim T6eit. 
Legfttiia a Cra886 Tdc&tfic 



PASSIVES OF FIRBT ANJ> SSCOITD CONJ0GATIOV8. 37 
(dS.) IXXftOIftB. 

I. Vocabulary. 

Cfame, sport, lacKui, L « I 7V> feadl» dficire. 

Toddight, delectus. | fiptte^ ooo«pii«. 

II. Exampks. 
(a) Crassus caUs the lieuUn- 

ant. 
(b) . The. lUtUerumt is caUed 
by Crassus, 

In tliese examples, tbe same action is expresaed {yvt^ tbe caBmg of 
ike lieutenant) in (a) by lihe tMcHve tank, m (b) by the passive. By- 
ery sentence in wMcb a trandthre yerif ocean may Urns be diaaged 
into Qie passive fcnn. The agtnt (Crassos) is the sulfjeet nowunor 
twem(a); and in (^) is expressed by tiieaMafiM^CmMo^widi^ 
peefoskkm «, by. 

Rtm. If ^subject be aM«n^,npt a jwnon, nor considered as a jMr- 
son, tbet iHrei>p9itton is omitted ; e. g., PdciUQm vino imptU^, dio 
cap v fSkod wUk wine. (This is the abl ci cause or m eant ,) 

ni. Translate into English. 

AuziHiim a Idgato rdgatur. — ^Aiix^Qium a ]3g&td n$g&hfttiir. — 
Anxifinm a legato rogabitar. — Copiae a Galba rSvdcantfir. — Pdcfl- 
Mm a serYo implgbator. — Oppida a Craaso occupabantar. — M6- 
dl^ia ab «Mn^ p^Mbltar.— Pu^ri b5m a mj^gistrd la u dan tii r. 
— Copiae GenifiaiidFiiiii a Labidnd rdvdcabiiiitiir. — ^PdciUa Tind 
(93, IL, R.) impleiitur — Pu6n lu& (93, 11., K.) ddbctentar. 

IV. Translate into Latin. 

The master is loved by (bis) schoters. — The maff^r will be 
loYecLbj (lus) good scholars. — The cups will be filled (with) 
wme (93, II., R.). — The Germans were eafied together by 
Cnatas.— The vil^g^ were seissed fay th« Raipans. — The 
tpi^im win 1^ seized by the ^diuuas^ — Medicines are prepared 
by the skves. — Good boys wiH l^, piaised by their masters. — 
The good boys wiD be advised by ^their masters. — The scholars 
are taught by their master. — The scholar was taught by his 

the boose mbelnghdlt^^ia sometimes .employed, bat is not to be approved. 
The honse is buuding is afbrm sanctioned by usage, bat in many verbs it 
would be ambigooos. The jmpil mus^ remmnber^ then* ^at in the exer- 
cises in the First Part, the lonns is loved,is admsed, was admsedf ko., are 

D 



Digitized by 



Google 



88 PA8SIVE8 OF THIRD AND FOURTH CONJUGATIONS. 

master. — The giris are defiglrted widi games (93, 11., R.). — 
The slaves will be delighted with games. — The queen is praised 
by (her) maid-servant — The queen was praised bj (her) maid- 
servant. — T&e queen will be praised by (her) maid-servant. 



LESSON xm. 

Verbs. — Passive Voice. — Third and Fourth Conjuga^ 



(94.) 



tions. 

THIRD CONJUGATION. 



Actire. 

r<g-»^ KCf the, it nde$, 
T^t^-whtt they rule. 



3d Sing. 
3d Plur. 



1T^gib-Hr, he, the, it it ruled. 
rggont-ilr, they are ruled. 



rig-ebat, he wot ruling. ||rSgeb&t>^, he wcu ruled. 
r^g-ibani, they toergrttwy.||rggebant-flr, they were ruled. 



3d Sing. 
3d Plor. 



3d Sing. 
3d Plur. 



r6g-^, he thall or will rule, 
rig-ent, they shall or wiU 
rule. 



Hg^t-itr, he shall or wHl be ruled. 
r6gent-tin they shall or wiU be ruled. 



(95.) 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 



dd Sing. 
3d Plnr. 



Aetiw. . 
ttQd'% he hears. 
aad-innt, they hear. 



ItaidSt-Ur, he is heard. 
andinnt-iir, they are heard. 



nfPXKFXCT. 



3d Sing. 
3d Plur. 



aad-i§bftt» he was hearing, 
and-iebant, they were hear- 



aadi€bat-iii^, he was heard. 
aadiebant>iln t^ ^^re heard. 



beheard.i 



3d Sing. 
3dPfair. 



and-iSt, he shall or will 

hear. 
aod-ien^ they shall or wHl 

hear. 



aad-i6C-itr, he shall or wiU 
waMeiBA^^iheyshaUorwiabehemdA 



(96.) 

I. Vocabulary. 

A Roman, BomSnua, I. 
7h lay aside, deponezS. 
Oarrison, pnesldium, I. 



EXERCISE. 



AGaulQaSL^h 

To distribute, ^^^^^^ 



arrange, 

IL Translate into English. 

Legati ft Belgis mittuntiir. — Mnndiis & De6 rfigltftr. — C^pm- 



Digitized by 



Google 



PASSIVES OP THIED AND FOUKTH CONJUGATIONS. 39 

Romanor&m & Gralbft ducnnt&r. — Galfi a Rdm&ms ▼incimtiir. — 
Ir& a rSgina ddpdidtur. — Castelliim & Labifino mdnitiir. — ^Pnsd- 

£& & legHto dispdnuntur. — Ldg&ti &d iEduds mittebantiir Cd- 

piffi ^duorum ad victim ducentiir. — EpistdUL &r6giii& scribitiir. — 
Oppid& Beig&r&m mnmdbantiir. — ^Nuntii &d CraMfim mittent&r. 

III. Translate into Latin, 

Galba is conquered by the Belgians. — ^The camp ii fortified 
bj Crassus. — The forces of Crassus are led to fiie camp. — The 
forces of the iBdui are sent to the yillage. — ^Anger will be laid- 
aside by the queen. — Galba was conquered by the Grauls. — ^Let- 
ters will be written by die queen. — Letters are written to (ad) 
Crassus. — The garrisons are not distributed by Crassus. — The 
towers are not fortified by the Belgians. — ^The world is always 
governed by God. — The Germans are ruled by a lieutenant. — 
A letter wiU be written by the queen. 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 10. 

THIRD DECLENSION OF NOUNS.— PARTIAL 
TREATMENT. (XIV.— XV.) 



LESSON XIV. 
Nouns. — J%ird DecknmoTi. 
(97.) The Third Declension comprises all nouns 
whose gen. sing, ends in is. 

Sem, To fii¥l tke ^tam of any noon of t]^a dedepiifliv itrike off !■ 
from the gen. aiog<; e. g., gen, hominis {cfa f7uin);stem hdmin. 

(98.) The case-enduags are as follows: 



Singakr. 


nomL 11 




M. & F. 


Neat. 




M.&P. 


Neat 


N. 




— 


N. 


eik 


i(tt). 


a 


is. 


If. 


G. 


um (ium). 


um (ium). 


D. 


1. 


r 


D. 


{buc. 


Ibiu. 


A. 


em(im). 


likeN. 


A. 


eg. 


i(tt). 


V. 


UkeN. 


likeN. 


V. 


eg. 


«(i«). 


A. 


6(1). 


e(i). 


A. 


ibufl. 


m»: 



Rem, 1. The nooL ending is not given, because of the many fopns in 
which that case ocean. Of the changes to which the stem is sub- 
ject, see hereafter (Part H). 

Si. Of the endings Im, i (in ace and abL sing.), and ia, ium (plnr.), see 
hereafter (Part IL). 

3. The genders of all nouns of this declension are marked in the vo- 
cabularies. The general rules of gender (25, a) of oonn^ apply to 
this declension : special rules are given (355). We give here only 
(99.) Partial Rule of Oender. — Most nouns which add s to 
the stem to form the nominative are feminine. 

(100.) PARADIGMS MASCULINE AND FEMININE FORMS. 



Sing. 


Sp«ch (m.). 


HoDoar (m.). 


City (f.). 


Nstion (race), C 


Law(C). 


N. and V. 


sermd. 


honSr. 


urb-B. 


gens (gents). 


lex (legs). 


Gen. 


sermon-is. 


hdndr-Is. 


urb-Is. 


gent-Is. 


l^-Is. 


Dat. 


sermon-i. 


hdndr-L 


arb-i. 


gent-I. 


leg-l 


Ace. 


Benn6n-6m. 


hondr^m. 


arb-6m. 


gent-€m. 


leg-&n. 


AbL 


sermon-g. 


hdnor^. 


urb-€. 


gent-6. 


leg-g. 


Plur. 


Speeches. 


Hononn. 


Cities. 


Races. 


Laws. 


N., A., V. 


sermon-es. 


h5n6r-6s. 


urb-C8. 


gent^s. 


l«g-€s. 


Gen. 


sermon-iSm. 


hdnOr-tim. 


urb-itlm. 


gent-ItXm. 


teg-iim. 


ID. and A. 




hdudr-fbOs. 


urb-Ibtis. 


gent-lbiis. 


isg-nios. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THIRD S|;CLEN@ION pF NpUNS. 41 

Rem, 1. Obienre that i{ or ^ in the ntemha dropped in the nom. before 
»; and c ot » combined witb s to form x; e.g., Iaii8=laiid-s; 
arx = arc-s; lex=leg-t; genB = gent>s. 

3. An tbe ending! are short bat I (dat. sing.) and da (N., A., V. phor.). 
(101.) EXERCISE. 

I. Vocabidary. 

[in the following vocabularies, t^ stem of ererjr noen of the third ie- 
denaion ia placed immediately afier ihe nommatiTe form, and before 
the genitive ending.] 

Rock, pfitrS, n. 

Tree, arbdr, (aibdr) fa, £ 

To buUd a neit, nIdlflcarS. * 

C<nQfr, CoeiaSr, (Caeiir) fa. 

And, 6t (coi\j.). 

Consul, OQDMiii, (constil) fa, m. 

Oenerql, impSr&tSr, (impSrfttdr) fa,iii. 

A Helvetian, He^Stiifa, L 



Kv%g, rex, (reg) fa, m. 

L«t,lex,(l%)J«»f* 

To abrogaJ^ ftbr5gftre. 

•^ joatOa, fi, tm. 

Woriiy, digntfa, fi, dm. 

Part, paiB, (part) fa, d 

Commoi^^people, pleba, (pleb) fa, £ 

Tok0iie,mnifi^' 

II. 3Van5&zte tTi^o English. 

Rex 1^-Qs &br6g&t. — Copise |Ul uri>-dm fe8tinaiit.-^Ldg-M 
justsD Bunt. — Pars pleb-ls urfo-dm r^linqtiit. — Magn& pairs pl^b- 
isurb-dm rdBiiqiiit. — ^Aqdils In p^tris dt arb5r-lbiis ilIdtfKcant. — 
L*g-€8 1^ r^g-d ftbrdgantiir. — C6pi» ftd nrb-^m r^Tdcantiir. — 
Hel?6tn &d CsBS&r-^m l^g&tOs mittont. — Nuntius sermon-^m 
con^Is laud&t. — ln^)$r&tdr nuntios rdvdc&t. — ^Rex dignis (54, 
ud 82, 1., R.) b6n5r-fis d&bit.-^-CopisB Belgtrttm iub-«m rftBn- 
qndbant.— C«BS&r ftd vicds festinftbftt — Ldgftti &d imp«r4tdr-6m 
mittnntiir — Imp6r&t5r nuntios &d nrb-^m mittdt. — Legits 
pvt-dm cdpiftriim r6y5c&blt. 

IIL Translate into Latin. 

The kws were just. — ^The king wffl revoke Ae Iaw8.^-Th» 
general win leave the vilbge. — llie consols siend ambaQsadors.^ — 
The consuls recall the ambassadors. — Doves build their nests in 
gardens and trees. — ^The consuls are praised. — ^The city is for- 
tified. — ^Honours will be given* — Honours are given to the wor- 
thy (82, 1., R.). — Ambassadors, will be sent to liie consuls. — 
Honours are ^ven to Caesar (54). — The speech of the consul 
is praised. — Honours are ^ven to the general. — ^A great part 
of the common-people win leave the city. — The consuk wtfl 
recan the conomon-people. — The ambassadors wiU leave die 
«ty. — ^The general win be sent. — Caesar win be recaned.«— 
The laws were unjust. 

Da 



Digitized by 



Google 



42 



THISD DECLENSION. 



LESSON XV. 
Nouns. — Third Declension^ continued. 

(102.) PARADIGMS. — NEUTER FORMS. 



11—85— 


8e«(n.). 


Song (a.). 


Work (n.). 


▲miMl (n.). 


N.,A,V. 

D. 
AbL 


mSr-Ts. 
mar-i. 
mSr-L 


carmSn. 
carmin-is. 
carmin-I. 
carmin-6. 


dpiif. 
op€r-ii. 
6p6r-L 
6p6r-6. 


SnimSl. 
Snimal-ia. 
finlm&l-L 
anImal-L 


Flur. 


Seae. 


Sonp.. 


Works. 


Animals. 


N., A., V. 

G. 
D., AbL 


mSr-ift. 

mar-iOm. 

m&r-lbOs. 


carmln-a. 

carmln-um. 

carmin-ibiia. 


dp6r-&. 

SpSr-um. 

Sp^r-Ibiia. 


Sntmftl-Tft. 

SD&nal-Tdm. 

finimSl-iboa. 



Rem. 1. Neuters whose nom. ends in al, ar, or e, take i for abL sing. 

ending; IS, nom. plnr., and iQm, gen. plor. 
2. Partial Rule of (?e»<20r.— Noons whose stems end in a 1 or it r aio 

neuter. 



I X E R C I S E. 



To curct heal, sanflrfi. 

To miHgate, mitigar^. 

River, flumSn, (flumln) Is (n.). 

To svfim across, transnarC (gov. <xee,). 

Work, dpus, (dp€r) is (n.). 

Fish, piscls, (pise) is (m.). 

Time, tempiis, (temper) is (n.). 

To change, mutftrfi. 

Man, hdmS, (hdmin) is (m.). 

Stormy, turbid, tarklidAa, X, iSaa. 



(103.) 

I. Vocabulary. 

Name, nomSn, (nomin) is (n.). 

To enrol, conscrib6r6. 

JVeaty, foadiis, (foedSr) is (n.). 

To violate, vidlfirS. 

Spoil or booty, prsBdS, sb. 

My, sociiis, L 

Summer, aestas, (aost&t) is (f.). 

Cold, fiigus, (Mg5r) is (n.). 

Burden, dniis, (onSr) is (n.). 

To carry, portftrd. 

W0und, vcdniis, (TnhaSr) is (n.). 

II. Translate into English. 

Consul ndniiD& conscrlblt. — Caes&r foedus (ace.) vidl&b&t, dt 
prsed&m sdciis (54) d&b&t. — iEstfts frigus (ace.) mitlg&t. — Per- 
fagSB flumdn (ace) transnilbaDt. — Magniim 6piis est. — FlumSn 
pisclbus &bund&t (66, 1., a). — Tempus hdmin^s mut&t. — Tem- 
p6r& mutantur.— Frigils aestatfi (93, II., R.) mifigabitur — 
Copisd Belgariim fluinin& transn&bant. — Servus dnus (ace) 
magnum port&t. — Cses&r npmin& non conscribfit. — Onus mag- 
niim est. — M6dlcin& vulniis s&nftt. — Carmln& puell&s delectant. 
— ^NomXn& hdmlnilm m&tabuntiir. — M&ri& turbid& sunt. — Fla- 
mdn magnjim erat torbldiim. — ^Magnft atmt dndr& captiTdriim. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THISD DECLENSION. 48 

III. Translate into Latin. 

The Germans violate treaties. — The consuls will not enrol 
the names. — The slaves were carrying great burdens. — ^The 
messenger was-swinmiing-across the river. — The boy swims- 
across the river. — Great burdens are carried. — The burden will 
be carried by the slave. — The rivers abound in fish (66, 11., ay — 
The wounds are healed. — The burdens are great. — The lieu- 
tenant will not violate the treaty. — ^The names are enrolled by 
the consuls (93, II.). — The treaty is violated. — The treaty is 
violated by Cssar. — The treaty will be violated, and the spoil 
will be given to the allies (dat.). — The consul enrols the names 
of the deserters. — The names of the deserters will be enrolled. 

The wounds of the prisoners wiH be healed. 



Digitized by. 



yHoQRle 



5 11. 



ADJECTIVES OF THE SECOND CLASS. 



LESSON XVL 

Adjectives. — Second Cktsss — Two Endings. 

(104.) Adjbotiybb of the Second Class have is ia 

the nom. sing, for masc. and fern, endings, and e for 

the neuter. They are dechned throughout like the 

third declen»on of nouns ; a. ^., br^yls, short. 

(105.) PAHADIGM. 






8INOI7I.AB. 


VUJMJLL. ll 




Mmc. 


Fein. 


Neat 


Mmc 


Fem. 


Neat U 


N.V. 


brfvis. 


br6v-I«. 


br6v-6. 


br6v-€«. 


brev-€«. 


brtr-li. 1 


G. 


bi«v-ii. 


br6v-Ig. 


brtv-lB. 


brfiv-ium. 


brSv-IQm. 


br6v-iiim. 


D. 


brfiv-I. 


brCv-L 


br«v-L 


br^ylbOfl. 


brer-Tbuf. 


brSv-IbiSM. 


Ago. 


hrtv-em. 


brftv-Sm. 


brtv-6. 


br6v^. 


br6y-€a. 


brey4S. 


Abl. 


br«v-I. 


bi€v-I. 


brtv-L 


bi«v-IbQ8. 


brev-Ibtta. 


bi«v-!bQ8. 



i2ef». 1. Twelve a4jectiyes* of diu daas take Cr for the ending of 
tihenom.sing.maac.infltemdof Is; e.^., &c6r,£crXs, acrS; cSlS- 
bSr, Celebris, celdbrS. 

Rem. 2. The abL has I instead of f in jfivSnts, a youth; SBdlllf , 
4BdUe, The gen. pL has ttm instead of Ytlm in cSUr, fw^ 

(106.) EXERCISE. 

L Vocabulary. 

Uncertain, inoertOs, 8, tlm. 
Utefyl utXKs, & 
/ran, ferrttm, L 
Cfold, tauiim, L 
Severe, heavy, fpd.yU, 6. 
L^e, vm, m (£). 
Brave, fortits, 8. 
PatietUly, p&tientdr (adv.)* 
Wolf, Ifipils, i (m.). 
liifce, simXUs, 6. 

^ cAt^, princeps, (prindTp) is (c, SU^ 
IV.). 



!,«. 



/Viewer, ptt6r, (patr) Is. 
JVoMe, nSbtlXs, 6. 

.<i0, ^ v)hole, 5 

^Twee^, dnlcls, 6. 

To demand, posc6r6. 

Soldier, miles, (miBt) is (m.). 

Study, zeal, studium, L 

Kt9MZ> bSnigniis, a, mn. 

Dog, ctols, (cftn) is (c.^ 25, IV.). 

To endure, tdlfirftrfi. 

Hottage, obsSs, (6b8Td)is (c, 35, IV.). 



' AcSr, »harp. 
AlScfir, cheerfuL 
Gainpester, of the plain. 
OSysUr, famous. 



C«l6r, sttnft. 
fiqaestSr, equestrian. 
Pimster, marshy. 
Pedester, pedestrian. 



SSlubSr, salubrious, 
Sylvester, woody. 
Terrestfir, terresiriaL 
VmoSr, swift. 



Digitized 



by Google 



ADJECTIYESy BBOONB CLASS. 45 



P&t«r filid Mnigniis est. 
C&ids liip5 ^[n^ffis est. 



U. Examples. 

(a) The father is kind to kU 

son. 
(h) The dog is like (to) the 
wolf* 

(c) Rule of Syntax. — ^The dative case is used with dl adjec- 
tives that are foDowed b$r the words to or for in Eng^ 
fish: hence with adjectives expressing (a) adcantage or 
disadvantage^ {b) likeness or itnltkeness* 
[Adjectives of liieneu or unRkeness alio take tlie gen.] 
"tn. Translate into English. 

Mifit^ omnes p^ricill&m tlment. — Imp^rfttdr fortis miKtfis 
omnes convdc&t. — Vitft brftvls est. — Vitft est brdvis 6t incertft. — 
Vindm est dnkS. — PrincYpes fortes oppld& omni& mtlniebant. — 
Cses&r obsadSs noblles posclt — Tempus br^vd est. — ^Non omnes 
mifites sunt fortes. — Ferrum utile est. — ^Aurdm et ferrum sunt 
atl£& hdmMbus (106, II., c). — Maes vulntis gr&vd p&tienter 
t5Igr&t.— Consiil fortls pdriciilft ndn timeblt.— Ferrftm tLtm 
hdn^tnibus (106, II., c) est.— MiBt«s fortes vufaiirlL griivi& pft- 
tienter t5ler&bunt.— StiicUtkm est puens (106, II., c) Utile.— 
Imper&tdr mifitibiis (106, II., c) benigntis er&t.— C&ifls liipO 
dmiHs est. 
IV. Translate into Latin. 

Tlie noble queen comes to the city. — ^The brave Heutenant en- 
dures patiently (his) severe wound. — ^AH the sokfiers hasten to 
the camp. — The brave chiefs will fortify many towns. — The 
fioble hostages conae to Cesar (63, I., ^^). — The time is un- 
certain. — Soldiers are not always useful. — Towns are useful 
for men (106, II., e). — ^Nobl^ ambassadors are sent — ^Many 
hostages are demanded by the consuls (93, 11.). — ^AU the 
soldiers will be called together. — Not all chiefs are noble. — 
"Wine is sweet and iron is useful. — The dangers are not fear- 
ed by the brave soldiers (93, II.). — The brave tieutenant 
praises the noUe diief— Dogs are like wolves (106, II.)* — 
The study of letters (litterftriim) is useful for aU (106, II.) — 
The soldiers are kind to the prisoners (106, II.). — Gold is heavy. 
--Iron is not like gold (106, II.). 

Bven ia theie, tb» endiiig U is lometimes loond in qooi. Bin#i mmso. ; 
e. g., tumuUut equestrii, Liv., xxix., 35. 



Digitized by CiOOglC 



§ 12. 
ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD CLASS. 



LESSON XVIL 

Adjectives. — Third Class. — One Ending. 

(107.) Adjectives of the Third Class have but one 
ending in the nominative for all three genders ; e. g-., 
felix (m., f., n.), happy; audax (m., f., n.), bold: 
pauper (m., f., n.), poor. 

(108.) PAEADiGM. — FillXj happy. 



f- 


BTKOVULJL. 


TLV%AJs, ll 




HaM. 


Fein. 


NeuU 


H.K. 


Fein. 


Neot. 


N.y. 


feUx. 


felix. 


fl&llx. 


feliC-€fl. 


fellc-efl. 


fellc-ifi. 


G. 


felic-la. 


felic-lB. 


feUc-Is. 


felic-Ium. 


felic-ittm. 


felic-iOm. 


D. 


fellc-i. 


felic-I. 


£eUc-I. 


felic-Xbiifl. 


felic-lbiia. 


feHc-Ibtifl. 


Ace 


fellc-dm. 


felic-em. 


felix. 


felloes. 


feliC-€8. 


feHc-!a. 


AbL 


fellc-L 


feKc-i. 


felic-i. 


felic-IbOs. 


felic-ibtis. 


felic-Ibus. 



[Rem. 1. The abLhas S instead of! {a) in panpSr, poor; s^nex, dd 
(gen.8en!s); princeps^e^i^; com-p on, possessed of, and moBt end- 
ing in 6s; e. g^., hospfis, guest; pjabfis, grown up, &c. Also in 
the oomponnds of corptls, coldr, and pSs. 

(b) Participles in ns have, as participles, S, bat as adjectives i; e, g., 
florentS r6»i, the rose blooming; florenti rds&, in a blooming 
rose, 

(c) Adjectives used as noons take 6;'0. g., sJlLpIens, a noise man, 
abL sftpientS. 

Rem. 2. The gen. pi. takes ilm instead of itim in y 6 ta s, old (vgtSrQm) ; 
consors, partaking of; degSnSr, degenerate; dlvSs, rich; 
Inoipn, helpless ; ta^taiiT, mindful ; immSmSr, t^nmtn^/ttZ; i>J|p* 
pi ex, suppliant; dbSr, rich; vigil, watching. Also in all which 
take 9 in tiie abL ; e. g^ prinoeps, piindEpS^ princXpiim.] 



Digitized by 



Google 



ADJECTIVES. THIRD CmM. * 47 



(109.) EXEECI8E. 

I. Vocabulary. 

Fierce, itrox, (Itx6c) ta (107). 
To wage, carry on, gSrSrS. 
Honesaidder, Sqafis, (Sqnit) Is (m.). 
Tenacunu, tSnax, (tSnac) Is (107). 
Wise, sipiens, (sSpient) is (107). 
Dealh, man, (mort) Ys (£). 
T49 f«n«to, redintdgr&rS. 
JZ^d Jygs, (divit) rs (107). 
^^■^y, t^rrerd. 

II. Exampk. 
The whahitaTUs carry on a 

fierce war. 




TT^ 



Sttzg, cervfis,L 

Powerful, pStens, (pSteot) Hi (107). 

iSTcou/, expldritSr, Hi (m.). 

7V> ibZ^ oocIdSre. 

BatUe, yrmWSm, L 

^lui, St (001^). 

Swift, v&ox, (v«l6c) I^ 

Horse, dqmu, L 

Citizen, civis, (<5v) iii (c, 85, IV.). 



Incdlas belliim &trox gftront. 
[Refer to 78, II., a.] 



III. Tron^&te into English, 
Incdlae beM magn^ 6t &tT6ci& gdmnt. — Nuntiiis vdlox &d castrft 

v^idt. — Eqmtgs v6l6c6s &d syhrftm festinant. — Vlr s&piens mor- 
tem non timi^t. — ^Discipdlus m^mdriftm tenftcdm h&bftt. — M6- 
m5ri& in pilaris est t^Dax. — Imp^r&tdr nuntiuin yfilocdm mittgt. 
— ^Principes fortds praeMm &trox redintegr&biiiit. — Cerviis v6- 
tox est. — ^Equds velox currit. — C&nSs sunt ydloc^. — S&piens 
(82, 1., R.) non semper divds est. — DiTltSs non sempdr befttl 
sunt.' — Princeps pdtens leg&tds mittit. — PrincipSs pdtentSs 
captiTds occidunt. — Imp^rfttdr prindpds omnCs conydc&t. 

IV. Translate into Latin. 

The thick woods terrify the swift messenger. — The fierce 
battle terrifies all the inhabitants. — The noble general was prais- 
ing the swift messenger. — The illustrious consul sends ambas- 
sadors to (63, I., ^^) the powerful chief. — The powerful 
chief will kill all the prisoners. — Rich (men) are not always 
wise. — The wise (man) does not fear the fierce battle. — The 
soldiers praise the rich citizen. — The memory in boys is al- 
ways tenacious. — Dogs and horses are swift. — The consul 
will not renew the fierce battle. — The illustrious general wiD 
recall the swift horse-soldiers. — Rich citizens fear fierce wars. 
—The fierce battles were terrifying all the hostages.^ — The 
wise genera! calls-together all the ambassadors. — The fierce 
battle will be renewed- — All the prisoners wiH be killed by the 
powerful chiefii (93, II.).— The swift messengers are frighten- 
ed. — Ghreat wars are carried on. — ^Rich citizens are killed. 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 13. 
FOURTH DECLENSION OP NOUNS. 



LESSON xvm. 

Nouns. — Fourth Declension. 

(110.) The Fourth Decknsion comprises all ooims 
whose gen. sing, ends in us {long). The nom. ending 
for masculines id li s, and for neuters u ; e. ^.9 f r ti c t- 
u s, fruity masc. ; c o r n - u, Aom, neut 

(111.) The case-endings are as follows: 



— UST- 


kMC 


Neat. 


^hir. 1 


1 it^ ■ 1 


1 lietrt. 1 


N.andV. 


fit. 


O. 


IC. ma V. 


Of. 


M, 


Gen. 


US. 


lu or 11. 


Gen. 


iliim. 


aSaD. 


Dat 


fiL 


u. 


Dat 


rbuB. 


!bOs. 


Aoo. 


tBL 


u. 


Ace 


Uf. 


fJA. 


AbL 


u. 


u. 


AbL 


IbQi. 


...^^ 



(112.) By adding these hidings to the stems frud' 
and com* J we get the 



PARADIGM.* 





SiiiR..fniit(in.). 


hnr., flniit 




Sine., born (n.). 


Plar.,honM. 


N.«ndV. 


ftact-iii. 


fract-u8. 








Gen. 


froct-us. 


fract-utim. 


N., A., V. 




com-iML 


Dat 


fract-iiL 


fract-iba«. 


Gen. 


corn-US, or u. 


oom-attan. 


Aco. 


froct-nm. 


fract-ufl. 


Dat, AbL 


oom-u. 


coni-KbOs. 


AbL 


fract-u. 


fract-ibtifl. 









[Mem, 1. The Mowing take 0biit in dat and abL plur. instead of 
Ibus, viz., Sciis (£), needle; arcus (m.), bow; artQs (m.), joint; 
ficils (i),Jig4ree; IScils (m.), lake; partiis (ul), birth; portQs 
(m.), harbor ; qnercus (£), oak; spSctts (jxl), den; tribiis Cf.), 
tribe; p«cii (n.), cattle; Yfirtl (n.), a epit.f] 

2. The femipiine novms of tlds declension are, icils, needle; aniia^ 

* The ibartli declension is only a contracted fiirm of the third: thus. 

N. frnct-us. 

G. froct-uls, contr. froctus. 

D. fract-i& 

Aoo. froct-ufioa, oontr. iructdin» &o. 
t The IbDoWing yenies embrace these : 

AroQs, ScQs, portfis, Tdru, 
FIolls, 12c(is, artfis, 

SpSoOs, qneicfis ; €U$o, pScu, 
Trfbtis too, and partus. 



Digitized by 



Google 



irOUNS. FOUETH DECLElTBIOlf; 



40 



cld wmum; d5mtis, hatue; ftcili,^; mlBfii, hand! nUrfiM, 
daughter-4n-law ; ^ or t^ad^ gaUery ; tribtii, tribe; qaerotli^ 
oak. AIbo, IdHSj -uiim ^oMl osAy in plural), tke Idei.'* 
3. Ddmiis (£), house, is thus TOclined : 





N^V. 


a 


D. 


Ace. 


AbL 


Sing. 


dom-ils. 


T\ 


-m. 


•Qm. 


-6. 


1 Plor. 


d5m-ii8. 


-num. } 
-drum. > 


•Ibiia. 


-us (rarely). J 


•Ibfifl. 



4. The gen. domi is used only in the sense of at home; e. g., 
mSoe, <tt my home, at my house. 

Ali3.) ,* EXERCISE. 

T. yocahilary. 



ddml 



To lead aver, or across, transducers. 

Approach, adventus, iis (m.). 

To await, expect&rS. 

Singing, cantus, us (m.). 

Prait, fructOs, us (m.). 

To adorn, omarC. 

Four, qn§ttu6r (indeclin.). 

To build, aedXficare. 

Horn, comii, us (n.). 

Army, exercTtOs, us (m.). 

Harbour, port&s, iis (m.). 

Enemy, hostis, (host) is (c, 25, IV.). 

Bird, ivis, (&v) is (f.). 

II. Examples. 

{a) The Helvetians lead 

part of their forces across 

the Rhine, 
(b) Casar leads a great ar- 

^y of Germans across the 

Rhine. 



Grief, luctQs, ust (m.). 

To lay aside, depdnSrS. 

Sadness, nuBrSr, drist (m.). 

Tempest, prdoella, m. 

To raise, tdl^rfi. 

Wave, fluctCLs, us (m.). 

Star, sldiis, (aider) Is (n.) (102). 

Shore, litttts, (littSr) is (n.) (102). 

Wind, yentOs, I (m.). 

Roll, v(^«r6. 

Boundary, {wS§, (fin) lis (m.). 

The Rhine, Khtaiis. L 

Ship, navis, (n&v) Is (f.). 

Helv^tii partem cdpiftri&m 
RhSntkm transdQcant. 



CsBS&r magniim Germ&nO- 
rum exercitum trans 
Kh^num transducit. 
Rule of Syntax. — (a) Verbs compounded with the prepo- 
sition trans are generally followed by tiuo accusatives ; e» 
g., partem and Rhenum in (a). 
{h) But sometimes the preposition is repeated ; e. g., trans 
in (6). 
m. Translate into English. 
Helv6t» Ckesd'Hs (38, h) adventiim expe ctftbant.—- Adventfl 

The rest are fern, by 



* Iciis, mSniis, ti^iiis, domtis, porficus, and IdOs. 
tiie general rale (25, II.). 
t Moardr = silent grief; lucttts = mowmvng. 

E 



Digitized by 



Google 



y 



so Nou]rt.*-^FOumTB DBCLSNaioir* 

(•bL, 65, «) Caetiils hottfit terrentilr.— Avis pu^l&m cantQ (55, 
A) detoot&t. — Fmetfid arbdi^s (aec,pl.) ornant. — Fract&s terns 
&giicdl&m delectant. — P&t^r d6mQ8 (ace. pL) quftttfldr aedlHcft- 
blt. — N&T68 in portu funt. — Regin& lucttim dSpdnlt. — S&pientd« 
hicttttn dt moBrdrtm dSpoDunt. — PrdceDft magnOs flnctfis {ace, 
pi.) tollebftt.— Pr6ceM fluctds (ace. pL) ftd 8id6rft toffit>- Pufir 
tanrttm corafi (abL, 55, a) ti^nftt. — Coniii& cervi magii& sunt^-^ 
Fhicttls magid yenlis (55, a) rolmntdr. — Le^tilt exerdtdm dH" 
clt. — Leg&tils &b £di]l8 (from the ^duans ; t. e., then: country) 
exercittim dtldt. — ^Agiicdlft tauri^m comibds (55^ a) tJ^Ddk||^ — 
Adventiis patris puell&m delect&bit. — Caes&r exerdtiiia fifS^n 
transddcit (113, II., a). — ^L^gfttiia p^r fines Helvdtioram exer- 
clttim dilcdt.— Aridviatils Germftnos trans Khdniim transdddt 
(113, II., h). 

Rem, Hom$ iM trtailaled hy ddmttm, the mo. of douai ; tlMS» T%» 
sailor lead* the boy hame-^^tMA pnfinim domtm dudt. 

IV. Translate into Latin. 

My father wiU build four bouses. — The tempest is roDiiig 
great waves to the shores (63, 1., ^^. — Vast waves are raised 
to the stars 1^ tempests^— The turbid sea is rolling vast waves 
to the shores.— The ftrmer leads the ^ris home from (ah) liie 
city. — CsBsai* wiU lead the army over the turbid river.— Cassius 
leads the army through the boundaries of tho^i^Sduans and 
Helvetians. — ^The Helvetians await the coming of Caesar. — 
The boy will hold the bull by the horns (55, a). — The farmer 
is delighted by the fruits (55, a) of the earth. — The king lays 
aside his griefs and sadness. — ^The singing of the birds (Hviiim) 
will delight the soldiers. — The trees are adorned by many fruits. 
— There are many large ships in the harbour. — The winds raise 
the great waves to the stars. — The lieutenant was leading the 
army of the JEduans across the Khine. (Repeat trans (113, 
tl., h) ). — The borns of bulls are large. — ^The queen will lay 
aside her grief and sadness. — ^The master sends his slaves home 



Digitized by 



Google 



U4. 
FIFTH DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 



LESSON XIX. 
Nouns. — Fifth Declension. 
(114.) The Fifth Declension compriset all nouns 
whose gen. ending is li. The nom. ending is es. 

(115.) There are but few nouns of this declension, 
and they are sM feminine except dies, day^ and me- 
ridies, mid-day; and even dies is fern, in the sing, 
when* it means ^ fixed day. 

(116.) The case-endings are as follows: 



C 



Bingv 
Plor. 



N.V. 

€8. 

6s. 






D. 
Sbtti. 



Aco. 
Sm. 



6. 
ebtii. 



Mtm. In tbe gen. and dat the e in ei i« long when avowel stands be- 
fiire it ; eg., di-SI: thort when a consonant stands beibre it; «. g^ 
fld-6I. 

(117.) By adding the endings to the stems r- and 
di-, we get the 

PARADIGMS. 



TW(£). 

Bingolar. 

PkraL 

BingnJar. 
PhffaL 



N.V. 
r-68. 
i>es. 

dl-6s. 
dl-€s. 



G. 
r-S. 
r-drflm* 

di-firiun. 



D. 
r-€L 

dr-€I. 
di-ebtts. 



Aoc. 
r-fon. 
r-ds. 

dt-Sm. 
dl-te. 



AbL 

r-6b«ia. 

dT-«. 
dl-ibflii. 



JZ^. Only res, diSs, spScxis, hare the pfaff.oompleto; tiie gea, 
dat.,Mi(i aU. i»lnr. are wanting in all otliers. 

BXEECISB. 



(118.) 

I. Vocabulary* 

To appointf constStQ^^ 

To lead out, 6duc&^ 

To lead bach, rgdacSre. 

Lineofbaiae,\kA^SL 

To draw lej^/instr&erS. 

About, circitSr {prep, with ace.). 

About mid-day, cirdU^ meri£dm< 

Victory, victArii, m. 



mdrday, mftidH^ «I (m.). 

Sixth, sextos, S, Qm. 

Renard, pramiOm, L 

Sun, 861, (b6I) Xb (m.). 

Sating, ocoftsus, us. 

Seventh, septitanis, 8, tm. 

Out of, 6 or ex {prep, with ablatire). 

FaUh, promise, ftdfis, 6L 

T^ nea:^, postdrOs, 8, Haa 

Tojight, pagnir«. 



Digitized by 



Google 



52 NOUNS. FIFTH DECLENSION. 



Caes&r ftci^m instrfilt. 
Postdr5 did castril m5vent. 



II. Examples. 

(a) Casar draws up the line 
ofbatUe. 

(b) The next day they move 
the camp. 

(c) Ride of Syntax. — ^The point of time at which any thing 
occniB 18 expressed by the ablatiye ; e. g.<, in (h)po$tero 
die. — At sun-set = sSlis occ&sil. 

III. Translate into English. 

Spes victoriaB mifitds delect&t.— MUttes spd (93, II., R.) yic- 
toriae delectantiir. — Diss vfinit. — Cses&rdidm constltiiit. — Caes&r 
didm cum ISg&tls constltuit. — ImpSr&tdr fortis exercitum educit, 
6t &ci6m instruit.— Circitfir mSrididm pugnant. — Caes&r, circitdr 
mdrldiSm, exercitiimin castr& rSducit.— Sexto die (116, II., c) 
Caes&r exercitum ex castris edticit. — SpSs prsemiorum pti^ros 
delect&t. — Pii^ri spS praemiorum dslectantm*. — Solis occftsQ 
Helv&tii castr& mdvebant.— Septlmo die Belgie t^pi&s onmes 
ex castris educSbant. — Sofis occasti Ariovistiis &cidm instruit. 
— Circitdr mdridi&m proelium rddintfigrabunt. — Consul clariis 
di^m cum Idg&tls constituit. — Princip@s nobilSs fid^mvidlant. 

IV. Translate into Latin.* 

The hope of victory delights the noble chiefs. — The consul 
about mid-day leads out the army and renews the fierce battle. 
— The powerful chiefs, at the-setting of-the-sun (118, IL, c), 
kin all the prisoners. — The day will come. — The consul, at the 
setting of the sun, will renew the great battle. — ^At the setting 
.of the Sim the great battle will be renewed. — On the sixth day 
all the forces will be led back to the camp. — The Germans ap- 
point a day with Caesar. — The next day the Germans move 
(their) camp. — ^Ariovistus, on the next day, draws out the line 
of battle. — Caesar appoints the mid-day with the ambassadors.-— 
About mid-day the messengers come. — ^About mid-day the ooii« 
sul will come. — Caesar will not violate (his) promise. 



Digitized 



by Google 



5 15. 
PRONOUNS. (XX.— XXXI.) 

LESSON XX. 

Pronouns. — Substantive-Personal and Adjective* 
Personal — Verbs^ First Person. 

(119.) Thb three pronouns ego,/; iu^thou; sul^of 
jLimselff hers^y itself^ are called Substantive^ because 
they are used as substantives, not as adjectives ; and 
Personal, because they express the person speaking, 
the person spoken to, and the person spoken of. 

(120.) The Substantive-Personal Pronoun* of the 
first person is thus declined : 





Norn. 


Gen. 


Dat 


Ace 


— ^' — 


Sing. 
Plur. 

11 


eg6, /. 

ji6a,tDe. 


m6i, of me. 
nostrum, J -^ 


mlht tome. 
nobis, to us. 


mS, me. 


m6,bymefkc. 11 
n6hlM,byus,&c. 



(121.) Derived from the Substantive-Personal Pro- 
nouns are the Adjective-Personal or Possessive Pro- 
nouns ; called Adjective, because they agree with 
nouns ; and Possessive, because they express possession 
{my, thy, his, &c.). 

(122.) The Adjective-Personal Pronouns of the^r«< 
person are declined, in both sing, and plur., like adjec- 
tives of the First Class (76, 77, a). They are, 

(a) Deriyed frommSt, N. mSfis, mSS, mStfm, my » mine. 

G. mS]^ mSffi, m£!, of my (vocmasc. mi). 
&C. &c. (like b dnii 8, 76.) 
(i) " from nostri, N. nostSr, nostrS, nostrom, ottr, ourv. 
G. nostiT, DOstrsB, nostil, of our. 
&c. &c. (like p ul cb 6 r, 77, a). 

(123.) The following forms of Verbs in the first per 
son must now be learned : 

E2 



Digitized by 



Google 



M 



PEIUSONAL PmONOUNB. 



FIRST CONJUGATION ! FIRST PERSON ENDINGS. 



iNFiN. ACT., art. 


INFIN. PASS, art. || 




Indk. preaent 


j Imperfect | 


Futare. || 


1st Sing. 
l8t Plur. 


Act. 
§mils. 


Pass. 

or. 

amOr. 


1 Act 
SbSm. 
1 abamiu. 


Pass. 
abSr. 
§b§mtir. 


Act. 

§bd. 

ftbimiis. 


Pass. 
abdr. 
§blmiir. 



(124.) Thus, from the stem am, of am- a re, to love^ 
we have : 



INFIN. ACT., Omari, to love. 



INFIN. PASS., dmOri, to be loved. 



Inapgrfcct. 



Fotara. 



Act. 

Ilove. 
Am-ftmtis, 



Pass. 
ftm-dr, 
lam loved. 
fim-ftmfir, 
we are lowed. 



Act. 
im-&bim« 
Twos loving. 

ve were loving. 



Pass. 
im-ibir, 
Iwas loved. 
Sm-&bftm&r, 
we were Ufved, 



AcL 

IshaUlove. 

wethaUlove. 



Pass, 

&ai-&b5r, 
TshaU be loved. 
im-ib&nftr, 
we shall beloved. 



[Rem. The stadent will learn the passive ending^s readily by observing 
that r is t^e passive charajeteristic, which is added to tBe active j the con- 
sonant ending of the active^ where it has one, being^dropped.] 
(125.) EXERCISE. 

I. Vocdbulary. 



Book, Hbgr, bri (m.), (64). 
Friend^ Smicils, i (m.). 
Brother, frttSr, (fratr) Is (m.y. 
Cicero, C!c6r6, (Cic6r6n) is (m.). 
Sister, sdrdr, (sdrdr) is (f.). 
WUh (i. e., ai one's house), ftpttd 

(prep. ace.). 
Fault, cnlpS, m. 
Ynterdttjf, fa&i (adrO. 

II. Examples. 

(a) Ihavt a hook. 1 £8t mih! Ubdr (i. c, (kere i$ 

I a book to me). 
Ride of Syntax. — The dalive case is used with est or sunt, 
to denote the person who h<is or possesses something.* 
The tlung possessed is nom. to est or sunt. 



AH my (possessions), oauAa mei 

(neat. pL). 
Five, qninqvS. 
Sharply, icntSr. 
To-morrow, eras (adr.). 
Very much, greatly, valdS (ady.). 
To blame, vitup&Srg, 
To sing, cant&i^. 
Three, tr«s» trift (scU. of Clan IL). 



Pu6r mecum in horto hdii 
am^^b&t. 



(6) The boy was walking 
wUh me in the garden yes- 
terday. 

Ride (^Position. — ^The prepontion cOm is si^ed, to die 

personal pronouns; e.g., mecum, t£^m«;^6bi8cuni« 

with US} instead of ciim m6, cum ndtus. 

IBecoQect that Ae personal and possessive proobons are not e:qiire88ed 

in Latin, unless emphasis or perspicoity demands Jt] 

* This is called Ae Dative ofPo$se$siom,uidtiMaM ahrijs 1 
to as Koah. kv the pnpiL 



Digitized 



by Google 



PERSONAL nOVOWB. FUST PERSON. U 

III. Translate into English. 

£gd caiit6, dnOcHs audit — ^£g6 dt frfttSr ambillftintis.* — ^figd 
<t f ilitks meiis festin&mtis. — Sunt mlhl trSf fibri (125, II„ a).-^ 
SoBt iniM quattudr dqui dt qninqtl* dines. — Id hort6 ambiU&- 

bftm.— A Wnis (82, I., R.) ftrnftbdr.— Clc6r5 «.md laudator 

Hostes nobiscjim (125, II., 6) ftciitdr pugnant. — ^Hdri In ftgris 
ambulab&muf.^ — ^P&tdr ftd nds nuntium mittdt* — Culpft noatrH est. 
— Crfts In horto caBn&Mmiis. — Dftlect&bamtlr. — Pudii In hortd 
nobisciim ambiil&bunt. — ^Littdr&riim studiiimf (38, b) wSht (106, 
II.) Qtlld 6rlt. — ^A m&gistr6 laud&b&r. — OmnUi me& mCcAm 
port5. — ^£g5 & fr&trd Takld &m5r. — ^NOs laudftmftr, puettas vitA- 
pdrantur. — ^Nos a m&gistro yerb^r&blmtbr. 

IV. Translate into Latin. 

We praise the beautiful gir]. — ^We have (125, II., a) four large 
cups. — I have (31$ there are to me) four sons and three daughters 
(125, II., a). — ^We shall praise Caesar's brave soldiers. — I walk, 
ny friend rides.— I and ray sister wil ride.*—- 1 and my brother 
win walk* in the king's garden4*^I and my father wiQ sup* in 
the garden to-morrow. — ^We shall always praise the wise and 
food^-^The works of Cicero will be praised by m$ (93, XL, &), 
die'works of Caesar by the soldiers. — ^The fault is miBe.-<*'We 
have many large cups (125, II., a).**I have three beautiful sisters. 
-^I have fi>ur brothers.-^My father will walk with me in Cau- 
ser's garden {CasdrU In hortO),t — ^The study of literature is 
vseful to us (106, II.) — To-day we shall si^ with (apod) 
Ciassus. * 



LESSON XXI. 

PronounSt Personal and Possessive^ continuedk — Verhs^ 
First Person^ continued. 
(126.) Thb following are some of thd endings for 
the first person in verbs of the 

* If a predicate have two or more nominatiyes, connected by a ooi^onc- 
tkm, it takes generally the plural number ; and if the aominatiTes be of 
different penK>iM, the verb takes ths first penon rather Aan the lecoiid, 
£e ■econd rather than the third. _^ _ 

t Littdrftrfim itftditim«tt«|n<r««t< (or ■tady)o/W«rfl^ (letters). 

i In all snch cases, put the prep, between the genitiye ana the noon 
forezBed by the prep. 



Digitized by 



Google 



M 



V£KBS. ^FIRST PBRSON* 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 





STSM. 


SIXOULAB XNDINOS. 


PLUaAZ. ENDINOS. || 


Present 

Imperfect 

Future. 


m5a- 
mdn- 


Sbtan. 


PsMive. 

e6r. 

ebSr. 

Sbor. 


▲ctivft. 

SmOi. 

ebftmOfl. 

ebimtis. 


pHMtre. b 

emOr. [ 
ebfimtir. 
eblmur. fl 



[JZem. The student will learn these fonns readily by observing^ that 
they differ chiefly ftom those of the first conjugation in having e be- 
fore the last syllable instead of a. By adding the ending, as above 
given, to the stem mon-,. which stands i ' ' " ' 
the 



I at the left hand, he will fonn 



he paradigm of monerS, to advi8e.\ 

(127.) The following are some of the endings for 
the Jirst person in the third and fourth conjugations. 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 



Present 

Imperfect 

Future. 



rtg- 
r6g- 



8INOni.AB SNDHVOS. 



6. 
ibSm. 

Sm. 



PaoatT*. 

6r. 
gbSr. 

ar. 



PLUKAI. KNDINOS. 



Active. 

bnus. 

ebftmOs. 

Snnis. 



Imtir. 

ebftmiir. 

€mur. 



[Rem. Compare these with the endings of the 2d oo^j., and obserre 
that 

1. In ^epres. e is dropped in the sing., and » assumed in the plur. 

2. The imperfect is precisebr the same. 

3. But iihe future is a new K>rm. 

4. By adding the endings to the stem placed at tiie left, yos fom die 
paradigm of rggSrS, to rule,] 



(128.) 


FOURTH CONJUGATION. 






8TKW. 


SINOni.AB ENDINOS. 


PLURAI. SNJDINOS. | 


Present 

Imperfect. 

Future. 


aud- 
aud- 
aud-^ 


Actire. 
i«. 

iebSm. 


Pawivft. 

ior. 

i6b5r. 

iftr. 


Actire. 

imQs. 

iebimfis. 

i^mOs. 


Pa»iTe; 

unOr. 

>eb&m«lr. 

iemur. 



[Rem. Observe that the endings of the 4th com. differ from those of 
> tiie 3d simply by prefixing the letter f . In the Ist phxr. the i pre- 
' fixed combmes with that of the ending? Imils, Imtir, and fonns imfi% 
imiir.] 



(129.) 
_j!e---i:* Vocabulary. 



EXEEGISE. 



Fierce, f^rox, (ferSc) Is (107). 
Nothing, nXbn (neut indecL). 
To be well, vfilerS. 
To arrange, disp6n£r6. 

II. Example. 
I have nothing to do toith 
Antony (125, II., a). 



Wicked, imprSbiis, S, tim. 
Garrison, pnesldifim, I. 
Latin, Lfttmiis, ft, tim. 
Antony, Ant&iids, L 

Nihil est mlh! ctim Ant5iii5 
(t. e., there is nothing to me 
with Antony). 



Digitized by 



Google 



VSBB8. BECOND PKR80N. 5T 

III. Translate into English. 

2d Conjugation.— ig6 6t frftt^r T&lemiis (125, III.*).— A 
m&gistro ddcdbimur. — LingaUm L&tin&m d6ced. — ^A. p&trd m6- 
nedr. — ^A m&gistrd bdno ddcemtir. — ^Ab hostd tim6b&r. — ^Hos- 
tium adventiim nOn timdbft. 3d Conjugation. — Rdg^bftmar. — 
Pr8B«kfi& dispdnSbftmiis. — ^A Ded rd^imiir. — £gd exerdtiiiD 
duc&m. — ^A filid meo rdlinqu&r. — Liipds f^rdcds occidlmtU. 
4tth Conjugation. — Ca8te1]& muniemtUi. — ^Ayiikm cantdm audi- 
miisw — Cr&s &d urbdm v^ni&m. — Nihil est mihl cttm impfdbis. 
— ^Nihil est Dobis cum host^tis. 

rV. Translate into Latin. 

2d Conjugation, — I and my son are well (126, III.*).— 
We shall see the brave soldiers. — I am taught by good masters. 
— ^We were fearing the approach of the enemy. — 1 was teach- 
ing the Latin language. — ^We shaU-b^ feared by the enemy. — 
We shall be advised by our father. 3d Conjugation. — We 
were led by a brave general. — I was killing three wolves. — ^We 
are ruled by a good king. — ^We shall arrange the garrisons. — 
I shall bring (ducere) my daughter from (ab) the eily. — We 
shall lead the forces of the Germans. 4th Conjugation.—^We 
were heard by the master. — ^We shall sleep in the little town 
(89, II.).— We shall come to the town to-morrow.— I shall be 
heard by the giris. — ^We were fortifying the towns. — ^We have 
nothing to do with the foolish (129, II.). — ^I have nothing to do 
with Caesar. 



LESSON XXIL 
Pronouns. — Substantive-Personal and Adjective^Per* 
sonal. — Verhs^ Second Person. 
(130.) The Substantive-Personal Pronoun of the 
second person is thus declined : 



Mhy\ 



Sing. 
Phir. 



tu, thou, 
vdB, you. 



tn^ of thee. 
vestrL J of 
vestaram, > you. 



tib%tothee. 
vdbls, to you. 



te^thee. 
yoB,you. 



tu, Hum. \t&, 
r6B,you.\ 



(131.) The following are some of the endings pf the 
second person of verbs of the 



Digitized by 



Google 



PERSONAL PEOVOUV* — BBCOND PERSON. 







riRST 


CONJUCIATIOK. 






STKir. 


satajjhAM, mKDOiQB. \ 


riAJMAL SMBXNOS. || 


I Prei. 

U frap- 

II Fat 


am. 
am- 


AcU 

abat. 
abii. 


P.«. 
aiii. 
ib&ilf. 
&beri8. 


Act 

atls. 
&ba^. 


Pass. 11 

ftmlm. 1 
&b&iiiInL U 
fiblmM. ] 



(132.) EXERCISE. 

L Vocabularjf* 

Yttterday, b&x (adr.). I To wuM, valnerirt. 

3\>.iZ<^, HodiS (adr.). I ToJSght, pa«Bfir6. 

II. Translate into English. 

Cr&8 meciim coen&bls. — Tu md ftmAs, dgd td &m6. — ^VOs 
TdblBciim pugDfttis. — Tu cant&s, nos audimus. — In horto ambii- 
l&batas. — Tu ft p&trd vald3 ftmftiis. — ^V da vitapdramini, nos lau- 
dftmur. — Nihil est tibi cum Ces&rd. — Crfts vobisciim coenftbd. 
—Nos laudftbimur, vos vltup^rftbimioi. — ^NiMl vobis est cum bd- 
nis. — Hdri ambulftbatis.— ^H5die pugnftbitas. — Laudftb&mim. — 
Vuln^rftbimini. — ^Vficfttafl. — ^Vdcftmini. — Xmatto. — Amftminl. 
*— Cantftbfttis. — Vdcftbftmini. 

III. Translate into Latin. 

To-day ye were supping with us (125, II., b). — ^Ye lore U8» 
we love you. — ^Ye were singing, we were hearing. — ^Yo have 
nothing to do widi the king (129, II.). — ^Thou wast greaitly 
loved by Caesar. — ^Ye shall be praised by our nnster. — ^Ye shaU 
tM blamed by tJie good (62, 1., R.). — Ye are caBed by the mes- 
senger.— Thou fightest with thyself* (125, II., 6)— Ye shaU 
sup with us to-morrow. — Thou wilt fi^t to-morrow. — ^Thou 
wast loving. — Thou wast loved. — Thou wilt blame. — ^Thou 
wilt \>e blamed. — ^Ye are praising. — ^Ye are praised. — Thou 
woiuidest« — Thou art wounded. ; 



/■ 



LESSON iXIIL 

Pronouns^ Personal and PossessiveyContinued, — Verbs^ 
Second Person^ Second ConjugtUion, 
(133.) The followiBg are some of the endings for 
the second person, in verbs of t he 

* TScfim. ■ 



Digitized by 



Google 



I 



TSXB8. — 0SCOND PEBSOIC 



SECOND CONJUeATiON. 



6t 



Pros. 
Imp. 

Fut. 



mon* 
mon- 
mon- 



UNGm^AR SNDOrGt. 



Act. 

§b&8. 
ebi8. 



6ri8. 
eb€ris. 



Act. 

Stis. 
6bftt!i. 



IM. L 

[nl. y 

imlnll. H 

onlnL |[ 



VMM. 

(mini, 

dbftmlnll. 

SbUnlnL 



(134.) The Adjective-Personal (or Possessive) Pro- 
nouns of the Second Person are, toas, &, dm, thy; 
and vester, vestra,vestrum, t/our, 

G. tui, Bi,% of thy^ &c, 

N. vestdr, vesM, vestri&in, youTp 

G. vestri, vestraB, vestn« o/youTp 

(135.) EXBJtCISE. 

I. Vocabulary. 



(a) Derived from tui, 
(h) Derived from v e s t r i, 



Tkou art, e« {3d persoB sing. ind. 

pres. of esse). 
Ye are, estis (2d person pL oi dp.). 
/»«, $rtm (Ist impeiC do.). 
^««»e, ) causa. 

for the take €f, S eatiB& (abL). 
2\> &ar», disc6r«. 

II. Examples. 

\fl) N e is aa interrogative particle used in asliing questioM* 

It is annexed to the word to which it especially refers ; e* ^m 



Of eoniCimmg, dft (prep. aU.). 
To laugh, rtd£nS. 
To ftjoke, gavderS* 
Safetif, s&lus, (sSlflt) Is (£}. 
Leader, guide, dux, (due) Is (m.). 
Wiy, car (adr.). 
Because, that, qudd (copj.). 



(1) Do ^oti teach the boy ? 

(2) Do you teack the boy ? 

(3) Do you teach the &oy? 



T Ci n d pudrtim ddcds ? 
DOcesnft pudri&in? 
Pu^rumnd ddc^s ? 
In (1) t(i has the emphasis; in (2) ddcds; and in (3) 
pudrtim. 
(^) Ye are wamed,./>r ikt I Vestr» sftlfltls cau0i 
9ake of your (own) safety. \ mdnemXnl. 
Rule of Position. — C a u s ft, f(yr the sake of (die aU. of 
causft, a cause)^ is always placed after the genitive which 
depends on it. 
(c) I was yow leader. | Dux 6g6 vestftr di:ft,m. 

III. Translate into English. 

Vidftsn^ servum naefim? (136, IL, 2).— Tu» sftltitSs eansft . 
(135, n., h) m6n6ri8. — CQr ridstis 7— Vostra eftlutis caus& 
adndmXnl.— Gaude6 qu5d tu 6t pfttftr tuiis viletis (125, HL, ♦). 



Digitized by 



Googl^ 



60 



VEKBS. SECOND PERSON. 



— Vldeb&snd miHtds ? — Dd culpft tuft mOneb&ris.— Car ridebft- 
tls. — Hoetiiim adventtlm non tlmdbis. — Tusb s&lutilt causa mdn- 
ebdris. — Nos discdmiis, vos ddcebimiol. — Tlmetiand CaBS&rls 
adventiim? — ^Esn6 tu be&ttU ? — Calp& toft est (the fault is thine), 
^Pudri !d horto vdbisciim ambiil&bant. — ^M&gistdr 6gd vestdr 
eram (135, II., c). 

IV. Translate into Latin.* 

[The emphatic wordg are in italici.] 
Did you see your master ? — Do you fear the approach of 
CsBsar? — ^Are you happy? — ^You were warned (advised) for 
the sake of your own safety. — Are you and your father toell 7 
(125, III., ♦). — ^The fault was yours. — ^You shall see the ene- 
my, but (s6d) shaD not fear (them). — I am your friend.^—I was 
your friend. — You teach, but we learn. — ^You shall teach, but 
we shall learn. — ^Why do you not (non) fear the master ? — ^You 
were warned of (d e) your fault. — Do you see your slaves ?— 
Are yott Caesar ? — Why do you fear the master ? — ^You shall 
see great cities and many men. — We shall sup with you to-mor- 
row. — You shall be warned, for the sake of your own safety. — 
We rejoice that you and your daughter are well (125, III., *). 



LESSON XXIV. 
Verbs, Second Person, Third and Fourth Conjugations. 
(136.) The following are some of the endings of 
the second person in verbs of the 



THIRD CONJDOATION. 





8TXM. 


▲OTITB KNOIN08. 


PASSXVX XNDXN08. | 






SdSiof. 


Sd Plur. 


SdSinK. 


Sd Plur. 1 


Pres. 


reg- 


la. 


Itls. 


grta? 


ImM. 


Imper. 


reg- 


ebfig. 


Sbatts. 


€hSaU. 


ebamlhL 


Fut. 


reg- 


eg. 


§tl8. 


§ris. 





(137.) The following are some of the endings of 
the second person in verbs of the 

FOURTH CONJUGATION. 





STEM. 


ACnVB KNDIN08. 


PASSIVX SNDXN08. || 


Pres. 
Imp. 
Put 


aud- 
aad- 
and- 


SdSinf. 
IS." 

ieb&s. 
ies. 


2d Plor. 

itrs. 

iebatls. 
ictTs. 


2d 8iDg. 

Ills. 

iebari3. 

ieiis. 


2d Plor. 

iebamlhL 
i&DXhl. 







* 'When you, your, occur, translate them both in siag. and plur., fixr 
the sake of practice. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PES80NAL PEONOUN8. 61 

(138.) Observe, 

(a) That the pre«ent ending! of the 3d and 4th ooqfiigationf are ikBtgfy 
alike, the vowel (i) of the fourth being lonr ^). 

(b) That the imperfect and future endi^^ of nie fawrik ocK^liigatifln 
di£Per from those of the third by prefixing the letter i 

EXBBCISE. 

(139.) Vocabulary. 

Plant, plants, m. Whence^ ondd (t^^*)* 

To sow, to plant, sSrSr6. Long, longfi (adv.). 

To find, invSnire. BadXy, miOd. 

Orator, Orator, (Orfitdr) Is (m.). To punish, ^ubM. 

Voice, vox, (v6c) Is (£). 8o, tSm (adv.). 

To read, IggSrS. Bird, fivls, (ftv) Is (£) 

(140.) Translate into English. 

3d Conjugation, — Cur ndn scribls. — ^Arbdrds gt fdaotfta 86r^ 
l>&ti[8.~Hd^d &d CaBS&rdm imtteils.--Cur t&m mW scriUs ?— 
Ad castT^ rdducdmini. — Ldgis-n6 Clc^roDls dpdr& ? — ScriblB- 
nd dpistdUUn &d Caes&r6m? 4th Conjugation. — ^Undd vdms? 
— Cfir t&m loDge donms ? — M&gistrilin bdniiin invdnids. — ^Audis- 
*n6 m&gistri vocdm? — Cor ndn vdnidtis? — ^A. CsBS&rd audMs. 
—A m&gistro puniemlni. — Orftt5r6in audietfs. — In hortd dor* 
mieb&tls. — Canttim &Tium auditls. ^ 

(141.) Translate into Latin. [Refer to ISdyll.} 
Zd Conjugation. — Are you writing a letter? — ^Thou wast 
planting a tree to-day. — Were (yon) reading the works of Cicero ? 
—Why do you read so badly ? — ^Are you writing a letter to the 
messenger? — ^Thou wilt read Caesar to-day. — Thou art sent 
to the camp. — Thou wilt be led by the ambassadors. 4th Con" 
jugation. — ^Why do you not come ?-— Ye shall hear the voice of 
Caesar. — Thou wilt sleep in the camp.— Ye shall be heard by 
the master. — Thou shalt be punished. — ^Ye are heard. — Thou 
shalt hear the singing of the birds. 



LESSON XXV. 
Pronouns. — Substantive-Personal and Adjective-Pei^ 
sonal, Third Person. 
(142.) The Substantive Pronoun of the third per- 
son is thus declined : 

F 



Digitized by 



Google 



PERSONAL nU>VOI7N.^-TBIl]> PERSON. 



Phv. 



henelf, it$eif. 






ihtm'%M, to tkem^ 



■e, tkem$dve$. 



ice 
m6, by ikem- 
$cm8,icc. 



(143.) The Adjectif>e Pronoun of the third person 
is declined like an adjective of the first class : thus, 
Derived from 8 ui, 1 N. siius, &, iim, his, hera, its. Us own. 
I G. atii, », i, of his, hers, Us^ &c 

Rem. Obsenre ^ftt stti is not a regtilar proaoim of tfae fliird penciiv 
like the English ke^ tketU^hot reflexive ; e. ^^ poSr sd Iwoit, ^ 
^ praiae$ Umelf. It tiierefore has no nam, case. [The nom. 
proiKiaDS he, eke, ft, are not often expressed in Latin ; hot when 
they mu9t be, a demonsUrtitive proooRB, generally hie, is, or ille, is 
employed.] 

EXERCISE. 

(144.) Vocabulary. 



Hand, mSnQs, us (f.) (11^ 2). 
To love (tDtih esteem), diKg-€r8. 
To live, viv.€i*. 
To contend, ixmteaA-4t^ 
Tq defend, dehwS^m. 
To bum, incelid-€r6. 
Totonsman, oppld&niis, S, uol 
A Scqnanian, SAqcUbms, L 

(145.) Examples. 

{a) Odcsar caUs Divitiacus 

to himself, 
(i) The girl writes <fe« letr 

ter fcith her mon hand. 



Among, intdr (prep.). 
Com, friimentdm, L 
From (prep.) t or ib.f 
A legion, 16gid, (Ugito) li (£). 
TV ruUt eommmnd, inip^Hr-irS (witii 
dat of parson). 



C8M&r DiTiliAeiim ftd •« ¥«eil. 

PueM ^i8t(»&m mftQft snft 
•erflblt. 



(JZcMft. fie is often donUei, for th^ sike of emphasis.] 



(e) Jfen aUo(tys love them- 
selves. 

(d) The good live not for 
themselves, hut for all. 



Hdoainds sempdr s^sd d!fi« 
gont, 

vivunt. 



(146.) Translate into English. 

Hostes int^r sg coiatendtint. — Op{Adim sd suftqud &b hostit- 
biis defendebant.^ — ^<^lv^tu oppld& Bail omniA incendixnt. — C«- 
s&r tres ISgidnes secum h&b^t. — Consul leg&tos &b s6 ^mitt^t. 
— S&piens omnifi, 8u&* sSciim port&t. — ^Helvfitii 6t S^qu&ni ob- 

* Omnift suS = all hit {property) ; the noun being understood. 

t Ais used befbi* consonants only ; &b before either Towels oroonsonaats. - 



Digitized by 



Google 



]>BMON8TBATiyE PBONOITNS. 



68 



aides intSr s^sd d&bant. — ^Bdm sdsd nOn ^gnnt. — HeMtSl 
frumentum omnd* sdcum portabant. — ^Imprdbi silA sempdr Ti- 
▼unt — Sftpieos sib! semper impdr&t (147). 
(147.) JRule of Syntax. — The Dative ig used witb lome 
verbs signifyiDg to command^ to nde^ to obey. 

(148.) Translate into Latin. 

Good men do not praise themselves. — ^The tawnsmen were 
fightbig with each other (inter s e). — The wise man always 
carries aU his (property) with him. — ^Bad men always love them- 
selves. — The general has three legions with him. — The towns- 
men wiH cany aU their com with them. — ^Bad men do not rule 
themselves (147). — The ^doans wiH defend themsekes and 
theur (property) from the s<MerB. — CsMar was dismissing the 
messenger from Mms^ — ^The Germans will bum their villages. 



LESSON XXVI. 
Demonstrative Pronouns. 
(149.) The Demonstrative Pronoims are so called 
because they are used to point out an object ; e. g.^ 
this^ tliatj thesCf those. \ * 

(150.) U.ihat (often used' for he, she^ it (14a»R.), 
is thus declined; also id6m, the very same, com- 
pounded of is and dem. 



=n 


Sinpilar. 


PIuraL 


Singukr. 


Plana. IJ 


N. 


is, 58, Id. 


ii,6ffl,65. 


idem, eSdSm, 
Idem. 


ildSm, eiBdem, E 
eftdSm. 


a. 


Sjite. 


eorilm, eftnun, 
eoriixn. 


ejusdSm. 


ednmdSm, cA- 
nmdem, ed- 
nmd&B. 


D. 


Si. 


iis, or els. 


eidem. 


iisdSm. 


Ace. 


ISQm, Sfinii Td> 


e5s, eas, ei. 


dmdem, eim- 
dem,!dem.. 


e«sdem, efts- 
d£m,«id£m.| 


Q Abl 


eo, eft, efi. 


iis, or eis. 


eddfim, e&d^ 
eadSm. 


iisdem. | 



(151.) The following forms of the verb esse, to 6e, 
ftiust now be learned. 

* T rtmvnttlm oam» s all their wm. 



Digitized by 



Google 



64 



DEHONBTRATITE PRONOONB. 



TKMSES. 


8INOULAB. H 


Present 

Imperfect 

Future. 


sOm, / am. 
Srioi, wa9. 
6r6, shall or will be. 


Sd. 

es, thou art. 

Srfts. 

eris. 


Sd. 

estf he, $he, ^cCfis. 

6r5t 

grit 




PLUKAI,. II 


Present 

Imperfect 

Future. 


silmils, toe are. 
Srftmiis, were. 
Siimiis. 


Sd. 

estfs, ye are. 

Sritifs. 

Siltis. 


3d. 

sunt, they are. 

erant 

Srunt 



EXERCISE. 



(152.) Vocabulary. 

To refrain, tempgrai«. 

Merdumt, mercfttdr, (mercfttdr) Is 

(m.). 
Colour, cmr, (cSldr) Is (m.). 
A^ atqu« (coiy.). 
Plato, Plfito, (Platdn) is. 

(153.) Examples. 

(a) T^6 Helvetians contend 

with the Germans^ and 

keep them off from their 

hoimdaries. 
(h) mhe father calls hiB{otDn) 

sM to hiin{self)» 
{cwFhe father calls "boR 
daughter and her son to 

him(«ey). 

^^ Observe csrefoHy, that if his, hers, its, refers to the principal sub- 
ject of the sentence, it is expressed by the possessive (sntts, S, iim); but 
if not by the genitive (ejils) of the demonstrative (Is, eS, !d). 

(154.) Translate into English. 

(1) Is, e&, Id, used for he, she, it (personal). 

li ftb injuri& temp^pnt. — Is est Xn proviiici& tuft. — Merc&- 
tdrSs &d eos sspd vdniunt. — ^A.b lis mi3lt& (82, I., R.) posdmtis^ 
— BelgaB ciim ^dms contendunt, eosqtie suis fioIbtU (153, a) 
prdhlbent. 

(2) I s, used as demonstrative, this, (hat ; also,^ e mAs the same 



Elegant, eiSgans, (elegant) Is. 
Gladly, vnUingly, UbentSr (adv.). 
Way, journey, It6r, (Ittn&r) Is (n.). 
Kingdom, regniim, L 
Flower, fl6s, (flOr) Is (m.). 
Writer, script&r, (scriptGr) b (m.) 
Never, mmquim (adv.). 



Helvdtii ciim Germ&ms con- 
tenduBt; edsqtie suis finl- 
btLs prdhibent.* 

Pfttdr filiiim sutim ftd sd yd- 

cftt. 
P&tdr fili&m sMm 6t fOiiim 

ejiis &d sd vdc&t. 



* Svisfimbus is in the ablative. AH verbs oi separating, depriving, See 
may take a noun in the ablative, with die direct object in the accusative^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



DEMONBTBATIY E PRONOUNS; 



65 



In ed ItihidrS Cass&r Crasstim vldftt. — ^Dtiinndrix, eO temp6r6 
(118, II., c) regnum tfinebftt,— Non semper idim floilbiis (125. 
II., a) est c616r. — ^In ed, provinciil sunt quattudr l^gidnds. 

(3) Distinction between 3ju8 and sutis, &, um. 

Cicdr6 est script5i%l&rus ; Sjas libros fibentdr l^^mtiB. — 
Caes&r &d sd Dumndrigdm atqfie filium ^Hs vdc&bit. — Pl&tft est 
scriptdr elSgans ; Ejus 5p^r& fibentdr Idgfi. 

Dux 6gd vest^ dr&m.— Ss-nd tu Sdcr&tSs ?— Esdsnd be&ti ?. 
— Caes&r dnx vestSr 6r&t. 

(155.) Translate into Latin. 

They were walking in the garden yesterday. — The king 
will give them (dat., 64) rewards. — They are in Gaul. — Mer- 
chants never come to them. — ^We were demanding rewards of 
(ab) diem. — In that province Caesar finds many deserters. — In 
that province there are three legions. — ^At that time (abl.*, 118, 
II., c) Caesar was leading the army .7— Horses (125, II., a) hava 
not always the same colour. — Caesar caUs Divitiacus and his 
brothers to him (self). — Caesar is an elegant writer ; we read his 
works with pleasure. — I am your leader. — ^You shall be our 
leader. — Caesar was our leader. — The iSduans contend with 
the Helvetians, and keep them oflf their boundaries. 



LESSON XXVII. 

Demonstrative Pronouns^ continued. 

(156.) The Demonstrative hie, hsec, hoc, this^ 

points out an object which is present to the speaker^ 

and is called demonstrative of the^r*^ person ; e. g.f 

this book (of miTie), hie liber. 





Nom. 


Oen. 


Dat 


Ace. 


AbL 1 


Sing. 
Phir. 


hic,b»c,hdc. 

hI,h{B,h8BC. 


hdrOm. 


hmc. 
his. 


hoc. 

ho., his, 

hsec. 


h6c h«ch6c 
his. 



JSem, Hie is used also (as was stated 143, R.) for he, she, it ; e. g., hie 
didt, he (this man) tpeaks. 

(157.) Ist^vistft, istfid, this, that, pointe out an 

Digitized by dOOQ IC 



\ 



M 



OKMOVSTILATmB FBOVOUWl. 



object which is present to the person spoken to^ and is 
called the demonstrative of the second person ; e. g.^ 
that hook {ofyours)^ istfi liber. 





Nom. 


0«ii. 


Pat. 


IF K^ 


▲u. ll 


Sing. 
Plur. 


istiid. 


iitiOo. 
iitoriim, irihn, 




iBtOd. 





JBem. IstS is often used to denote comtempt; e. ^., istS-ne did[tf 
Does ihatfdlovo speak 7 

(158.) 1116, ill&, illfld, points out an object re- 
mote from the speaker (f^haty the former ^ opposed to 
hie), and is called the demonstrative of the third per- 
son. . It is used often for the personal prcmoun ke^ shCf 
U (148, R.). 

1^* It IS declined throughout like istd, istft, istiid. 

JUin. In the genitiyes, istins, illins, ipsluo, Hie pepuJlI is long, 
oontraiy to the general rule (34, 1) that a vowel befiire another U 
short 

(159.) Ipse, ipsa, ipsum, is properly an adjunct 
iive pronoun, as it is added to other pronouns ; e. g.^ 

I (and not another) jmme mysdf. I fig5 me ipsS laadA. 
IpraUe mysdf (and not anodier). | figtt m§ ip siim landA. 

BXBftOISS* 

(160.) Vocabulary. 



Opinion^ sententiS, so. 
To please, plScSrS. 
To di$plca$e, dispKcirS. 
Soul, SnimOs, L 
Proverb, prOverhtttm, L 
Lazy, ignavQs, 8, tba. 

Season, rfitid, (rStiSn) Is if.)* 



Anknal, SnXmmi (iUi^^nftl) U (neol.). 
Pleasing, agreeahUf grfitils, i, tUn. 
Bau, torplm « (104)^ 
Friend, amfeiis, L 
To doos^, prsBdlc&re. 
To, obey, parir« (witii dat; 147). 
Old, yetvs, (vfitSr) is (108, XL, fl). 
<S^(7ai^, carmSa, (cannlz^ is (^). 
Precept, pnecepttLm, L 



(161.) Examples. 

(a) This opinion plecues me, I Hsbc sententift mi hi pl&cdt 
th«t di$please$ (me), | ill& dis^c6t 



Digitized by 



Google 



DEHdHiTKATIVE FI01I0UNB. 67 

RuU ef Syntax, — ^Veibs of pUeuing, oheymg, penuadmgf 
commanding, fawmring, and the reverteftak^ the Dative 



Istd tails ftmictlfl ibc el&rfts 

est. 
Ajumtis ipsd 89 m5ydt 



Turp6 est dd seipsd prss- 
d!c&r«. 



(6) That friend of yours w 
on iUustrioue man. 

(c) T^ tfouZ itself moves it- 
self. 

(<Q Jit is hose to boast ofone^s 

Rule of Syntax, — The infinitive is used as the suliject of 
a verb, and is then regarded as a noun in the neuter gen- 
der; e. g.y praedicard (to boast), in (d), is nom. to es^ 
and turp6 {base) agrees with it in the neuter. 

(162.) Translate into English. 

(a) Hi pudri m&gistro pSrent. — Hst litt$r» valdd md ddlec- 
taiit.^ — CIcdrtnk fibif yaldd wSbl plftcent : eos fibent^r Idgft.^ 
H6o beMm grftvfi est — ^Hic pu^r bdnus est, illd Ign&Tiis. 

(6) l8t& tuH f ilift pulchk est.— Ist^d tutim carmdn mih! (106, 
n., c) grftt^m est. — Praeclfiri, sunt ist& tu& praeceptiL — V6ti&s 
iUftd prdveiiniim wSlA pl&cdt. 

4e) Omni ftaKmU s^psam dlfi^t.— Imp6rftt5r ipsd mifitibiUi 
(147) impdr&t. — £g5 mA ipsd nOn famdftb&m. — TfL teipsilm laud^ 
&bl8. — S&piens sib! ipsi impdriit. 

{d) Jucundiim est &mfiid. 

(168.) Translate into Latin- 

(a) That iUustnous precept was-pleasing-to (placdb&t) Cato. 
^-That brave general will command the soldiers. — The soldiers 
willingly obey this brave general. — ^This precept pleases me, 
that displeases (me). — ^The worius of Csesar please me very 
much ; I read them gladly (libentdr). 

{b) That horse of yours is a beautiful animal. — ^I keep in 
memory (mdm^ria teneft) that excellent precept of yours.—* 
Those songs of yours are pleasing (grftt&) to me. — ^That letter 
of yours was defi^ting me very much. 

(c) The soul rules itself (161, c) by reason (riUianfi, 66, a).— 
The poet himself praises himself (169). — Caesar himself will 
command the legions (161, c).— The soldiers willingly (llbantdr) 



Digitized by 



Google 



RELATIVE PRONOUN. 



obey Caraar himself. — ^Do you (135, 11.; 1) praise joimelf ? — 
Wise men themselves always rule themselves (147). 

(d) It is pleasant to love (one's) friends. — It is base to boast 
of (one's) friends. — It is agreeable to please (one's) father. 



LESSON XXVIII. 
(164.) The Relative Pronoun (whOf which)^ qui, 
q u sBy q u 5 d, is thus declined : 





Nom. 


Geo. 


Dat 


Ace 


AbL . 


Sing. 
Plur. 


qui, quae, 
quiB. 


ciijtlB. 

qOiOFuXIl* qpftiTiTifi 

qadrom. 


cm. 
qnn>&i. 


quSm, qoim, 

qu6cL 
qadf, qnifl^qiue. 


qud, qua, qud. 
qoibiii. 



Rem. dnicunqud, ^uecnnque, quodcunqud {vhotoeoer, vkid^ 
soever, whatsoever) u declined like qui, quae, qu5d: cnnqnfi be- 
ing simply annexed to the different cases* 

(165.) The ReUUive commonly refers to some preceding 
word, which is therefore called the antecedent ; e, g., The f?um, 
who lives well, is happy. Here man is the antecedent ; who, 
the relative. The sentence in which the relative occurs is call- 
ed the relative sentence ; the other the principal or antecedent 
sentence ; e. g, (above), the man is happy, is the piincqnl sen- 
tence : who lives weU, the relative sentence. 

EXEB 

(166.) Vocabulary. 

Poor, iBgens, (»gent) Is (108). 

Enottgh^ sStifs (adv.). 

Nearest to, neighbours to, prozimtis, 

S, ilm. 
To dwell, inc51Sr6 {intrans.). 
To inhabit, incoldrS {trans). 
Blood, sanguis, (sangulh) Is (m.). 
Also, gtl&m (conj.). 
Heart, cor, (cord) Is (n.). 
To despise, contemners. 
Magnanimous, magnSnbntts, S, tim. 
Honest, honourable, honestiis, fi, ilm. 



(167.) Examples, 
(a) The boy, who reads, 
learns. 



CISE. 

Fountain, fons, (fimt) Is (m.). 

Water, SqnS, 8B. 

Winter-Quarters, MbemX, Oriim (pL). 

To winter, hidmftrfi. 

Arethusa, Ardthusa, s. 

To return, restore, reddSre. 

Virtue, virtus, (virtut) Is (£). 

To repel, prdpulsarS. 

T\) vaunt, ostentarS. 

Fame, ftmfi, ». 

To do, to make, f ftcSx& 

One, ta&M, S, iim. 

Pu^r, quild^t, disdt. 



Digitized by 



Google 



RELATIVE FEONOUN. 09 



The prU who reads, learns, 
(b) The boy, whom toe see, 

is handsome. 
The girl, whom toe see, is 

handsome* 



Puell&, qu8B l^glt, discit 
Pudr, qu6m lifdemils, est 

pulchSr. 
Puell&, quUm videmiis, est 

pukhrlU 

Ride of Syntax. — The Relative Pronoun mnst agree with 
its antecedent in gender and number (as in (a) ), but its 
ease is fixed by the construction of the relative sentence 
{e. g., in (a) qui is nomin. to legit: in (b) qudm is 
ace., governed by vlddmiis). 
(c) Jwhotmte. |Eg5, qui s crib 6. 

Wewhoimrite. |No8, qui scribimiis. 

Ride of Syntax. — ^The verb in the relative sentence agrees 
with the relative in number, but takes the person of the 
antecedent. 

' (1) ^gens est Is, qui nOn 
s&tits h&b«t. 

(2) Is aegens est, qui nOn 
s&tits h&bdt. 

(3) Qui non s&tifs h&bdt, is 
aegens est. 

(4) Qui ndn s&tifs h&bdt, 
aegens est. 

Rule of Position. — ^The relative generally stands at the be- 
ginning of its. sentence, and (1) as near to its antecedent 
as possible. (2) Is and qui are made emphatic when 
Is begins the principal sentence and qui the relative 
sentence ; (3) and still more emphatic when the relative 
sentence stands first. (4) The antecedent is often 
omitted entirety. 

(168.) Translate into English. 

(a) Proxinfl sunt Germ&ms, qui trans Rhdntim incdlunt.— 
Omnd &nim&l, q u 6 d sangulndm h&bdt, h&bdt dti&m cdr. — Csb- 
s&r, trSs Idgiones, q u as In prdvinciS, hiSmabant, ex lubemis edG- 
d[t — Omni& (82, I., R.) quse pulchr& simt, honestd, sunt. 

(b) Felix est rex, q u d m omnds civSs &mant. — In hftc insfi* 
Ift est fons &quie dulcis, cui nom^n est Ar3thu8& (125, II., a). 



(€[) He is poor who has not 
enough. 



Digitized by 



Google 



70 INTXEAOOAnVE PEOVOUNS. 

— AridTistiis obaidds reddit, quds hibdt ib JE^kds.— <}a]li» 
sunt partes trds, qn&riim Qn&m Bdg» inoftfamt. 

(d) (1) Be&ti sunt ii, qudr^m Tit& Yirtutd (abL, b5^ a) rdg^- 
tftr. — (2) 1 8 fbrtis est, qui injftryUn prOpaliiC — (3) Qui se 
ostent&t, Is stoltiU dldttir {is caUed a fool), — (4) Qui famftm 
bdniiB oontenu^ virtutdm cootoBmiL — ^Fortls et magB&oimils 
•St, nOn qui Hl^t, sdd qui propuls&t ii^&ii&in. 

(169.) Translate iiUo Latin. 

{a) The songs which w« hear are pleMaii|: (grata) to us 
(106, II., c). — ^The king who rules v^tlj is hi^ijfi — ^M animals 
which have Uood hare also hearts. — Cassar kiads across the 
Rhine the five legions which were wintering in th^r prorince. 

(b) Hi^py is the teacher whom all Qiis) scholars love. — ^In 
ihht (eft) island (there) is a city whose name is (to which the 
name is*^ 125, II., a) Syracuse (Syr&c&8»). — ^In this (hac) 
city there is a fountain whose name is Arethusa. — Of Britain 
(there) are three parts, of which (gen.) the Eng^sh inhabit 
one. 

(d) (1) Happy is he whose Ufe is ruled by the precepts of 
virtue. — ^He is wise who dilig^tly serves (cdllt) the gods. — 
(2) They are brave who repel an injury. — (3) They who vaunt 
themselves are called fools. — (4) Who repels an injury, ig 
brave and magnanimous. 



LESSON XXIX. 
Interrogative Pronoun. 

(170.) The Interrogative Pronoun is precisely lik<# 
the Relative in form, excepting that for the nom., sing.* 
and masc, it has quis, and for the nom. and ace, neut.f 
quid; thus, qui s, qusB, quid. 

(171.) Quisnftm, quaehftm, quidn&m, express amore 
emphatic interrogation than the simple qui s, quae, quid, the 
syllable nam answering to our English ** pray ;'* e. ^., 

Pray, what are you doing ? \ Q u i d n & m &gis ? 

* S u n t, ploral, becanie S 7 r ft c 4 s » is phorsL 



Digitized by 



Google 



INnEBO«ATITE FBCHVOONS. 



71 



(172.) In asking questions, the different easM of qttit can be 
naed as substantives or as acyectives, ezceptiiig tkiat 

(1) In the nom. sing, masc., quis is used as a substantive. 
In the nom. sing, masc., qui is used as an adjective. 

(2) In the nom. and accus., neut., quid is used as a sub* 

stantive. 
In the nom. and aocus., neut., quod is used as an ad- 
jective. 



(1) 



(2) 



Quis v«nit? 
Qui hdmftvdidt? 
Quis homo est? 
Quid tiUnds? 
Qudd pdriciiKhntlmfis? 



Whooomee? 

Whatman conus? 

Who is the man ? 

What do ycufiar 1 

What danger do you 
Star? 

(173.) The answer yes is given by repeating the verb wbkh 
asks the question ; no, by repeating the verb with n 6 n. V 6 r ft 
{ctrtaifdy)^ added to the verb in an affirmative answer, gives it 
more emphasis \ e. g.^ 



Arc you writing 7 

I am writing*, 

Are you reading 7 

lam not reading. 

Will you do what I ask 7 

IwUl certainly do (it). 



Scnfals-nd? 
Scribft. 
Legis-n6? 
Non Ugft. 
F&cids-n6 qua* rftgftl 
F&ciftm vdrft. 



8XBR0I8B. 



(174.) Vocabulary. 

NeWfi^yuM, S, ton. 

NewB, novf (neat gen. of n5yus, used 

witli a nent adj. or pionoan). 
NSm, iwterrogatioe pctrtide, used 

when no ii expected as the an- 

■wer. 
To do, Sg6r6. 
To be among, IntereiiS (Inter + 

etMOt bat pM iiUemtl^itkat 

istkeHfimtneef 



Between, among, intSr (prep., aoo.). 

Beast, brute, bestiS, n. 

An evil, miltUn, I. 

WiOunO, sine (prep., abl.). 

Figure, f%urS, 8b. 

Mortalt moitAlis, 6. 

Certainljf, vSrd (afBrmatiTe parti 

ere). 
To oaimf,y^^aMb* 
Immortal, ixunort^,! A. 



• Hnc, qnn, ploral, shoold be translated this, what, singular, 
t Observe the force of in prefixed to adiJectivas. MorttOls = mortaig 
bk + moctalis = immortalis, immortaL 



Digitized by 



Google 



72 INDEFINITE FftONOUNB. 



(176.) Examples, 
(a) What is (he news ? 

{b) Is there anything new ? 

(There u not, ii there t) 
(c) Why do you laugh ? 



Quid est nfivi? (=What 
is there of new?) 

Nilm est quidn&m ndvi? 
(Nam expects tiie aofwer no.) 

Quidrides? 

(176.) Translate into English. 

Quls DOS vdc&t?— Cuj^ hic Kbdr est?— Qudm vldes? — 
Qi:dd &^. — Quid interest intdr hdmindm dt besti&m ? — Qu&m 
dOmiim invfimes An6 mftlXs ? — Quid 16g^ ? — ^&inst61&m. — Qua 
&micita& est intdr imprdbos ? — Niim CsBS&rdm times ? — ^Ndn til- 
med.— Qua in urbd (125, IV., N., t) siimils ?— Qids hdm5 
est? — ^£g5 Slim CsDs&r. — NtUn toimils figur&m h&bdt? — Sunt 
n6 hdminds mortftlds ? — Sunt vdrft. — Qi:dd times ? C8B8&r6m 
▼ebis. 

(177.) Translate into Latin. 

Who calls me ? — ^Whose are those books ? — What men do 
you see ? — ^What are you writing ? — ^A letter. — ^What book are 
you reading ? — What is the difference between the good and 
the wicked ? — ^Who is the soldier ? — ^What is the difference be- 
tween wolves and dogs ? — ^Do you not fear the enemy ? — ^I do 
not fear (them.) — ^What man will you find without a faidt (cul- 
pa) ? — ^In what town are we ? — ^Whose house is this ? — ^What 
city will you find without eyils? — What is the difiference 
between men and beasts ? — ^What do you fear ? You are car- 
rying the king. — ^Are men immortal (niim) ? — ^They are not. 



LESSON XXX. 
Indefinite Pronouns. 
(178.) The Indefinite Pronouns denote an object in 
a general way, without reference to a particular indi- 
vidual ; e. g.^ any one, some one^ &c. They are, 

1. duidfim, a certain one, &c^ plural, some* 



Digitized 



by Google 



INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 



78 



3. au i s qu «m , any, any one («. g^ when it ia denied that there are any). 
[Neut quic qufim (subst) ; quod quftm (adj.). This pronoun ia uaed 

chiefly in negative sentences.] 

4. du i 8 p i & m , somebody, some (neut). 

5. All qui B , some one, something (neut.); any (adj.). 

6. CluiBqud,eac^unusquisqu6,eacA one (stronger than quit qufi). 

7. Ecquis ? used interrogatively, (does) any one? anything? 

I^ Observe carefully that each of the above takes quid in 
neuter nom., and ace, when used substantively; and qudd 
when used adjectively. 



EXEBCISE. 

(179.) Vocabulary. 

'The tenth, ddcunns, ft, tun. 

A javelin, tr&gdlft, 89. 

To see, to notice, conspIcdrS. 

JudgmeiU, discretion, consilium, i. 

Eternity, aetemitas, (89temitat) is (£). 

Maker, artificer, f&bdr, fftbri (m.). 

Fifth, quintus, ft, dm. 

Youth, jnventus, (Juventut) fa (£). 

Fortune, fortunfi, sb. 

Forever, in SBtemum. 

Belong, pertindrd. 

(180.) Exampks. 
(a) Something new. 
JSach one of tis, 
A certain thing new. 
Some dignity. 



Art, are, (art) Is (£). 

Form, formft, sb. 

To discover, inv6nnr6. 

For, dtfinim, conj. (alwaya atandi 

first in its clause). 
Cultivation, hum<inity, hflm&Dltafl» 

a^ (f.). 
CovMnon, communis, ia, h. 
Bond, vineiilttm, i. 
Dignity, dignitAs, (dignitat) & (£). 
Body, corpfis, (corpte) is (n.). 



Aliquidndvi. 
UnusquisquS nostrtlm. 
Quiddftm ndvi. 
Xllquid dignit&tis. 
Ride of Syntax, — The indefinite pronouns may be used 
partitiv^ly, and then govern the genitive. 



{b) A certain one of the sol- 
diers. 
Some of the soldiers. 



Quid&m {sing.) ex milltt* 

biis. 
Quid&m {plur.) ex milltl- 

biis. 

Rem. The ablat with ex is used instead of the genitive, especially 
with quidftm. 

(181.) Translate into English. 

Qui dam ex miHtlbiis d^ma Id^dnls vdnieb&t. — Quinto diA 
(118, II., c) trftgiil& a qu6dftm miKtft conspicitiir.— yirl, in 
qiflbds ft liquid consilii (180, a) est, magn&i^iml sunt.— Temptla 

G 



Digitized 



by Google 



74 eOUlBLATIVB PROHOUNS. 

est para qnmd&m seternlt&ds. — Culvls (125, II., a) Anlmfifi 
corptU est. — QuIHbdt est fftbdr fort&DSB suae. — ^Unicuiqufi* 
(125, II., a) nostriim (180, 120) est Mmtis immort&Es. — 
Quisqud qostriim (180) In eternum vivdt,-p— Ai^Uni^ non h&b6t 
fbrm&m ftliquftm, ndc figurlUnv«^JLllquid ndvi invtoiSs. — 
£tdidm onmM art^ qu» ad htkm&idtfttdm pmiSnent, h&bent 
q u o d d & m commft n6 yinctUiim. 

(182.) Translate into Latin, 

[The proDoaiui of the lesson are italicized in the exercise.] 
Some of the soldiera of the fifth legion are wounded (pres.).-*- 
On the fifth day (118, II., c) the enemy is noticed by a certain 
soldier of the tenth legion. — ^Men, in whom there is some dignity 
(180), are magnanimons.-— To each man (= of men) ther^ in 
a soul and a hody.f^I will giye the book to any^one-yov^pUase 
of the scholars. Eaek one of us shall live foreyer. — ^You wiS 
discoYer a certain thing new.-^Some of the soldiers are in the 
city. — ^For all the arts which belong to cultivation have a certain 
common bond,*^ Youth is a certain part of life* — ^Is not (estna) 
any man-you-pUase the maker of his own fortune ?— 'Haa the 
soul {u$€ nam) am^ §oirm or figure 1 



LESSON XXXI. 
Correlative Pronouns. 
(183.) Correlative Pronouns are such as an^ti^er to 
each other ; c. g.^ how great ? so great. How many f 
so mani/f &c. 

[This correlation is often expressed in English by adverbs or ooi\)ano- 
tioDS: nu^tLmtanmt as is the gfneral to an tlie troops, Aa.} 
(184.) The Correlative Pronouns are 




teverl 



qaaUsciinqad, of whatever 

kind. 
qoantasonnqa*, komever 

great, 
SHquantiis, eomewhat great. 
*il£qiidt, «om«. 
*qnotquttty however many. 



* ^nns and qnisqnd are both dedined in ftnnflqaisqai^. dn&s 
has |Ren. Anifls, dot. flnL 



Digitized by 



Google 



CORRELATIVE PRONOUIVB. 



75 



Sem.1. an&lisf ef tokathindt qvantflgf hm graOtt qn6tf 

M^no many f are also naed interrogatively. 
2. Those xnaiked thus {*) are indeclinable ; the rest are declined lika 

acyectiref. 



EXERCISE. 

(185.) Vocabulary. 

Where, «bl (adv.). 

Toil, opSrft, ». 

Pleasure, volaptis, (v5IapC&t)Is (£) 

RtuHMTOy praniiChsQy I. 

6o2e2, aTVom, L 

Money, pdounii, iqt. 



i^<M(n <im6r, (tilmAr) U (nt). 

Or, v6l (coi\j.). 

Advantages, bonX (nent adj.). 

7\9 <{^!^ pnBbAr0. 

To eovet, eaq^eUM. [b (£). 

MtrtOUy, UMraliku, (BUMHtat) 



(186.) Exatfyaks. 
(a) So much toil (= of toil). 
How much pleasure f (*=of 

pleasure 7) 
No reward (= nothing ofre- 

warc^. 
Much gold {=^ of gold). 



Tantdm Operas. 
Quantiim Tdlupt&tlst 

Nihil prasmii. 

Mnltiim auri. (But, much 
money = meLgn& pecQnift» 
not multi&m pecAoisB.) 

AHquantiim ftgri. 



A pretty large piece of 
ground. 

Rule of Syntax.-'The neuters, tantiim, quantiim, 
&liqnant^m; also, multi&m, nihil, qnli, ftliquld, 
and others, are nsed as neuter nouns, and followed by the 
genitire (Synt., 695, 6., R.). 



Obs, Tanttlm, 



anantdm in nent, witii genitive = «o 
'.ch, how many ; bat in ntiaac. and feuL, agre 



ffttfM, to 



many, how muen., iww man,y ; but in maac. and fern- agreeing with 
the noon, so great, how great; e, g,, how many booisf qnantiim 
llbr6rikm; so great fear, tantjia unOr, 



(b) As is the master, so are the 
scholars. 



Qa&lis est mftgisti^r, t&Us 
sunt discipfifi ; or (with est 
and sunt omitted), qnAlls 
mftgistdr, t&lds disdpiiB. 

(187.) Translate into English. 

Quftles sunt dtic^s, t&lds sunt miHt^s. — ^Fort&ns b5n& (82, 
II.), quantftcunqud sunt, incert& sunt. — ^Tantus tlmdr omndm ex- 
erdtdm occupab&t. — ^tJbl tant&m virtat^m invdnies? — Quan- 
tum Tdlupt&tls virtQs prsebdt ! — ^Fratri est (125, II., a) &Kquan- 



Digitized 



by Google 



76 CORRELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

ttim pdcunise. — ^Virtus nihil prsemii t61 pecuniae expdtlt. — ^P&t6r 
mihi magn&m p^cuni&m d&btt. — Quantum (186, Obs,) fibroriiin 
h&bSs ? — Qu6t homines, tdt sententitaB. 

(188.) Translate into Latin. 

As are the genei'als, so are the soldiers. — ^As is the king, so 
are the leaders. — ^As are the masters (heri), so are the slaves. 
— ^As are the fathers, so are the children. — So great an army 
is coming. — ^The advantages of the body, however great they 
may be (sunt), are imcertain. — ^Where will you find so great 
tiberality ? — ^How many (186, Ohs,) rewards does virtue afford ? 
— Good (men) covet no (186, a) reward. — ^Will your father 
give (135, II.) you much money? — ^Has your brother much 
gold ? — ^As are the chiefs, so are the citizens. — My father has 
(125, II., a) a pretty large piece of ground. 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 16. 



NUMERALS. (XXXII.— XXXIII.) 

• ^ 

LESSON XXXII. 
Numerals. — Partial Tabk. 
(189.) Numerals are divided into the four classes 
following, of which the first three are adjectives^ the 
fourth, adverbs. 



1 ^ 


CAKDINAI.. 


ORDINAL. 


DiSTRIBimTX. 


ADVKRBIAIm 






One «pi«c«, one bjr 






One, two, ftc 


Fint, tacood, ftc 


one, one at n time, 


Once, twice. Ac 


1 I- 


talis, ft, tbn. 


piimfis, ft, ihn. 


singiili, », ft. 


8«meL 


1 II- 


duo, n, 6. 


86ciiiidiiB,ft,ain. 


bini, SB, ft. 


Ml. 


1 ™- 


tres, 68, tria. 


tertitis, ft, dm. 


temi, », ft. 


t6r. 


1 ^' 


qaatta6r. 


qaartds, ft, iim. 


qafttenu, », ft. 


qaater. 


1 v* 


quinque. 


qointos, ft, am. 


qoini, se, ft. 


quinqoief. 


VI. 


8§X. 


sextus, ft, am. 


sgni, SB, ft. 


sexies. 


vn. 


s^ptdm. 


•eptiands,ft,iim. 


septeiii,»,i. 


septite. 


vm. 


octd. 


oct&vofl, ft, um. 


octoni, », ft. 


octieg. 


rx. 


ndvdm. 


nonos, ft, iUn. 


nSvgni, e, ft. 


noviet. 


X. 


d6c«m. 


ddcimds, ft, iim. 


dgn!,s, ft. 


dftciefl. 


XL 


IIIIQGCUXI* 


ondecimoa, ft, 

am. 
daddddEmiii, ft, 






xn. 


dtiddddmo. 


dnddeni, », ft. 


daSdedM. 


L— 




^TW^ 







Mem. For die dedension of fi»fl< and eZuo, see 194. Tris is decUned 
like a plural adjective of second dass, 194. The remaining cardinals 
are midedined. The ordinals and distributives are dedined like 
adjectives of the first class. 

EXERCISE. 



(190.) Vocabulary. 

In all, altogether, omnind. 
Multitude, mnltittadd, (nmltittudXn) 

is(£). 
Hour, horft, ss. 
To he distant, distftr6. 
Mile, minift,* (mill) iilm (pL n.). 
Year, anniis, I. 
Monih, mensis, (mens) Is (m.). 



Another, tltAr, ft, iim (194, E. 1.). 
Thirty-six, sex et trigintft. 
To levy, conscribfird. 
Night-^ateh, vigllia, a. 
From, after, d6 (witii abl.). 
To strive, to haeten, contenddrA. 
Italy, Itftlift, 8B. 



* Mi llfi, plwr. millift = 1000. 
^awile. 



Millift (passnttm, of paces nnderstood) 

G2 



Digitized by 



Google 



^8 NUMERALS. 



(101.) Examples. 
(a) They fight four hours, 
(h) The city is distant five 

miles, 
(c) A ditch eleven feet wide. 



Hor&8 quattadr pugnant. 
Urbsdist&tquinqud iiiilli&. 

F068& und^cim p^des l&t&. 



Rule of Syntax. — ^The accusative answers to the qnestions 
how long ? (whether of time or space), how hroad 1 how 
high? &c.; e. g.^ in (a) ^oras; in (6) milli&; m (c) 
pddes. 
((£) How long 7 may also be expressed by a noun in l)ie geni- 
tive, depending on another noun ; e. g.^ a ditch of ten feet^ 
fo6s& d6c6m pddtim. 

(192.) Translate into English. 

£rant omi^nft ltindr& dud. — GaUiae sunt |^urt68 tr6s, qaftrom 
nn&m incdlunt Belg», altdr&m AquitftM. — ^Uniis d multltOdXnd 
Tulndrfttiir. — ^Hdrfts sex pugn&bant. — Urbs dist&t ddc^m mifiift.— ^ 
In annd du6d6clm menses sunt.— Caes&r dti&s Idgidnds conscri- 
Ut. — Ca&s&r trds Idgl5n6s quao In Gallia, hi^m&bant edudt. — 
Caes&r trfts Iftg^onSs dx MberMs Adfidt-^Sunt omninft ltin$r& 
qu&ttu$r.— CsBS&r dd qufirtft vig^& l^gionds edudt. — Consul 
l^^dndm dddm&ffl In castHl rddQdt. — Cdes&r ctim quinqud Id- 
^ombitt in ItfiMm contendit— iTrilt ommn^ ih Q«fli& Idgid 
an&. 

(198.) Translate into Latin. 

There are in all three ways. — There are of (Jaul three parts, 
of which the Sequanians inhabit one. — ^There are of the city 
five parts. — Four of (= out of) the multitude are wounded. — 
The soldiers fight seven hours. — In three years are thirty-six 
months. — The villages are distant nine miles. — The wood is dis- 
tant four miles. — The consuls win levy six legions. — Caesar will 
lead out five legions from Italy. — ^The general was levying two 
lemons in Gaul.^— Ctesar w91 lead out the soldiers in the second 
watch. — The consul, in the third watch leads back the soldiers 
into the camp. — The tenth legion fights (pugnat). — There arc 
altogether in Gaul two legions. — Caesar brings back the fifth le- 
gion. — Caesar brmgs back the fifth legion after the second watch. 



Digitized by 



Google 



NUMttALfl. 



7» 



LESSON XXXIII. 
Numerahi continued. 
(194.) Declension of tin us, duo, and tres. 



/ 



[j — '~ 


One,Sin^ 




Two, rt«r. 


tlm.e,Ptf. 1 


N. 
O. 
p. 


onas, H, am. 
unidfl, ffts, Iflg. 
uni, i,L 
the rest regular. 


:N.v. 
Gen. 
D.Ak 
Aoc. 


dad, daie, dad. 
dadrJitA, daartbn, dadrfiitt. 
dadboi, dnabiU. dodbtti. 
dads and dad. dale, dad. 


trf; trig, txU. ^ | 
triftm, tridm, triiim.|^ 
tribfli«crtb«i,tribAi. 
tr^f, tret, trii. |{ 



iZtffit. (1.) Like Uniis are declined 



Aliiis, i, ud, another.* 

Alt6r, i, Urn, the one, ^ ctktr (of two). 

Neotdr, tri, triim, neither of the two, 

Nallaa, i, am, no one. 

Solos, i, iim, alone, 

Tdtfti, i, iim, d^ whole. 



mills, a, dm, anjf one. 

trtdr, ti«, trtav whieh of the two. 

0terqad, traqa«, tromqii., aocft of 

^ <wo, 6o^; and other oon^onndfl 

o[mer. 



(a.) Like 4md is declined ittbd, si, «, &o<». 



EXESCISB. 

(195.) Foca^tt/ary. 

What one, qadtds, i, iim. 

Moett pldrasqad, ftqod, dmqad ; e, g., 

most men, hdminds pl6riqad , most 

insects, insect! pidrftqad. 
Virgil, Virgfliils, L 
Mbre, aiigls (adr,)r 

(Refer to tU edhutm of ^stritethres {180).] 

(196.) Exampks. 
{a) My father ttnU give us 

two books apiece. 
(6) What hour is it? The 

third, 
(c) He wiU come for my sake 

alone, 
((if) Which pleases you? 

Neither. 
(e) The beams are three 

feet distant (apart) from 

each other. 



Abemn,tnbB,{teib)Uliy 

Insect, insectdm, L 

Horace, Hdratids, I. 

To migrate, mfgrird. 

Writer, scriptdr, (script(Vr) h (m.). 

Mother, voMbe, {matt) Is (£). 



P&tdr nOtoa binds llbros di- 
bit. 
Qiidt& hdrH est? Tertift. 

Me& uniiLs causft (abl.) y^- 

nidt. 
tJt6r Hbl pl&cdt? Neut6r. 

Trabes mtdr sd distant ternds 
pedes (191, c). 



* When iQifts is repeated, it means some, others. 



Digitized by 



Google 



80 NUMERALS. 

(197.) Translate into English. 

Matdr notna qu&ternds fibrds d&bit. — ^Ndbis sunt (125, II., a) 
term dqm. — ^Binas omnlbib &\lbtis ftla sunt. — Insect& plerftqu6 
sends, &lift octdnds, p6dds h&bent. — Qu5t& hdr& est ? Ndn&. — 
Mifites utriusque exercltus sunt fortes. — Tu& unius causa yd- 
nient. — Y irgilitis atqiie HorfttiCis pogtae sunt prsclftri ; titdr tibl 
m&gis pl&cSt ? (161, a.) Virgilitls. — Bis In anno mlfitSs v6m- 
unt. — September est non^ anni meniDLS. — Tr&b6s intdr sd dis- 
tant binds pddds (191, c), 

(198.) Translate into Latin. 

[Some of tiie words will be ibazid in 194, iL 1.] 
We have (125, II., a) four dogs apiece (196, a). — ^The mas- 
ter gives us five books at a time. — ^All men have (125, II., a) 
tvro eyes apiece. — Most insects have six (senos) feet; some 
(194*) nine, others (194*) ten, others (194*) twelve.— What 
o'clock (hour) is it ?— The fifth.— The eighth.— The eleventh. 
— The twelfth. — ^The generals of each army are brave. — ^Why 
do you come? For your sake alone (196, c). — Cieero ai^ 
Caesar are excellent writers ; which pleases you ? Neither. 
— ^Which pleases you more ? Caesar. — ^The birds migrate twice 
in the year. — The soldiers will come eight times a year. — Oc- 
tober is the tenth month of the year ; November the eleventh ; 
December the twelfth. — The beams are four feet distant frona 
each other. — The beams are seven feet apuxt from each other. 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 17. 
VERBS OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION IN W. 



LESSON XXXIV. 



Verbs of the Third Conjugation in id. 

(199.) Some verbs of the third conjugation, instead 
of taking the simple verb-stem for the tense-stem in 
the tenses for incomplete action, add i to the verb- 
stem in these tenses. They form the infinitive, how-, 
even in ere, like other verbs of the third. 

(200.) Infin. Active, cap-Srg, to take. 



8INOULAB. ll 


Present 

Imperfect. 

Future. 


cftp-i-dbim. 


C«p-i8, 
C«p-i-68. 


cftp-!t 

cftp-i-6btt. 

cftp-i-«t 


PLUBAI.. II 


Present 
Future. 


cftp-i-mus. 

cftp-i-ebftmns. 

cUp-i-emus. 


cip-Xtls. 

cftp-iebfttib. 

c&p-ietl8. 


dlp-{-unt n 
c^X-ebant R 
cftp-i-ent 



Ikfin. Passive, c ftp- i, to 6c taken. 



SmOXTLAB. ll 


Present 

Imperfect 

Future. 


cap4-dr. 

G&p-I-6b«r. 

cip-i-«r. 


cftp-fi-ris. 

cftp-i-dbAiis. 

c«p-i-6ri8. 


dlp-i-tfir. 

c«p-i-6bft«ir. 

c&pl-6tnr. 


PLUKAL. II 


Present 
Imperfect 
1 Future. 


cftp-i-miir. 

cftpi-6bAmib. 

cftp-X-fimi&r. 


c»fp4-»wTTi|. c&p-i-untdr. N 
cftp-I-«bftmXid. c«p-i-dbantiir. 1 
cftp-i-drnXu. cSp-i-entJir. \ 



EXERCISE. 



(201.) Vocabulary. 

Pn an cases, verbs of the class described above will be indicated bi 
the Tocabolaiies by the ending id» after tbe infinitive fonn; e. g^ «a 
make, ftc«r« (i«).l 



Digitized by 



Google 



82 VERBS OF THIRD CONJUGATION IN 10. 



Exetue, exowAiS.6, (excos&tidn) Hi 

(£). 
To receive, accept, acdtpdrd (id). 
Way, road, it6r, O^tiiidr) ii (neat). 
Te undettdhe^ fiisc!p«rtt ifX). 
To make, fiUsdrd (id). 

(202.) Exampk. 
Willingly desar give$ par- 
don and receives the excuse. 



And, qad.* 

Skip, Divli, (niv) U (£). 

To repair, to renew, to rebuild, rSlt- 

efirfi (id). 
Long, longjif, S, dm. 
fFbU; morut, L 
Harbour, portiiB, ui (m.). 



excus&lionemqud* ace! pit. 

(203.) Translate into English. 

LalHdAus multii Germ&iidriim (78, II., 6) oppida c&pieb&t. — 
HelvdtiX pdr provinci&m nostr&m itdr f&citint. — ^Vulndr& grd.vi& 
ft miHtlbiis accif^untiir. — ^dui bellum magnilm sudcipi^bant. 
— ^Libentfir C»8&r nimtilds accipit, nscftte (201, N.) vM&m d&t. 
^-ImpMlt5r obsld^ clTit&tls fibentdr accipiSt. — ^Nantium & 
patrd crfts acclpi6s.^-Cra8s&s nRvda looigfts, <{iub In porta flfaDt, 
rdficit. — Consul muros urbis r^fldt. 

(204.) Translate into Latin. 

•Rie enemy were making (their) way tfaroogh onr {Nrorince. — 
The Romans were ra{Hd^(cdldrit6r) making their way through 
Gaul. — ^We shall receive a meseenger from the city to-day. — 
The Helvetians were undertaking a severe and ^reat war. — 
The 8(^klier8 receive many and severe woonds.^—We shall make 
(our) way through Britain. — Caesar will wiSin^y receive ^e 
excuse of the ^duans, and grant them (iisque) favour. — The 
gifts of a Either are gladhjr (Ubentdr) received. — ^The long ships 
are repaired by Caesar. — The general was rebuilding the old 
(vdt6r«s) ships which were in the harbour. — ^We shall re- 
build the old waUs. 

(205.) Observe the formation of the following 
words : 

Acd[p«r« (to mxK^» = id (^)-fc«p«r« {to take). 
Sa8d^»6r6 (to undertake, = gab (u9u2er)+cftpdri6« 
B^nc«]«(to7«6«i2i),=r»+f9o6r*(tomai«a^atn). i 

^^ In the compoaition of veibi with prepoflitioiui, H frequen^ passes 
into i, as in these examples. 

* 1tt joins words or sentences which sre considered independent sad 
ef equal importance with eachother; qadj^M a word sr ssnteftos c^bse* 
ly to another, as an appendage to it 

Digitized by dOOQ IC 



§ 18. 
DEPONENT VERBS. 



LESSON XXXV* 
Dqxment Verbs. 

(206.) Deponent verbs are such as have the joojf- 
ive form, but an active meaning ; e. g.^ hortdr, /ea> 
kort (not / am exhorted). 

(207.) The forms of deponents in the tenses for 
incomplete action of the indicative mood are precisely 
the same as those of passive verbs (Lessons XII., 
XIII.) ; we therefore need only give the^r^^ persons. 

(208.) DBFOWENT FORMS. 



tNDlCATnrs* 



istconj. 
3dcoi - 
3dcoi 



hortSr, / cEftoit. 
f&teOr, Ja^es*. 
g£qa6r, JfoUotD. 
meCidr,/ 



hortibir, I wot exkortlm^. JbormOr, Iwmt 
fftttbftr, J too* amf easing. f&tCWr, ImUeonf—, 
sequlbftr, I ibme fattemnng. aSqiiir, IwiUfiOom, 
•, Iwmt mea$uring.\BaetikP, Iwmmmtwn, 



flMMWw. metiSbftr, 



iNrnnTivs. 



1. hort4W, 
toeackort. 



2.ft«rt, 

to iionfm* 



r tW' In the vocabnlarief deponent verbs are always given by fly fi 
JinUwe forms. Observe Aat the ending -»ri shows mat thei v«* is c 
the Ist conj.; -6ri, the 2d; -i, the 3dj -iri, flie 4th.] 



tii- 
of 



EXERCISE. 



(209.) Vocabulary. 



[Transitive deponents govern the aocnsathre, unless it is otherwise 
mentioned in the vocabularies.] 



To embrace, amplect-i. 

To gain, to possess owls setfcf, p6t- 
iri (with gen. or abL ; general- 
ly gen. in Cas.). 

To endtanour, con-aif . 

TofoOoto, s6qa-i. 

AZiOtyS, tanqoam (adv.). 



To strive after, pursue, persSqa-I 

(per + s6qni, tsfoOow through). 
Glory, gl6ri«, «. 
AU, tSttts, i, nm (194, B., 1). 
Bravery, virtue, virtfis, (virtflt) Is (£). 
Long, difi (adv.). 
SvfhfauU, peccfttttm, i. 



Digitized by 



Google 



84 DEPONBNT VERBS. 

(210.) Example. 

The Hdvetians endeavour to Helv6tai p6r prdyinci&m no«- 
pass (= to make way) tr&mltdrf&cdr6c6nantur. 
through our province. 

Rule of Syntax, — ^The infinitive is used in Latin (as in 
English) to complete the imperfect ideas expressed by 
certain verbs ; e. g,, I toish, I can, I hasten, I endeavour^ 
&c., as f &c6r6 in the above example.* 

(211.) Translate into English. 

P&tdr filitim et fiU&m amplectltur. — Impdr&tdr mlfit^s di& hor- 
tftbfttiir.— Dumndrix totitis (194, R. 1) Galliae p6tatiir.— Peccft- 
t& me& £&tdb5r. — ^Prindp^s totitis Gallias pdtiri cdnftbanttir. — 
Kdm&ni per Biltanniam Itdr f&cdrd cdnantiir. — Gldri& virtutdm 
tanqu&m umtNr& s^qidttu*. — Magnds hdminSs virtatd (55) mdti- 
miir, non fortunS. — Mifit@s semper glori&m pers^qumittir. — ? 
Mifites ducdm Hbentdr s^quSbanttir. 

(212.) Translate into Latin. 

The father will embrace (his) sons and daughters. — ^The chiefs 
possess themselves of all the province. — Do you confess (135, 
II.) your fault? — ^The Helvetianis were endeavouring to pass 
through Gaul. — Glory will follow bravery as a shadow. — ^We 
were exhorting the soldiers yesterday. — ^We shall gladly follow 
CsBsar. — They are rapidly making their way through our prov- 
ince. — ^You measure men by (their) fortune, not by (their) 
bravery. — ^The chiefs will endeavour to lead the army across the 
Khine (113, II., a). — Generals always strive after glory. — Are 
you exhorting (135, II.) your son ? — The Romans always fol- 
lowed glory. 

* Observe carefoUy tbat a purpose is never expressed by the simple 
Infinitiye in LatizL It would not be Latin to say discSrS vSnit^ he comes 
toleam. 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 19. 
ADVERBS. 



Digitized by 



Google 



86 ADVERBS. 

Prfidenf , prudent I Pruden-Mr, prudently, 

BipienB, wise. \ 6ipien-t6r, wisely. 

Rem, And ax, boldf makef andae-Mr, boldly. 

3. Some are derived from nouns by adding ttls or tim to tlie stem 
by meam of a coxmectittf vowel , e. g», caA-W6A,from heaven ; fond- 
1t6M,from the ground, totally ; ge6g-9L-tSm, byjlocks, Ac 

(216.) Cases of adjectives, especially in the neuter 
gender, are often used as adverbs ; e. g.^ dulce, stoeet^ 
ly; primtlm, jftr5< ; falso, /a&eZy, &c. 

BXSROISE. 

(217.) Vocabulary. 

Wdl, bdnd, derived irregnlariy from 

bttZkfis, good. 
Bravely, fortitftr, derived regolariy 

{215, 2, a) from fortits, brave. 
Sharply, spiritedly, acritdr, derived 

regularly from icdr (acr-is), sharp. 
SwifUy, c6l6r!fe6r, derived regularly 

fxoax cdldr, swift. 
Happily, beatd, derived regnlariy 

(215, 1) from belt&i, happy. 
Honestly, hSnestS, derived regularly 

from honeitfta, honest. 



Almost, f «i«. 

Rightly, reoie, detfred regolariy 
from reotAa, rifJU. 

Impiously, impie, derived regolariy 
from impiila, impious, 

Injlocks, grSgfttitm. 

To labour, lxb6rtrd. 

To blame, to accuse, Jind fault with, 
incuiard. 

Socrates, SdcrStSs, (Socrttt) is. 

Not even, neqnldem (always separa- 
ted by one or more wdrds). 



Hdnestd «t reet« T!?6r6 Mt 
b6nd et be&t* Tirftrft. 



(218.) Ezampks. 

(a) Th Ute JkmeiUy And 
rightly is to live well and 
happily. 

Rule of Position. — The adverb is generally' [daced htfart the 
word which it qualifies. 
(() Almost all men love themr I Omnds f 6r 6 hdmXiiM sdsd diH- 

selves. I gont. 

F6r6 18 generally placed between the adjective and noun, 
(o) He does not praise even I Ne Sdcrfttdmquld^mlaud&t 

Socrates. \ 

(219.) Translate into English. 

Hostds nobisciim (125, II., b) aciltdr pugnftbant. — ^£qm in 
&gri8 c61ei1t6r currebant. — ^Bdn^ Tiyftrd est befttd Tivdrd.-«-Cer- 
vi grfigfttim sempdr currant. — Sempdr s&piens rect© tmt. — ^Dia 



Digitized by 



Google 



ADVERBS. 87 

et acrltSr miHtes pugn&bant. — Omnes f^rd hdn^Ss impie vivunt. 
^-OmnSs f(Bre &y38 blsln anno migrant. — ^N6 Cicdrdndm qniddm 
laudabit. — ^N3 hoc qiddSm (not even with this) delectftbittir. 

(220.) Translate into Latin. 

The JEdnans wdre fighting long and [rravely.-^^aB8flr sharply 
accuses the Helvetians. — ^Horses and stags run swiftly. — ^The 
fanners were labouring long in the fields. — ^Almost all men love 
tfaeir (own) children. — Csesar led almost all the Germans across 
the Rhine (113, II., a). — I waited for you long. — The bad do 
not Mve happily.— To Kve happily is to live rightly.— You will 
not be delighted even with this. — ^Not even this will delight (my) 
father. — Not oten C«esar will be praised. — ^Afanott all birds fly in 
flocks. — They do not praise even Virgil. — ^Almost all wise (men) 
live happily.;— Almost all men strive-after glory. — To live pru- 
dently is to live happily. — ^The commander will blame the 
lieutenant sharply. 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 20. 
PREPOSITIONS. (XXXVII.— xxxvni.) 

LESSON XXXVII. 
Prepositions. 

[This lectkn (981) need not be learned by heart in the fint ooone, baft. 
■honld be constantly referred to whenerer examples occur.] 

(221.) The following prepositions govern the cu:-- 
cusative case : 

Id, to. 

Xpttd, at. 

Ant 6, before (of time and place). 

AdversiiSi adversiim, agaifut. 

Cis, citri, 'on this aide. 

Circa and circi&m, around, eibout. 

Circitfir, eUnnU, towards (indefi- 
nitely of time Qt number). 

Contri, againtt, 

Brgft, towards. 

Extra, beyond, without. 

Infra, beneath, bdow (the contraiy 
of s flora). 

Inter, between, among. 

Intri, within (the contrary of ex- 
tra). 



Jaxti, near to, beside. 

5b, on account of. 

Pdnds, in the power cf. 

P6r, through. 

P6n6, behind. 

Post, <^i(er (both of time andapaoe). 

PrsBtdr, b(»ide. 

Pr6p6, near. 

Proptdr, near, on account cf. 

Sdcandflm, ofter, in ixecordance 

with. 
Sflprs, above. 
Trans, on the other side. 
Versiis (is pat after its noon), <a- 

wards a place. 
Ultra, beyond. 



(222.) The following govern the ablative case : 

Pr8B, before, owing to. 



Pr6, ba ore, for. 
Sin 6, without. 
T 6 nfl s (is pat after its noon), €ufar 
as, up to, . 



A, ah, from, by. 

Clam, without the knowledge cf. 

C6r&m, in the presence cf. 

Cdm, with. 

Be, down from, concerning. 

£, ex (d before consonants only, 

ex before both consonants and 

vowels), out of, from. 

The following lines contain the prepositions governing the abUtiTe, and 
can be readily learned by heart : 

Absqaft, a, &b, abs, and de, 
C6rftm, clam, cflm, ex, and €, 
Tfoiis, sln6, prd, and pne. 

(223.) The following govern the accusative or 
ablative : 

1. In, (a) with the aeeus., (1) into, on, to (to the question whither ?) (2) 
against, {b) With the abloHve, ia, aa {to the qaeuiaxm where t) 
a. Sftb, (a) with the aceus,, (1) nnder (to the qaestion whither?) <S) aboat 



Digitized by 



Google 



PREPOSITIONS. 



89 



«N* towazdfl (indefinitely of time), (b) WiA Ote dUatwe, under (to the 
qoestion where 7) 

3. 6 & p 6 r, (a) with the acau,, above, over, {b) With the ciblaiwet npon, 
oanceming. 

4. Subtftr, under, beneath (but Httle lued). 

EXERCISE. 



(224.) Vocabulary. 

The Oaronne (river), Chtaromni, e. 
An Aquitanian, 4^qaitAntbi, i. 
Aquitania, Aq[iiitani&, e. 
The Leman, or Geneva (lake), U- 

mannofl, I. 
Jwra (moontain), JurS, m (m. 25, a). 
To extend or carry, perddcdrS (p6r 

+dtto6r6). 
State, (nvit&B, (cnvitAt) !■ (£). 
Moyal power (kingdom), regnflm, L 



Hi»tory,l3iaMn§,m, 

Fable, filbdli, ». 

TV bound (limit), contiEneriS (oon+t6- 

nerfi). 
Part or «i(2e, pars, (part) is (£). 
On one su2e, nnft ex partd. 
The Rhone (river), BhSdinibi, L 
To i»ru2e; dividdrd. 
Lake, liciis, As (m.), (112, B. 1). 
To remain, minerd. 



GaDos ftb Aqnitftms G&rum- 
n& flamdn dividit 



(225.) Examples. 
(a) Theriver Garonne sepa- 
rates the Oatds from the 
Aquitanians, 

Rule of Syntax, — ^Two nouns expressing the same person 
or thing take the same case, and are said to be in appo- 
sition with each other ; e. g., in the above example, G &- 
rumn& flumSn. 



(5) Casar hastens into OauL 
(c) There was altogether in 
Gaul one legion. 



Cses^ln Galli&m contendlt. 
£r&t omninft In Gallia Idgid 
un&. 



(226.) Translate into English. 

Cas&r ft l&cfi ftd montftm, miirdm perdQdt. — ^Apiid* H^rddd- 
tfim, p&trdm histdrisB, sunt multae filbulsB. — C»s&r ft l&cQ Ld- 
mannd ftd mont6m Jnrftm, mtkriim perdudt. — Mdrc&tor in urbd 
mftndt. — ^Pndii In ddmd sunt. — ^Princeps regniim In civlt&td oc- 
ciipftt. — ConstU exerdtiim in finds Sdqnftn^riim ducit — Hel- 
v«tu contlnenttir flnft ex part6 (125, IV., N4) fltlmind Rhdno; 
altdrft ex parts mont6 Jflrft, tertift ex partd IftcQ Ldmannd 6t 
flamind Khddftnd. 

• Apud is used with the names of autbora (instead of in, with the name 
of tfaeur woriu) ; e. g., ipftd CIc6r6n«m Ifigimils, we read %n Ctcero. 

H2 



Digitized by 



Google 



M PRKP08ITI0N». 

(327.) Translais into Latin* 

Caesar was extending walls and ditches (fossasque) from thd 
river to the camp. — ^The soldiers remain in the camp. — Caesar 
will seize the royal power in tlM •Cate.«*-The met Rhine sep- 
arates the Ganls from the Q^naans. — Caesar hastens into Italy 
and levies (conscribdr^) ^'^e legioiffi. — The deserters remain in 
the town. — ^The general wifl lea^t&e soldiers into Italy. — ^Aqni- 
tania is bounded on ode side by, the river G^snimna ; on another 
side by mountains; on the third side by the river Rhoue. — 
Tou win find (invenies) many fine (praeclftrft) precepts 
in (apud) Cicero. — ^You will find many fables in Herodotus, the 
fbther of histoiy. 



LESSON xxxvm. 

Prepontions in Composition. 

(228.) Most of the prepoditlons given in Lesson 
XXXVII. are used as prefixes in composition with 
verbs, and modify their signification; c. ^., pon^rd, 
to place; post-ponere, to place after. 

(229.) The following prepositions are never used 
alone, but always as prefixes in composition : 

1. Amb, round, about (firom ambo, boik) ; ambird (fima toib^Hr^f to 
go round), to toalk round, to canveuffor votet. 

% Co]],to£'e^Aer(aTariatkmofoaiii,«M^);oon>Jtingpdrd(eott+jtiii* 
g6rd), to join togeth&r, to unki* 

3. niordif,<iMi9u2er(avariatioa(if 4d>.^tMii)| dii«otd6ra(dIs+€«. 
ddrd, to give ptaet Mvnder), to itpart. 

In, with a^Jeottrfes, maani notf ia-dootlif, unhattnod; wltii 
verbi» meana in, intot *< gt ir*ri&inp<(r<( ^a+rumpdrd), to 
burftinU). 

4. Ae, back, again ; r^-Hc^ird (rH-f iodrd, to mak$ again), to r^ 

5. Be, atide; s«-duc4r« (se+duo^rft, to lead Oitroff), to eeduee. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PKEPOSITIONS. 91 



Cihort, c5horf , (cohort) !i (£) 

To station, oolldc&r6 (con+l5cir«). 

To distribute, distribu«r« (dk+triE- 

budrd). 
Africa, AfUci, 9. 
Ewropt, Enrdpi, e. 
Horstmani ^a6s, (dqait) it (m.). 



EXEECISE. 

(230.) Vocabulary. 

A^ain (ady.), roniui. 

7V7/^n to ff ether, oo^jimgdrfi. 

TV? ^Mr«< »i»c/, irnimpdr4. 

TV ^fse in^ ^ <;d9n^, In c^trft ir- 

rompdrd. 
ikfedtfemmean, Mdditerrftiieib, I, 

dm. 
To separate, f Sptrard (fld+pitr&r6). 

(231.) Translate into English. 

Consfil rcirsfis Iftgidnes In I^bernft rSdftdt. — ^Ldgfttiis qniiiqud 
efthmrtet cam exerdta conjnngltt. — ^Milltflt oittnds In oppidAm 
irmmpant. — M&rd Mdditerrflnei&m AMc&ra ftb Eturdpft sdp&r&t. 
— ^Belg^ 8d oiim Germftoiii conjungdbant. — ^Imp6r&tdr exercMm 
In hibenus colldc&t. — Germftni dqidt^s In castas (223, 1, a) 
irrompdrd conanttlr. — Galb& exercitiim In Idbernls coHftcftt, 
]i&gi6ne8qu6 In cMt&tes distilbidt. 

(232.) Translate into Latin. 

Caesar will lead the cohorts back again into winter-qnarters. 
— ^An the Germans were barsting into the camp. — The Belgi- 
ans win unite themselves with Cssar. — The brave soldiers were 
tiying to burst into the town. — ^The illustrious general was sta- 
tioning the soldiers in winter-quarters. — ^The legions are distrib- 
uted among (In, wiik accus.) the states. — ^The legions are led 
back mto winter-quarters. — ^The Mediterranean Sea separates 
Spain (Hispftni&) from Africa. — CaBsar will join all the horsemen 
with the army. 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 21. 

ANALYSIS OF TENSE-FORMATIONS. (XXXIX 
— XLI.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



ANALT8IS OF TBNSE-FOKMJ^|^iqU ' ] ,' ,,X^ *' 



(235.) 






TABLE. 











Teoae- 

Stem. 


Connect. 
VoweL 


Peraon- 

Endings. 


FOBUS COMPLKTX. 11 










1. 


2. 


3. 


4. II 


1. 


8zn- 


a. 


O. 


fano (ama-o). 


m5n6-o. 


rfigK). 


audl-o. 








8. 


ftm&4. 


mong-8. 


rt^. 


audI-8. 


2. 


mda- 


e. 


t 


fim&t 


mon6-t 


rtg-i-L 


au<U-t 


3. 


reg. 


t 




ftma-ixius. 


mdnd-miis. 


r6g-I-mttfl. 


audl-mlLB. 








tis. 


fim&-tia. 


m5n6-ti[s. 


r6g-i-ti[8. 


audl-Os. 


4. 


aud^ 


i(u). 


nt 


fimftriit 


m5n6*nt. 


r6g-u-nt 


audl-Q-nt 



J2em. ObservB that the vowels are long before the perBon-endings In 
let, 2d, and 4th oo^jngations, except where they come before o or 
t. In those before o, the general nue (24, 1] prevldlB ; and it is also 
an invariable rale, in Latin, that no vowel %n ajinal syllable can be 
long before t. 

(236.) EXERCISE. 

[The pupil shonld hereafter analyze the tense-forms, as they occur, some- 
what as foUows :] 

Am as: verb-stem t am-; pres, tense-stem, &m-; connecting 
vowel, b; 2dpers. ending, s. 

MdnSmiis: verb-stem, mon-; pres. tense-stem, m5n-; ctyr^ 
necting vowel, e; Istplur. ending, mfis. 

K^gitls: verh-stem, rSg- ; jpres. tense-stem, r6g-; connect- 
ing vowd, i ; 2d plur, ending, tis. 

Audlunt: verh-stem, aud-; pres» tense-stem, aud-; con^ 
necdng vowels, i and u; Zdplur. ending, nt. 

In like manner, analyze 
Festin&s, h&b^t, viddtls, conv5c5, 

y^^aamos, pr5hibent, \^§X, h&b€tis, 

Vdc&tSs, posdmus, dormlmus, munitrnt, 



festin&tito, 

pngnftt, 

laudant, 



Rdvdcfint, Ydidmit, auditis, ambiil&miis, vnlndrftmtlfl. 



LESSON XL. 

Analysis of Tense-FormationSy continued. 

Active. 

(237.) IMPERFECT TENSE. 

(a) Person-endingSy m, s, t, mus, tis, nt. 

(b) The tense'Stenif 

(1.) In Ist conj. adds ftb to the verb-stem ; e. g., ftm-&b. 
(2.) In 2d conj. " 6b ♦• c. ^., m5n-6b. 

(3.) In 3d conj. ♦• fib •♦ «. ^., r6g-6b. 

(4.) In 4th conj. •* I6b •• «. ^., aud-lfib. 



Digitized by 



Google 



M 



AN ALTttDI OF TBVSl-rOKMATXOKit 



(c) The connecting vowel a b used to join the tense- 
stems and person-endings ; e. g,^ d.mab-d.«m. 



n 


8tMD. 


Con. 
Vow. 


Penon- 


II 

roBKS coifPi.KTS. II 










L 


^ 


a 


4. 








m. 


im«bfrm. 


mta^bfrm. 


regibim 


andlMA-m. 


L 


Im-ib- 




■. 


Smibfr«. 


mta«MrC 


rtgiMrC 


audMbM. 


2. 


m&n-6V 




t 


ImaMrt 


inta«b4-t 


r6g6bft< 


«aai6b6rt 


a 


r«ff-«b. 
sudI6b- 




nrai. 






rtg«bft-m&i. 




4. 




tifl. 


ftmflblrtta. 


in6n6bft-tls. 


r«g6bft-tls. 


andl6ba-tls. 









L^== 


imib&4it Imtetbimt. 


T«g6b&4lt 





FUTURE TEHSE. 

(238.) I. We treat the 1st and 2d conjugations first. 
In these, 

{a) The person-mendings are, o, s, t, mfis, tis, nt. 

(fr) The tense-s^emSf precisely like the imperf. in 
the same conjugations, 

(1.) In l8t coi\|., add &b to the Torb-stem ; <. ^., &m4lb. 
(2.) In 2d conj., " eb " €. ^„ mdn-eb. 

(c) The connecting vowel i is used to join the ten^e- 
stems and person-endings; e. ^., &niab-i4; moneb- 
i-t. But in the third person plural, u is used instead 
of i; e. g.9 amab-u-nt 

Eem. In (be 1ft penon the ooonectixig vowel li dropj^ed (ai in S34, 
«,&.!); (iuu, imab-o (not imib^-o). 



(239.) 




TABLE 


• 






TmmMImb. 


^^srsi^ 


Endiiigt. 


yoam ooMPZ.aTB. || 


1. 
8. 


im-ib. 


i 


o. 

)ina«. 

Ilia. 

nt. 


1. 
ftmahK). 
imabi.8. 
taoMt 
«m«Hin48. 
Am&bi-tib. 
imftbdnt 


2. 
mdndb-o. 

mdnftbi-t. 

m6ndU-mfif. 

mdndU-tis. 



(240.) IL The 3d and 4th conjugations preset some 
irregularity in the future. 

(a) The;>er^<m-e»rff7ig^i,are, m, s, t,mus, tis, nt 

(b) The tense-stem^ 

(1) In the 3d conj., is the simple ¥erb*8ten); e.g^ rftg. 
(9) In the 4th conj., it adds i to the verb-item ; #. ^«, an d -L 



Digitized by 



Google 



AMALTBXB OF TIWIE-FOEIIATIOlffl. 



M 



(c) The c<^mecting vowel e is used to join the 
tense-stem and person-endings; r^g-e-miiSy aud-i«- 
e-mus. But in thej^r^^ person a is substituted for e 
in both conjugations; e. g., r^g-E-m, aud-i-ft-m, 
not reg-e-m, audi-e-m. • 

(241.) TABLE. 



Tense-stem." 


"Son^TVowdT 


Pen/Eading.: 


rOBMS COVPLXTX. II 


««r 


a. 


10. 


3. 
rig&'in. 


4. 
ai]aill.m. 






r*- 


r6g#-(i. 


•ucB«-0. 






h 


rtge-t. 


Bxim-t, 




«» 


<»««• 


r6g«.mfifc 


MdiA-mJii. 






Itis. 


r6gfi.t&. 


audifi-tis. 


- 




Int. 


rtgre-nt 


audifi-nt 



(242.) (a) KXAMFLSS. 

A m ab & tl 8 : verh'.stem, ft m - ; tense-stem, ft m ftb- ; imperf. con . 
vowel, a; ^ pint. ending, -tls. 

Amftbltit: «er6-5tem, ftm-; tense-stem, ftmftb-;yu^ co». 
«(>U7€2, X ; 2d plur, ending, ^ tl 8. 

Aadidmft8: verlHstem, and-; fut. tense-stem, audi-; con-' 
necting vowel, e; Ist plvr. ending, -mii8. 

r^* The pnpU should keep up the habit of finding any tense-fbrm 
which he may need to use, hv putting together 1^ pxpper pvlaii e,gn 
■tem, ending, Ac., rather than by recurring to the paradigms.] 

(fr) Analyze the following : 

Landftbftm, laudftbd, laudftbitfe, 

Ddcdbfimtia, mmiiebftmtts, ISgftm, 

Ocddebant, dormiebfttis, scribdmtts, 

Donniftm, aadXdt, ddcdbunt, 

^* &;c. dec. 



LESSON XLI. 
Analysis of Tense-Fonnations, continued. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 



(243.) The passive-endings are, 

Sing. Ist person, r ; 2d person, ris or r6; 3d person, tttr. 
Plnr. 1st person, mdr; 2d person, mini; 3d person, ntiir. 

(244.) These endings are affixed to the tense-stems, 
formed as hi the active voice, and with the same con* 



Digitized by 



Google 



96 



ANALTSia OF TBNSE-FOEMATIOIItl. 



necting vowels. Only the following apparent irrego- 
larities are to be noticed. 

(a) In the Ist pen. pres. indio. the ending r is added to the 
full present active form; 6.^., &mo, &mo-r; ddceo, ddceo-r, 
&;c. 

(b) In the 3d conj., 2d pers. sing., pres., e is used for con- 
necting vowel instead oft; e. g., rdg-d-ris, rSg-ft-rd, in- 
stead of rdg-i-ris, 6cc, 

(c) In the 1st and 2d oonj., future, 2d pers. sing., e is used 
for connecting vowel instead of t ; e,g,, mdneb-ft-ris, &m&b- 
d-ris, instead of llmab-i-rlt, mdndb-i-ris. 

(245). EXERCISE. 

Examples. — Ddcentiir: verb-stem, ddc-; pres, tense-stem^ 
d 6 c - ; connecting vowel, e ; 3d plur. pass, ending, - n 1 1& r. 
Amftbamiir: verb-stem,, am-; imperf, tense-stem, &m&b-; 
imperf. conn, vowel, a; Int plttr, pass, ending, -mdr. 
- Audientur: verb-stem, And-;fut, tense-stem, audi-;^!^. 
conn, vowel, e; 3dplur.pass, ending, -ntiir. 
ItSgdr: verb-stem, r6g-; pres, act, 1st pers*, rego-; Isfc 
pers, pass, ending, -r. 

(246.) Analyze 

R6g6bamiir, occid^mtir, l8udantiir« 

Ddcebimiir, audiSmlni, videblmiir, 

Timebfins, d6c6b«r!s, ddcebuntOr, 

Ddceb&miid, &m&tiir, rftg^tiir, 

^. &4i. 6CQ. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PART 1 L 



PULLER EXfflBITION OP THE PORMS OP WORDS. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



100 ADDITIONAL RULES OF aUANTITY. 

(251.) o final is common ; but long in dat. and aU. cases of 
nouns and adjs. used as adverbs (c. g., falsd^ 
^•)* ®S^' dud, dct5, BTe short,' 

(252.) u final is always long ; e. g.y d i a. 

(B) FmoI C0»MIMDll#. 

(253.) An final syllables ending in a consonant (except «) are 

short. 

RuUtfor ufinoL 

(254.) Final fts, 6 s, 6 s, are generally 2(m^ ; e. g.<, am&s« 
doc 6 s, equos. 

Rem. 1. d f if short (1) in nouns whidi have sbort pennlt in the gen. ; 

e.^.,mn6f (mlllt-XB). 
2. 6 f is <Aor< in oomp 6 s, imp 5 8. 

(255.) Final Is and iis are generally short; e. ^., reg-Is, 
domin-us. 

Bern, I, if is long (1) in dat and abL ploral of nouns ; (3) in 3d pex^ 

son sing, of reibs of 4th coi\JQgation ; (3) ocnopoands of v is ; e. ^.» 

mavis, qaamvis, dx. 
2. As is long (1) in noons of 3d decL which have t long in t;ha^4p9nTilt 

of gen.; e.^., virtfls (fltis), palfls (udls); (S) in gen. siag^ and 

N., A., V. plnr. of 4(h declension. 

(2.) Derivation and CBmposition* 
(256.) Derivative and coinpound words generally retdn the 
quantity of the primitive and simple words; e. g,, &mo, 
Amicus; pdno, imp6no. 

(3.) Increase, 
[A noon is said to increase when it has more syUahles in die gen. 
than in the nom. {e.g,, mil-fis, mH-it-is ; here it is the increase); 
a verb, when it has more syUahles than the 2d pers. sing, indic 
{e.g., im-as, im-&t4s ; here it is the increase.] 

(257.) In the increase of nouns, a and o are generally long ; 
«» t» w, y, short. 

(258.) In the increase of verbs, a, e, and o are generally 
long ; I, «, short. 

(4.) Penults. 
(259.) Eveiy perfect tense of two syllables has flie first long 
(as viob[), except bibi, fXdi, tiili, d6di, st6ti, and soldi. 

I.) Penults of adjectives, (1) Id us, icus, short; (2) 



Digitized by 



Google 



ADDITIONAL RULES OP aUANTITY. 101 

Inns, doubtful (often ^g); (3) His and bills, derived from 
verhs^ short ; from rumns^ long. 

[All exceptions to. the above rales that are not stated wHl be marked 
in the vocabularies.] 

(261.) EXERCISE ON QUANTITIES. 

[Give the quantity of the unmarked syllables of the following wordi, 
with the rule for each.] 

1. Final Vowels* 

Ipse, agmiiie, die, rdgdre, rfige, ddcSbfire, re, mdve, mdvdre, b6ne (adv., 
fiom bSnus), CaesSre, opt!me (adv., from optlmiis), me, ddmini, vigllia, audi, 
advento, ire, hi, oonsilio, consiile, de, tertia, vigiliae, contra, rdga, mtaeo, 
tta, firactn, Smo. 

2. Final Consonants. 

Obsides, bdnas, vigilias, Smat, miles (miKtis), miHtes, r5gftv6ras, has, 
bfinnm, lampas (lamp&dis), pedes (pdditis), pddites, iilas, adventas (gen.), 
regis, simnl, andis, linter, aadltis, vigUiis, cftpat^ virtus (virtutis), ddmXnis, 
mSnos, r3g¥tur, rSgitis, mnnis, mdnivdras. 

3. Increase. 

Amatis, mllitis, andiris, obsidem, mdnemns, monebatis, itineris, rdgabas, 
m5nebamiir, audimos, mdnebimini, vdlnptatis, sermonis, mormore, pdditei^ 
damorem, milites, vnltorem, Smatis, mdnebatis, mdnetote, audite, Idgimns, 
pedem, sfigetis (from sSges). 

4. Penults. 

Mftlddjcos, mXrificns, bdndficns, ftcilis (from fikno), padrilis (from jmer), 
imahilis (from imo), servilis (from servos). 



Digitized by 



Google 



§2. 

TENSES OF VERBS FOR COMPLETED AC- 
TION.— PARTIAL STATEMENT, (XLIILr— 
XL VI.) 



LESSON XLIIL 

nnse FermsfcT Compkted Action. — Indicative. 

(262.) In Part L we made use only of those tenses 
of the verb which express action as continuing or 
incompktCj viz., the present, imperfect, and future. 
There are three tenses also for completed action, viz., 
perfect {I have u;nWe7i), pluperfect (I had written), fu- 
ture perfect (/ shall have written). The stem for all 
these is the same. 

(263.) The endings for these three tenses are, 







riAHLAL, j| 


Perfect. 

Pluperf". 
Fut. Peri: 


i. 

drftm. 
6r«. 


Sd. 

is& 

drfts. 
6rfs. 


ad. 

lb 

6rtt. 
6rft 


drftmus. 
Siimns. 


Sd. 

Sratls. 
entis. 


C6raiH,or 

6nmt 
drint. 



(264.) By adding these endings to the perfect-stem 
fu' of the verb ess^, to be, we obtain the forms per- 
fect (I have been), pluperfect (I had been), future per- 
fect {I shall have been). 



Teme-Stem. 


Perfect. 


Plaperfect. 


Future Perfect 




/'i- 


«ram. 


6rd. 


* 


isti. 


erftg. 


firis. 


Fu. 


. it. 


drftt 


6rit 


SimHa. 


dramiis. 


firfmiif. 




istis. 


6r&t!s. 


«r!t^. 




I, dnrnt, or Sre. 


firant. 


erint 



(265.) Double use of the Perfect. — It must be carefully ob- 
served that the Latin perfect has two uses, one answering to 
the English perfect, and the other to the Engtish imperfect. 



Digitized by 



Google 



TSNgU FOB COMFLBTBO ACmOU* 108 

Thns, Jul ""leans not only / Aooe (een, but / «>a#. We call 
the former che perfect j7re«€i»<; the latter the perfoei aariat,^ 
which expresses mom^ntory action in past imt i e. g^ Qrautu 
wf duef of the embassy — Crassils prmceps togitidois fuit: 

SXBEOISE. 

(266.) Vocabulary. 



Pr€dtei ItiOMy (land) U (Q. 
After^ post (prep, ace,), 
Befortt aaf (pMp. aec). 
BsoautSivaaijaminU^ 
How long ? qoamdiA (adv.). 
Afterward, poatei. 
Virtwnu, prSbfla, ft, nm. 



Si in vita senipdr prdM f n^rl- 
mus, dti&m post mort&m 
beat! 6 rim As. 

Mifites Romftni pislus mulfis 
interfudrunt. 



To he ever, to preside over, to com- 
mand, pnaeaai (pnH-aaae, to be 
IiqMs). 

To he wanting, dea a a< (dft | e aa fi, 
to he from). 

To he in, to be present at, interesad 
(inter+eas^, to be among). 

Sick, mger, gra, gram (77, a). 

(267.) Examples. 

(a) ffwe shall have been al- 
ways virtuous in life, after 
death also we shall be 
happy. 

(5) The Roman soldiers 
were present at many hat- 
ties. 

Rule of Synlax.--^he compounds of est^ with the prepo- 
sitioDs p r », i n t • r, o b, p r o, d 6, take the dathe case* 

(268.) Translate into English. 

Th^mistddds vir roagntUi ^ diras fEdt.--CQr bM In schdlft 
noD fuisti ? — Quid, cum patre in horto fui.-'-Quanidia in urb6 
fuistis ? — Sex dies (191, c). — ^Antd bellCim in urbd fuerftmtif. 
— Crassns l^gftttis (225, a) copm Romanoriim praefudrftt. — 
Nunqu&m dedrit ^b! laus homiotim, si semp^ prdbtis fuetls. 
— iEge>n6 {135\ II., a) fuis'ti h«rl ?— Antfi Ciceronis «tftt6m 
orat^ds muM 6t cl&ri fuerant, n^ posteft dftfuerant» — Csesftr 
prs^s radOs interfult. 

(269). Translate into Latin. 

pteo^eet the double use of the perfect {present and aoristt S«5).] 
Divitiacus commanded (pr » f u i t) the forces of the ^duans. 

* The aorist uae of the perfbet ia wore oa wn we i» lAti» tbatt the 

nt. 



Digitized by 



Google 



104 TENSES FOB COMPLETED ACTION. 

— ^If yon shall have been always Tirtnous in life, after deatii 
also you shall be happy. — If we are always virtuous, the praise 
1^ men shall never be wanting to us. — ^We were not in school 
yesterday, because we had been in the garden with (our) fa- 
ther. — Had you heen (136, II., a) in our garden ? — Have you 
been sick ? — How long have you been in the city ? Four 
days (191, c). — The lieutenant had been in the city before the 
war. — ^Before the age of Cassar there had been many and 
great generals ; nor were they wanting afterward. — Cssar and 
the Koman soldiers were present at many batdes. 



LESSON XLIV. 
Tenses of Verbs for Completed Action^ continued. 

(270.) The tense-stem of the perfect tense is form- 
ed in most verbs as follows : 

(1) In 1st conj. by adding &v to the verb-stem ; «. ^., &m-&v. 

(2) In 2d conj. ** ft ** e.g., mdn-ti. 
(4) In 4th conj. ** iv •* e.^., aud-iv 

[The third co^jvgation \m treated in the next lesBon.] 

(271.) By adding the perfect-endings (263) to thb 
tense-stems formed (as in 270), we obtain the follow- 
ing perfect-tense forms of §.mare, <o love ; moner^ 
to advise; audird, to liear.* 



PBP.-8TEMS. 



/, thou, he, we, ye, they, 
>% isti, It, tmfis, UtiB, dnmtyor ) 



n 



Isrconi 
2d conj. 
4thcoQJ. 



ftmav- 
xndntl- 
aadiv- 



hnve loved, 
heme advised, 
have heard. 



* In the first, second, and foorth conjugation8,it is obvioas that the per- 
fect is made n^ of the cnide-form of the verb and/«i; e. g^ ama-fai=7 
imtvi; mond-foi = monui ; aadi-fai=aadiyL 



Digitized by 



Google 



PERFECT TENSE. 
EXERCISE. 



106 



(272.) Vocabulary. 

PreceptOTi pnBceptdr, (pneceptdr) Hi 

(n,.). 
TVibunCf tnbdnnfl, i (m.). 
Sister, Bdr6r, (sdrdr) Xa (£). 
DUgrtice, ignOmlnifi, 8b (£). 



PUeuantf jilcimdag, fl, Han, 
AU night, p«r tOt«m nocMm. 
DUigetUly, dlligentdr (215, 2, b). 
From every side, ondiqafi (adv.)* 
To excite, ezicitftrfi. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IM PSKPSCT TMHM. 

towers of Oaul. — The coviing of Caesar terrified llie iEduans 
and Hebetians. — I have often walked in Csssar's garden, on- 
the-other-side-of the Tiber (trans Tibgdm). 



LESSON XLV. 

Tenses for Compkted Action^ continued. — Perfect 
TensCf Third Conjugation. 
(276.) The perfect teuse-stem of most verbs of the 
third conjugation is formed by adding s to the verb- 
stem; e.g.f 

Porfect^tent. 
r«g-€p», taruU, r*g-s = re»- 

scrib-6rd, to write, scrib-s =; sciq)»- 

l{kd-^r6, to play y tild-s s: lus- 

(277.) Rvlea of Euphony. 

(!) A c-sound before s forms X ; dac-8 = dux; rdg-s = 
rex. 

Rem. C| g, hr go, qn, are claiied among k-aonnds. t alao (generally) 
before s forma x; ▼iy*8:svix. 

(2) b before s is changed into p ; e.^^., ac rib- s^c scrips; 
U&b'-s = nup8. 

(3) A t-sound is (generally) dropped before s; Itld-8=Itt8; 
claud-s=claus. 

Rem, t and d are Hie t-sonada. 

(278.) By adding the perfect-endings (263) to the 
stems of reg-er6, scrib-€r§, lud-§rd, we obtain 
the perfect tense-forms (have rukd^ have written, have^ 
played}. 



1 PEBFKCT-8TBM«. 


BNTONOS. 





(r6g-i=) rex- 
•crib-as) scripa- 
1 (lftd-8=) laa- '^ 


/, ihott, he, we, ye, ikey, 
>h isti, it; imds, istis, eront^or) 


have ruled, 
have written. 
hm^fU^ed. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PBBFBCT TEN»B. lOT 



EXCRCISE. 

(279.) Yocabulary. 



Digitized by 



Google 



108 



PLUPERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT. 



— Orgetorix led-together to the trial all his household and all 
(his) dependents. — ^Why have you drawn (your) sword ? — Why 
have you not written to (your) fiither ? — ^The ^duans levied 
many soldiers. — We have divided the nature of man into soul 
and body. 



LESSON XL VI. 

Tenses for Completed Action^ continued. — Pluperfect 
and Future Perfect Tenses. 

(283.) (a) The pluperfect tense simply adds to the perfect 
tense-stem the imperfect of esse {to be); viz., dr&m, 
^rfts, 6cc, 

(b) The future perfect simj^ adds to the perfect tense-stem 
the future of esse; viz., ^r6, dris, 6cc. ; but in 3d plural it 
changes u into i; viz., 6rint, instead of drnnt. 

(284.) Thus, from am-are, m5n-er€, reg-6r€ 
aud-ir^, we have, 



PBF.-STBM. 


PLUPSIirXCT-JENDINa. 




1. fcnav- 

2. mdnd- 

3. rex- 

4. aadlv- 


/, thou, he, we, ye, they, 
I drSm, erag, 6m, erftmiii, IkniXa, 6rant,i 


hadhved. 
hadadvised, 
hadrttled. 
had heard. 








1. «mSv- 

2. monu- 

3. rex- 

4. aodiT- 


I 6t6, &b, Mt, ^ftaaUM, 6iltiDi, «rint, i 


shaU have loved. 
9haU have ruled. 



EXERCISE. 



(285.) Vocabulary. 

V^/Ues, angastis, arum (pL). 

To err, errflrfi. 

To draw, dilcdrS. 

A principle, principimn, L 



To attack, oppngnBi^ 
Near, jaxth (prep. aoe.). 
Already, j&n (adv.). 
To take by ttorm, expogxtirS. 



(286.) Translate into English. 

{a) Pluperfect. — MiKtfis dia et aciltdr pugnftv^rant. — Tl/Mt 
filiiim saepd m5nti6r&t. — Du&s I6gidn6s In ItaliA conscripserft- 
miis.— Helvdtl! j&m p6r angustias c6pifts sufts transdux^rant.** 



Digitized by 



Google 



PLUPBBFECT AND FUTUSC FBBFECT. 109 

CaDS&r casteDft GrallisB muniTdr&t 6t trfis Idgidnfts ex hibernis 
ednxdr&t. 

(b) Future Perfect. 
Rem. The fiUwre perfect is lometimef ued in Latiii, when in Eng- 
lish we ihoold me the limple perfect ctr future ; e. g.. 
When I {shaUj have written the \ Oaiun epistdlin^icripgerd, idtS 
letter, I thaU come to you, \ vSniim. 

Qamn &micum in horttim duxdrft, &d td ydQi&m.-^Haad 
err&ydr6, si & Platond princlpitim duxdr6. — Qaoin hostte cat- 
telUl exptigD&v^nDt, urbSm ips&m (159) oppugnftbimt. — ^Haad 
err&yeris, si ft Cic^roDe priocipid. duxdris. 

(287.) Translate into Latin. 

(a) Pluperfect. — The general had drawn his sword. — Near 
the cily the soldiers had fought long and spiritedly. — Caesar had 
levied one legion in Italy, and led-out seven from (their) win- 
ter-quarters in Gaul. — ^The Helvetians had abready led their 
f(Mt;es across the Rhine (113, II., a), through the boundaries 
of the Sequanians. — I had often advised you for your own 
sake (135, II., h). 

(b) Future Perfect (R., 286, b), — ^When we have written 
the letters, we shall come to the city. — ^We shall not have err- 
ed, if we shaD have drawn (ducdrd) our principles from Plato. 
— ^When Caesar shall have taken-by-storm the city, he will at- 
tack the tower itself (159). 

K 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 3. 

NOUNS OF THIRD DECLENSION.— FULLER 
TREATMENT. (XLVII.— LVH.) 

[Tm tfairi d«cleiui<m oontuiis more noimt tlian oil the o&ien tog^etii- 
er. It slao ntvolvei grtmter difkcoltiM ; aud we tfaerefi>re give it a 
foil treatment in the fbtiowing aectioa, wludb sbo^ be fwrefiiHy 
stadied.] 



LESSON XLVII. 

(288.) The genitive-ending of the third declension 
is Is. 

Rem. To find tihe stem of any noon of this declension, strike qW i* 
from the gen.; c^., G., nomlnis {of a Tuttne), stem, nomin. 

(289.) ENDINGS FOR ALL THE CASES. 





8IN6UI.AK. 




PLUBAI.. II 




H-MMlF. 


N. 




H. Mid F. 


ft. 


N. 







N. 


ds. 


^m^ 


a 


Is. 


is. 


Q. 


fim (ifim). 


iim(iiin4. 


D. 


L 


L 


JX 


ibOs. 


ibfis. 


A. 


6m (im). 


likeNom. 


A. 


«s. 


& (i4). 


V. 


likeNom. 


like Nom. 


V. 


6s. 


A. 


6{i). 


«(i). 


A. 


!btls. 


Ibiis. 



(290.) The nom.-ending is not given, because of the many 
forms in which that case occurs. The most common nom^-end' 
ing is s ; but the stem itself is often employed as the nom. ; 
and is often, agiun, changed. We make six classes, which 
must be carefully distinguished, viz. : 

(291.) CLASSES. 

L Nouns which add s to the stem in the nonunative with- 
out any vowel change. (FenUnines.) 
Noims which insert a connecting vowel (e or i) before 

adding s. (Feminines.) 
Nouns which change the stem-vowel (i into e) before 
adding s. {Masculines,) 
IV. Nouns which add 6 to the stem. {Neuters.) 



II. 



III. 



Digitized by 



Google 



NaUNfl, THIBD DECLENSIOIfy CLASS !• 



Ill 



V. NouQA i^iich present the unchanged stem in the nom- 
inative withoat adding s. (Masculines^ except -al, 
-ar, -ur, which are Neuter,) 
YI. Nouns which present the stem changed in the nomina- 
tive without adding a. (MasqitUnes, Femnines, and 
NetUers,) 

QiaSL] [Before entering upon th« paradifmi, the ■tndent sboald letrn 
thoroughly the following rules of euphony ^ which prevail geaenUly 
in Latin noons and verbs.] 

(1) c or g before s unites with it to form x ; «. ^.» le g-S is 
writtenlex; arc-s = arx; voc-s = vox, &:c. 

(2) d or t before s is dropped; e, g,y laud-s=rlaus; 
quiet-s^quies; parent-s = paren8* 

(293.) Class I. — The Nominative adds s to the 
Stefn, without any Vowel change. (Feminines.) 



Sing. 


Ciljr (C). 


Citadel (C), 


Praise (C). 


Race (nation), C 


QttiH(C). ll 


N. and V. 


orb-s. 


arx (arc-s). 


laas (laud-s). 


gensCgent^j). 


quids. 


Gen. 


urb-rs. 


arc-Is. 


laud-Is. 


gent-Is. 


quiet-Is. 


Dat. 


«b-I. 


mee4. 


laud-I. 


gent-S. 


quieM. 


Ace. 


wb-«m. 


tae-%m. 


laud-^m. 


gent-Sm. 


qui€t-SnL 


AbL 


urb-«. 


arc-d. 


laud-6. 


gent-6. 


quiets. 


Plur. 


Cities. 


CiUdels. j Praises. 


Races (nations). 




N.,A.,V. 


urb-es. 


arc-ds. 


laud-es. 


gent-^ 


qui^lr^ 


Gen. 


urb-!iim. 


arc-Ium. 


laud-tim. 


gent-Itim. 


quiSt-Qm. 


D. and A. 


urb-rbtis. 


arc-rbds. 


laud-ibtts. 


gent-Ibtls. 


quiet-IbOs. 



On this class» observe carefully that, 

(294.) As to the case-endings, i u m is the gen. plur. endmg 
of those BCHiae whose stMns end in two consonants ; e. g., urb-s, 
urb-is, urb-ium; nox, noct-is, noct-ium; cdhois, cohort- 
Is, c6hort-ium. 

(295.) As to gender, they are mostly feminine. Hence, 

Mule of Gender. — ^Nouns which add s to the stem, witbout 
changing the stem-vowel, to form the nom., ure feminine. 

[i20Vi. Bxceptions. ThelbUowingare fnoMv/tnesf 



1. dens (dent-Is), tooth. 
mons (mont-Is), mountain. 
fims {fyat'U)ffimnta4n. 
pons (pont-is), bridge. 
rddens (rudent-Is), rope. 



'bidens (bident-Is), hoe. 
•torrens (torrent-is), torrent. 
*trldens (trldent-!s), trident. 
'^6rien8 (5rient-Is), ecut. 
'^occidens (occident-lB), toest. 



• These nouns in ens are properly adjectives, with a masc. noun under- 
itood ; e. g., cneos sol, tonenf amxas, &c. 



Digitized by 



Google 



112 



NOUN8, THIRD DECLEN8ION| CLA88 I. 



3. Ghrex, (grSg) It, ajtoeki alio a few Doans in ix and ax. 
3. VinkB, (pfiriet) is, loaU; p6a (p6d-It), /oo^; Upia, (l&iriUl) U,ttone, 
viUi (yfid-is), <«7ie^^.] 

[S^ The ruZes of gender should be learned by heart ; Ae lists of ex- 
ceptions need not be, onless they are very short. All exceptions mi a 
mailed in the yocabolaries ; and the UstB shoold be referred to whenever 
cases occor.] 

To Class L belong the noons of the following endings, al whidi tiie 
pupil has had fireqaent examples : 

Libert&s, libertat-Is, liberty; dign!t&s, dignltftt-Is, dig" 

nityj and, in shcnt, all noons in & s, & tis. 
Virtus, y irt tit -U, virtue; and all others in fis, utis. 
PSlAs, palud-Ts, swamp; andotliersin As, Adis. 

In the following Exercise several o( the exoqftiom wiU be found. 
EXERCISE. 

(296.) Vocabulary. 



Highest {the top), smnmos, S, iim. 

Middlet mSdiiis, S, iim. 

To leave, r£linqii6rS (perf-stem, r^- 

Uqu-). 
To secede, sSceddrS (perf-stem, sS 

cess-). 
To take core of, cdrftre. 
To Umch upon, to reach, attingSrS. 
To seek, to aim. at, pStdrS. 
To cut down, rescind&i6. 



Romulus, Bdmulns, T. 
Hercynian, Hercynios, S, tun. 
Senate, sSn&tds, fis (m.). 
Agrippa, Agrippi, 8B (m.). ' 
Where, ublnfim ? 

The common people, plebs, (pl6b) Is. 
Patricians {of Rome), patres, (patr) 

iim (pL). 
An interreign, interregnOm, I. 



Speedy, dttiis, a, tUn. 

[The noons which occor in the preceding lesson are not named in the 
Yocabolary : the learner will find them, and observe their gender,] 

(297.) Examples. 

(a) On the top of the mount- 
ain. 

(b) On the tops of the trees, 

(c) In the middle of the city, 

(d) Where in the world ? 



In summo montfi. 

In summis ftrbdrlbiis. 
fn medi& urbd. 
Ublli&m gentitim? 



(298.) Translate into English. 

M agn& pars pldbU urbdm rdHquit, 6t in mont^m (295, R. 1 ) 
sGcesslt. — Tiim patrSs Agripp&m &d plebdm misCrant (401, 3, 5). 
— Hercyni& sylv& fines mnltftriim gentiilm attinglt. — Cassitis, 
Ifig&tus (225, a), tres cohortes in arcdm oppidi duxtt. — ^tJbi- 
n&m gentiijm silmils ?^-De^ ct&r&t gentds. — Aqu31» in sum* 



Digitized by 



Google 



NOUNS, THIBD DECLENSION, CLASS IL 



113 



mis montlbiis mdificant. — Magnus (78, II., h) &yiiim grex 

(295, R., 2) 8umm&m arcdm pdtunt. — Mifites pontdm (295, R., 

1) rescindunt. — ^Ldg^s Rom&ndrum justas fudrunt. — Summiis 

moDS (295, R., 1) ab hostabus tdnetur. — Caes&r ad utramqud 

(194, R. 1) partem pontits prsesldium r^Hquit. — Post RomiiU 

mortdm unites (194) anm interregnum fult. — S&pient68 mortem 

non timent. — Mors cit& vdnidt. 

[AH the nocms shotild be declined, the role of gender given, and the ex- 
ceptions referred to if necessary. The formations of the verbs should be 
cai«fally analyzed.] 

(299.) Translate into Latin. 

The laws were just. — ^The fountain was beautiful. — ^The 
Hercynian forest touches the boundaries of five nations. — ^The 
common-people left the city, and seceded to the mountain.— 
The doves built-their-nest in the top of the citadel (297, a). — ^A 
large flock of birds flew over the city. — ^The soldiers fought 
long on the middle of the bridge (297, c). — ^Then the senate sent 
an ambassador to the common-people. — God takes care of cities 
and nations. — The Belgians inhabit one part of Gaul, the Aqui- 
tanians another. — ^Where in the world (297, d) are we ? in 
what city do we live ? — Caesar fortified each part of the bridge. 



LESSON XL VIII. 

Nouns. — Third Declension^ continued. 
(300.) Class II. — The Nominative inserts a Conr 
necting'vowel (e or i) before adding s to the Stem. 
(Feminines.) 





e ituerted. 


i inserted. 11 


SiBtuU,. 


Cloud (C). 


Ship (C). 


N. and V. 


nab.^-8. 


n&v-i^. 


Gen. 


ndb-is. 


nftvia. 


Dat 


nflb-I. 


ntv-i. 


Ace. 


ndb-«m. 


nftv-dm or tm. 


Abl. 


ntlb-e. 


nftv-6 or I. 




Clouds. 


Ships. 


N. A. V. 


nflb^. 


nftv-€s. 


Gen. 


ndb-iam. 


nav-itim. 


D. and AbL 


nflb-ibfis. 


nfty-Tbus. 



K2 



Digitized by 



Google 



114 N0VW8, THUD DECUHiioify cajuw lU 

On this class, observe carefully, 

(301.) As to the ease-endingi : [(1) Th© •cc-anding Im 
instead of d m is used : 1, m>meHme$ (but rwely) in the words 
clavls, key; messls, harvest; nftvis, Mp: 2. commonly 
in fehrls, fever; pelvis, hann; puppls, sUm; restls, 
rope; sficfirls, axe; turrls, tower: 3. always tai amxi»«i»t 
a rule; sitlBy thirst; tusBia, cough; rin, force.] 

[(2) The abL-eDding i instead of 6 is used (not, however, to 
the exclusion of e) in all those words which take Im in the 
ace.; «. ^., turrls, turrim, turri: vis, vim, vi (al- 
ways) . Also in i g n 1 s, fire ; c i v 1 s, citizen,] 

(3) The gen. plur. ending i ik m instead of ti m is used is 
most nouns which insert e or i before adding s to the stem. 
[Proles, canls, panis, vatls, juvfinis have Urn.] 

(302.) Rule of Gender. — Nouns which insert a vowel (e or i) 
before adding s in the nominative dx% feminines. 
[Rem. Exceptkmst 



Amuii (hl), river. faicts (m.), bundle, 

AxTa (m.), axle. folHs (m.), beUotos, 

CalUs (m.), path, fOnis {m), rope. 

CSalllfl (m.), canaL faaOa (».), ehib. 

CoUTs (m.), kiU. ignia {m,),Jire. 

Crinia (m.)» hair. xnensis (zn.), ffumth, 

Snais (m.), iword, orbia (m.), eirele, 

EXERCISE. 
[In the vocabnlariea, the Roman nmnerala X., XL, dec, placed after 
noona, refer to the class to wfaic^ thej bekn^.} 

(303.) Vocabulary. 



•pivSa (m.), bread. 
piacia (m.),JUh. 
poatib (m.), post, 
•entia (at.), bramiie, 
ungala {m.),Jin^ernaiL 
yectla (m.), lever, 
vermia (m.), worm.] 



To dread, formidftrd. 

Pilot, gflbematdr, ia (m.). 

To bring, ftgdr* (perf-atem, 6gr-). 

To procure, comparftre. 

A CarthagifUan, CartbAglnienaia, ia. 

To raise, to kindle, exdttirS. 

Power, poteat&a, (pdteatiit^ ia iU I-)- 

Barbarian, baiiiftrfia, I. 

VehemejUly, graatly, vehfimentfir 

(215, 9, b). 
To build, aedlf Icare. 



A feet, claaaia, & (f., IL). 
And, ac. 

Twenty, vlglntl ^ndeoL). 
Lofty, altiia, tf, iim. 
Thirteen, trdddcizn (indecL). 
The Druids, Dmidea, dm (m.» pL). 
Thirst, aitta, (alt) ia {I, XI). 
To relieve, levftrfi. 
To dispute, diaptltar6. 
To terrify, terrirB (f«rfect-8tetti» 
teirii-). 



(304.) Translate into English. 
Nubes ssepd lun&m obsciirant. — Civds class^m hosti^m for* 



Digitized by 



Google 



HOUHB, THIRD DS0LBN9IONf OLAiS III. 



115 



midant. — Caes&r naves loogas sedificaTltt ^t naut&s giibeniatd- 
rSsque (202, N.) comp&rfivit. — Crassi^B &d oppidum torrSs 
alias 3^t. — Vdtdrgs Romani vim Cartha^mensium non formi- 
d&v6rant. — Caes&r turrds Mddcim excitfivit. — Milites ignSs 
magnos in summd montd (297, a) excitfivSrunt. — Druides dS 
deorum immortali^m vi ac potest&td dispiHant. — Classes adven- 
t6» (dvds tem^t.— Aqua eatlm (301, 1) lgv&t.--N«v& nftvltim 
figurd. vdh^ment^r (215, 2, 5) barb&ros terruit. 

(305.) Translate into Latin. 

Jaofty towers are raised by Csesar.— ^llie geoend prepared 
twenty long ships. — The Meutenant brought the towers to the 
wall of the city. — ^The power of the Romans terrified the Gauls. 
— Wine does not relieve thirst. — The sun is often obscured 
by the clouds. — The aj^roach of the fleet and the soldiers ter- 
rified the citizens. — A great fire is kindled on the top of the 
mountain by the ^duans. — The general stationed the ships 
near the wall of the city. — ^The clouds are black. — The coming 
of our fleet and the strange (n d v a) figure of the ships terrified 
an tike barbarians. 



LESSON XLIX. 
Nouns. — Third Declension^ continued.. 

(306.) Class HI. — The Nominative changes the 
Stem-vowel (i into d) before adding s to the Stem. 



Vowel i changed into e. || 


Singular. 


Soldier (m.). 


Book (m.). 


N. and V. 
Gen. 
Bat. 
Ace. 
AbL 


mil^-s (milet-s). 

znUrt-Jfl. 

mittt-i. 

zmUt-6m. 

milrt-6. 


c6d*c (codecs). 

COdlC-lfl. 

c6dlc-l. 

c6dlc-6m. 

c6dIc-«. 


Plural. 


Soldiera. 


Bookau. 


N. A. V. 

Gen. 
D. and A. 


miUl-Ss. 

mlllt-um. 

miUt-rbas. 


cOdlc-es. 
codlc-iUn. 
codlc-ibtis. 



On this class, observe that, 

(307.) As to the case-endings, they are all regular. 

(308.) Am to gender^ they are mascvUne. Hence, 



Digitized by 



Google 



116 NOUNS, THIRD DECLENSION, CLASS UU 

Rule of Gender, — ^Nooos which change the stem-TOwel 
1 into 6 before adding s in the noniinatiye are masculine, 

Exc. Merges (f.), (mergttis), a sheaf. 

EXERCISE. 

(309.) Vocabulary. 



Digitized by 



Goog^le 



Digitized by 



Google 



lis HOUHS, THIED BECLElfBI09» COJUKI IV. 



(316.) Exampks. 
(a) For Marseilles U washed 
on three sides by the sea. 



Masaffia ^olm ti^Oms ex p«rtl« 
bos m&rl (aU., 93, II«^ b^ 
R.) aUMttir. 

Nostrd mftri (55) longis n&vi- 
bus uti conraevimtis. 



(h) In our sea {i.e. , (he Med- 
iterranean) we were accus- 
tomed to use long ships. 
Rule of Syntax. — ^The deponent verb titi, to use^ goyems 
the ablative; e. ^., navibus, in (6). 

(317.) Translate into English. 

Longe iUi& nftvlg&tift est In angnstd mftrl atqn^ In vasto 
atqud &pertd oce&no. — Long» fudnrnt naves quibus (abL, 316, 
b) nostro mar! (55) uti (infin.) consu^vimus. — ^Ven6ti autem 
latis navlbus uti consuev^runt. — IVfihl (125, II., a) cubild est 
terr&. — ^Rdm&nortlm cubili& magD& fuerunt et splendid^. — 
Imper&t5r quinqufi naves ex nav&li edQxIt et praelium com- 
misit. — ^Turris dr&t proz!m& portui (106, II., c) nav&llbiis- 
que. — Caes&r, interim, omnes naves quae erant in navalibus 
incendit. — Ven&t&r r6t6 diligentdr pftrftb&t. — ^Vftn&t&ws rdti& 
cems (54) p&rabant. 

(318.) Translate into Latin. 

The farmers were preparing nets for the (54) doves. — Cor- 
inth is washed on two sides by the sea. — ^The ships which (316, 
b) the Venetians were accustomed to use in our sea were long. 
— ^In the vast and open ocean we use broad ships. — Navigation 
is far different (longd ali&)ina narrow river and in the open 
sea. — ^I had (125, II., a) a high tree (for my) bed.— Caesar was 
pursuing Pompey by sea and land. — ^The tower was veiy near 
to the dockyard. — The general, in the mean time, was rebnOd- 
ing an the old ships in the port and dockyards. 



Digitized by 



Google 



n(Xm$h TBtM DSOLMrStOI^ CLAM ▼. 



119 



LESSON LI. 
Nouns. — Third DecknsioTif continued* 
(319.) Clabs V. — The Nominative presents the 

Stem unchanged. 
1. Masctdine Fonn$. 





HODOor (m.). 


COitaa! (m.). 


OOOWCIIL). 


Bratber (m.). 


jr. and V. 


h6a6T, 


consilL 


uuidr. 


fifttdr. 


Gen. 


hdndr-is. 


conBill-ii. 


ans6r-if. 


frfttr-if. 


Dat 


hdndr-I. 


consdl-L 


ansdr-L 


frfttr-i. 


Ace 


h&nor-im. 


oonsdl-taL 


•ABhr-enu 


fMr-4uL 


AbL 


hdndr-e. 


conBul-6. 


«ns6r-«. 


fiAtr-6. 


Plaral. 


Honours. 


Coiwuls. 


OceM. 


Brothers. 


N., A., V. 


hdndr-6s. 


contAl^. 


anar.«g. 


frAtr-««. 


Gen. 


hdndr-tUn. 


consol-nm. 


ansdr-nm. 


frurdm. 


D. ftnd AM. 


bOndr-Ibfis. 


cons4l-Ibtt8. 


ans6r-ibAB. 


frttr-lbfli. 



On these, observe, 

(320.) As to case-endings^ they nearly aU take the regular 
endings throu^out ; but those whose stem ends intercHrber 
drop the e in all cases but the nom. ; <• g,, fr&tdr, fr&tris ; 
imh^r {a shower) imhr 1 8. 

Bjerm, Imbdr, lintSr, ventSr, take Ittm &r gen. pL ending: 
(321.) As to gender^ 

Mule of Gender, — ^Nouns which present the unchanged 

stem in the nom. (except those whose stems end in al, 

ar, ur, dr) are masculine. 

[Exception (L) In art &rh6r, ^rls {tree), iBfemimnei and Sd6r, ikU, 

{pure wheat) f aeqnor, drig («ea), marmdr, dns {marble), are neat (Obs., 

aascolines have 5 (long) in the stem ; neuters 5 (short) ). The ending «2 

generally bebngs to names of male beings (e. ^., consul): if applied to 

females, it may be feminine also (e. ^., exul, a female exile). 

Eao^tioE {%) irt liat^r (ioat) is muc orfem^t Ham folkmiag are 
mufti '/ •ftdtyer {cffrpn), absv (^of), Ter (rAe spring), Terber {Mi) 
tHao, all names ciplantM in er: e. g., piper {pepper), zlagTber {ginger), 
ftc] 

EXERCISE. 

(322.) Vocabulary. 



Noise, cUmdr (Oris, Y., 1). 
Cassius, Cassius, L 
FoAjeJugfim,!. 
Archer, sigittariiis, L 
SUnger, fimditor {Ma, Y., 1). 
Succour, subsldldm, L 
Main, imbir (b, 380). 



Continuance, oontilhiittid, (oontlnflt- 

ti6n) is (f.). 
Skin, tent made of skins, pelltt, (pell) 

is (f. n.). 
Desert, desertdm, i. 
Shepherd, pastdr (Oris, V., 1). 
Hunter, van*t«r (6ris, V., 1). 



Digitized by 



Google 



120 nOVVBf THIRD DEOLEN8ION9 CLA80 Y. 

(323.) Translate into English. 

Impdr&tor ad se merc&tores undiqae coDydcavit.^ 
Mifit^s omnes magno cum cl&more in oppldmn irmperunt. 
— ^Helvdtii Cassium consulem ocddunt, exerdtumque 6juB 
(153, c) syb jttgum* mittant. — CaBS&r sagitt&rida et fundi- 
tores subsidiof (dat.) oppld&nisf (dat) misit — ^Mifites con- 
ti[nu&ti[oDe imbrium (320, R.) sub pelHbus contlnentor. — 
Incdlae desertorum sunt pastores, yenatores, et mer- 
c&tdres. — DiyifisB merc&torum sunt incertae. — Caes&r 
omnem dquitatum funditores s&gitt&rioeque .pontem (113, 
II., a) transdnxit et ad hostes contendit. 

(324.) Translate into Latin. 

The Britons slew the general, and sent all the soldiers under 
the yoke. — The archers and slingers killed the chief. — Bj the 
continuance of the rains, the merchants are kept in the town. — 
The townsmen burst into the tents (peUes) with a great noise. 
— The archers and the slingers hasten to the town. — The con- 
sul Cassius led all the slingers oyer the bridge. — The Britons 
killed the scouts (exploratores), and sent the arch'ers and sling- 
ers under the yoke. — The scouts hasten to the consul. — The 
general sent twenty soldiers for a succourf (dat.) to the mer- 
chants, f — The inhabitants of the town are merchants. — The 
riches, of merchants, howeyer great (184) they are, are uncer- 
tain. — The soldiers slew all the inhabitants of the desert — The 
illtistrious consuls led all the footmen oyer the bridge (113, 
II., a). 

* A conqaered army was made to march mider a sort of yoke or gallows 
as a mark of disgrace. 

t Rule of Svniax,—Douile Dathe. Two datiyef , one of die person, the 
other of dae thing, may be nidd wilii esse, and wiA yeibs of giving, 
eonUng, tending, dec. 



Digitized by 



Google 



HOUNSy THULD DECLENSION, CLASS V. 



121 



LESSON HI. 

Nouns. — Third Declension^ continued. 

^325.) Class V. — The Nominative presents the 

Stem unchanged. 

2. Neuter Forms. 



1 Si«gul«r. 


Animal (n.). 


Spur (n.). 


Liglitniitg (a.). 


Marble (o.). 


N.,A.,V. 
Gen. 
Dat 
AbL 


Snimal-Ts. 
ftnim&l-i. 
ftmmali. 


caldir. 
calcftr-is. 
calc§r-L 
calcari. 


folgur. 
folgdr-ia. 
fo^r-i. 
fblgur-*. 


marmdr. 
marmdr-Ti. 
marmdr-L 
manndr-S. 


PluhO. 


AniinaU. 


Spom. 


Ligbtnings. 


Marbles. 


N.,A.,V. 
Gen. 
LD. and AbL 


Snimfllia. 
Snimfll ium. 
toftnal-ibiis. 


calcari*. 

calcar-ium. 

calear-ibas. 


fblgtbr-A. 

falgtir-um. 

fulgfOr-lbOi. 


marmdr-A. 

manndr-dm. 

marmor-Ibili. 



On these, observe, 

(326.) (a) As to case-endings, tiiose in al, ar, make abl. I, 
n(»n. plur. 1&, gen. plur. !um. 

(6) As to gender, they are neuter. Hence, 

Rule of Gender. — Nouns which present in the nom. the 
unchanged stem in al, ar, ur, and dr (short), are netUer. 

Exceptions in ftl: Sal {salt) is masc. and neut. in the sing;., and mate, 
s SI 3 8, in plnr. L ar, Uris {household god), masc. 

Exceptions in fir: Pfir [thi^, furfur {bran), turtur {turUe-dove), 
▼ultur {vulture), are masc. -• 

Exceptions in 5r. (Oecollect that 5r, Oris (with o long), is a vtase. 
ending (321) ; and that &rbor, Sris {tres), is /em.) 
Rem. Os, OS sis {bone)^ is neut. 

EXERCISE. 

(327.) Vocabulary. 



Laoel, plain, planfis, A, um. 

A plain, the sea, i»qu6r, Is (V., 2), 

(derived from ssquos, plaint see 

below, 328). 
Revenue, tax, vectigSl, (vectigsl) Is 

(V., 2). 
To create, creftrfi. 
Hatred, odium, 6di(im, i. 
Many, very many, compldrds, ft or 

ift (gen. fim or ifim), used only in 

pluraL 
Cku9, gSnfis, (g6n6r) Is, neut 



Temple, templum, i 

To place, pdndr6. 

Abode, ddmlcilifim, i. 

To goad, concltflrS. 

Frugality, parslmdnift, sb. 

Indeed, quIdSm (adv.). 

Placid, plftcMus, ft, fim. 

A marble temple, a temple ofmarbht 

templfim de marmdrd. 
Sharp, ftcutfis, ft, fim. 
Glare, splenddr, (splenddr) Is (V., 1). 
To farm, r«dlm«re (r«d«m-). 



Digitized by 



Google 



122 VOUNSt THIRD DECLEN8ION9 CLASS ¥• 

(328.) Example. 



The sea is Uveltfrom which 
€tlso the poets call it 
sequor (the sea). 



Mftrft pl&niim est ; ex qa5 
66&m sequor iUiid podtas 
ydcant. 
^^ Here the antecedent of qao is die aentence mird pltn&m est. 

(329.) Translate into English. 

Magnum hoc fult yectig&l, add magnftm cre&vlt ddiilm.^- * 
Dmnndrix, complarSs annos (191, a, Rule) omni& ^duorom 
vectig&li& rdddmdr&t. — CompIiir& (or coinpluri&) sunt gdnd* 
r& anlm&liiim. — Templiim de marmdrd In fiiro pdn&m. 
Crassus ddmiim magn&m de marmdrd splendido adiflc&Tlt. 
— ^F u 1 g ii r & mifitds T^hdmentdr terru^runt. — ^Terr& est ddm- 
Xciliiim hdm!niim ^t&nlmaliii m. — Mllites subit5 6qude c a 1* 
c &r 1 b tL 8 (abl., 55, a) condt&rd coepSrunt. — C a 1 c & r i a &c&tii 
sunt. 

(330.) Translate into Latin. 

Gloiy is a great spur to brave men. — The horses fear the 
sharp spurs. — The glare of the lightnings terrified the horses. 
— ^Almost (f e r e, 218, h) all animals are useful to men. — These 
were great revenues indeed, but they created great hatreds. — 
The seas were level and placid. — Frugality is a great revenue. 
-^We shall place a temple of splendid marble in the midst (in 
medio fdro, 297, c) of the forum. — The poets call (m&r6) the 
sea equor, because (quift) it k level. — The woods are tlie 
abode ci many animals. — ^Pompey for many years had ftimed 
the revenues of Asia. — ^The *c^ff^ky (ftquitds) be|^ te pat 
spurs to thehr horBes (= to goad Ihe^orses with spurs). 



Digitized by 



Google 



NOaNS, THIRD DBCLEN8ION9 CLASS VI. 



123 



LESSON LIII. 

Nouns, — Third Declension, contintied. 

(331.) Class VL — The Nominative presents 

Stem changed. 

1. Masculine Forms, 



the 



II 




(c) VerbaUin io {altjem.). 


1 Singular. 


Speech (m.)- 


Dust (ra-). 


Flower (m.) 


ReMon(C). 


N.andV. 


sermd. 


pnlvis. 


fids. 


ritid. 


Gen. 


semi6n-is. 


piilTdr-!s. 


fl6r-!8. 


rfttion-is. 


Dat 


sermdn-i. 


palvflr-L 


fldr-i. 


rfttida-i. 


Ace 


germdn-^m. 


palvdr-dm. 


fldr-Sm. 


ritidn-^m. 


AbL 


sermdn-e. 


palv8r-6. 


fl6r-6. 


ifttion-d. 


Plu«l. 


Speeches. || 


Flowers. 


Reasons. 


N.,A.,V. 


serm6n-68. 


||polvflr-Ss. 


fl6i>es.. 


rttidn-es. 


Gen. 


Benndn-om. 


pnlrdr-tlm. 


fldr-nm. 


rfttidn-dm. 


D.&AbL 


sermdn-Tbos. 


||pulv6r-ibus. 


fldribus. 


rttidn-ibtls. U 



On this class, observe, 
(332.) As to case-endings : 1. Final n of the stem is gener^ 
aUy dropped in Latin nouns in the nominative. (In sanguis, 
sanguln-ls {hhod), it is changed into s.) 

2. Final r of the stem is often changed into s, as in p ul vl s, 
flOs, md«, &c. 

(333.) Rule of Gender, — Nouns which simply drop n of the 

stem in the nom. are masculine (except abstract ndtms 

inlo). 

Special Rem. — Abstract notma in io (dnis) are feminine ; e. g., rat-io^ 

reoion; oltio, revenue. (Tfaey are a ^ery large class, fozmed by add« 

ing io to tiie supine-stem of verbs.) 

(334.) Ride of Gender, — Nouns which change dr of the 
stem into Is, 6r into Os, are moicMM; 6* g,t pnlfis 
(pulvfir), flos (fl6r). 

EXERCISE. 

(335.) Vocahulary. 



MatvMT^ custom^ m6s, (mdr) Is (VI., 

1,*). 
BMw, latrd, (latrOn) Ts (VI., 1, a). 
Pirate, pnsdd, (prosddn) Is (VL, 1, a). 
Centwrian, centOrid, (centnridn) Is 

(VL, 1. a). 
Uon, led, (leon) Is (VL, 1, a). 



Speech, language, neem&, (sdrmOn) 

Is (VL, 1, a). 
Smrendar, didSA&, (d«ditid&) U 

(VL, 1, e). 
Reheaion, rSbellid, (rebellion) U 

(VI., 1, c). 
The Sacred Way, Via Sacit. 



Digitized by 



Google 



124 NOUNSy THIBD DECLENSION, CLASS TI. 



To tlay, trdcld§i«. 

Nurse, ndtrix, (nntrlc) U (L). 

Devoid of, expers, (expert) b (107). 

To draw, trih«rt (trax-; 277, 1). 

Eloquent, disertila, fi, tm. 

Adorned, omatfii, i, Qm. 

To go, xrd. 

By chance, fortd (adv.). 

As, Bicfit. 

£tiMi, bUndftf , ft, ftm. 



M5r6 latrdntLm. 
Mord sud. 



Speech (in the abstract), or an ora- 
tion, 6ratid, (orfttidn) is (VI., 1, c). 
Dust, pulvts, (pulv«r) is (VI., 1, b), 
Egyptian, JEgyptOs, L 
Sweet, pleasant, soAyis, Is, d. 
To wander, errtrS. 
To employ, ntS. (with abL, 316, b), 
ToJinisK conflcdrd O^o). 
The rest, the remaining, rdllqatts, ft. 

Bill. 

(336.) Examples, 

(a) After the manner of roh- 

hers, 
(h) After his (her or their) 
own manner* 

(c) Deooid of reason* Rfttidnls expers. 
Rvle of Syntax. — Adjectiyes signifyiDg abounding, want^ 

privcUion, &c., govern the genitive (sometimes abl.). 

(d) We say, a doud of dust ; the Latin says, a power of 
dust — ^vis pulvdrls. 

(337.) Translate into English. 

1. (Masculines, Class VL, 1, n dropped.) — Centaridnds 
nuEtiim Labidnum fibentdr sSqudbanttir. — Leg&tiis sermd* 
nem k>ngum conficit. — Multl ^dui Caes&iis sermoni (dat., 
267, b) interfudrmit. — ^Imp6rftt5r r^fiquos latronds prsedd- 
n&sque trucld&vit. — ^Afilc& nutrix est leonilm fdrocitim. 

3. (Verbal Nouns in ion, all Feminine.) — ^Helvdtii leg&tos 
de (concerning) dedltione ad Caes&rdm nusdrunt. — ^Barb&ii 
rdbelliondm turpdm fdcdrunt. — Legatiis, oration^ acii 
(aU., 55, a), barfo&ros ad dedltiondm trant. — Or&tio disertft 
dt orn&t& omnibus (161, a) pl&cdt — Fdr» sunt r&tionls et 
5 r & t i 5 n IS . expertes. 

3. (Nouns changing ^r of the Stem into is, dr into Gs; all 
Mcuculines.) — Pulvls et umbr& sumtis. — ^MiHtes, edddm tern- 
p6r6 (118, II., c) magn&m vim pulvdris viddbant. — Ib&m 
forte Tift sacrft (abl., 55, a) sictit metis est mos. — ^^gypia, 
mdrd praedontim (336, a), nftves incenddre (infin., 210) con- 
suSvenint. — Suftves tui mords mIM (161, a) valde plftcent. — 
Pi-sedon^s, mor6 sad, oppidft incenddrd coepdrunt. 



Digitized by 



Google 



NOUNSy THIRD DECLBNSIONy CLASS VI. 



125 



(338.) Translate into Latin. 

1. (Masculines^ Class VL, 1, n dropped.) — Caesar ecnploTs 
kind language* (abl., 316, 6), and draws the barbarians to a sur- 
render. — Many of the Helvetians heard the severe speech (78, 
U., b) of Caesar. — ^The bands of robbers and pirates wander by 
sea and land. — ^The general slew all the wicked pirates. — Is 
(135, II., a) Airica the nurse of lions ? — Is Europe (nukn, 280, 
h) the nurse of fierce lions ? 

2. (Verbals in io, aU Feminine,) — Caesar drew-out from 
(their) winter-quarters the four legions which he had levied 
(conscripsdr&t) in Italy. — The eloquent oration pleased all. 
— ^The barbarians made a base rebellion afber (their) surrender. 
— Lions are devoid of reason and speech. 

3. (Nouns changing 6r of the Stem into is, or into ds ; McU' 
ctdines.) — The flowers are beautiful. — The customs of the 
Germans were good. — Death turns (vertlt) all tlungs into 
dust. — At the same time (118, II., 5), a great cloud of dust (336, 
d) was seen by the soldiers. — I was sleeping in the garden, as 
is my custom. — The ^duans, after the manner of pirates, slew 
the ambassadors. 



LESSON LIV. 

Nouns. — Third Declension^ continued. 

(339.) Class VI. — The Nominative presents the 

Stem changed. 

2. Feminine Forms. 



n of the Stem dropped, and I changed into 6. \\ 


Singular. 


Image (f.). 


Hwl (f.). 


N. and V. 
Gen. 
Dftt. 
Ace. 
Abl. 


imftgd. 

lniftg£Q*l8. 

!m5gln-i. 

bnft§(n-fim. 

imaging. 


grandd. 

grandin-Is, 

grandln-i. 

grandin-dm. 

grandIn-§. 


PluraL 


Images. 


Hail. 


N,A.,V. 

Gen. 
D. and Abl. 


Imftgln-ei. 

Jmagin-um. 

imftgin-tbns. 


grandin-es. 
grandin-iQin. 
gran^bi-ibils. | 



Sermo. 

L2 



Digitized by 



Google 



126 NOUNS, THIRD DBCLBNSION, CLASS VI. 

On these, observe, 
' (340.) Rule of Gender. — Nouns which drop n, and change 
i into o in the nom., 9re feminine. 
Exceptions. Ord6 {order), card* {hing^l turbd (wkirlmnaj, are 
masculine. N6m6 (nobody), marg* {margin), are common. 
(Homo, man, if maac by the general role, 35^ a.) 
Mem, Gird {JU$h) makea gen. carnii, dat carni,Ac, confiracted 
from carlnis, carini, &c. 

EXERCISE. 

(341.) Vocabulary. 

Lily, ISMm, L 

Virgin, virg6, (virgin) U (VL, 8). 

Prayer, prex, nam. not used, (prtks) 
is (I.). 

To celebrate, to extol, c61ebr*r6. 

Origin, origd, (origin) Is (VL, 8). 

To collect, c6g6r6, c6n+ag6r6 (perl- 
stem, coeg). 

Order, rank, ordfi, (ordin) Is (VL, ji) 
(m.). 

Whirltcind, tnrb6, (torbln) Is (VL, 
2, 340, exc). 

Safe, salvns, ft, iim. 



, sonmAs, L 
Same, iddm, eftddm, Id6m (150). 
Multitude, moltitadd, (moltltadin) Is 

(VL, 2). 
To set forth, exp6n6r«. 
Swallow, Mnmdd, (hinmdin) Is (VL, 

2). 
Harbinger, prsenontilL 8B. 
Spring, v6r, is (321, exc. 2). 
Resemblance, sImillWdd, (slmflltil- 

dln) Is (VI., 2).* 
To preserve, keep, servarS. 
To caU {nam>e), appellard. 
Council, concilimn, L 

(342.) Translate into English. 

1. Somnus imag5 mortis est. — ^L3g&ti e&d6m quae Cses&r 
dix6r&t multltudin! exponunt. — Hirundinds prseonnliae 
yens sunt. — Galli oppidum ex slmilitudlnS floris LUium 
appellabant. — Consul matnim virginum-que prSeibus exd- 
tatur. — ^Podts celebrant Romiilum, driginSm gentis. 

2. Princlpes ^duorum magn&m multitlidindm hdmi- 
niim ex agns coSgerunt. — MlHtSs ordin 6s n5n servant. — 
Caes&r centiirXQn6s primOrtim ordlnum&d concifium convdcat- 
— Cic6r8 in magnis turbinibfis navdm reipul^ca (351, 3) 
gdbem&vlt, 6t salv&in In portu cdldc&Ttt. 

. (343.) Translate into Latin. 
1. Speech (serm5) is the image of the m'md. — Sleep is often 
the harbinger of death. — The soldiers feared the f<Nrce of the 

* Slmmtadd floris a»reMemblance to ajlower. 



Digitized by 



Google 



NOUNS, THIED DECLENSION, CLASS TL 



127 



bail. — ^The centurions were setting-fortli the fame (tilings) 
which the general had commanded.^-The brave tokliers are 
moYed by the prayers of the mothers and the virgins. 

2. The consuls collect a great multitude of men from the 
towns. — Caesar dismisses from (ab) the council the centurions 
of the first ranks. — The archers and the slingers did not keep 
their ranks. — Caesar calls (v 6 card) to the coundl the centuri- 
ons of all the ranks. — The brave consul in the great whirlwinds 
win govern the ship of state (351, 3). — Cassar will place the 
ahip of state safe in the pprt. 



LESSON LV. 

Nouns. — Third Declension^ continued. 

(344.) Class VL — The Nominative presents the 

Stem changed. 

3. Neuter Forms. 



- 


(a) Vowel rluutgtd. \ 


(b) Vmoel and Com. ekanged. ||(c) Cmi».dumg^\^ 


Singular. 


Sov (o.). 


Strengtii (n.^ 


Work (n.). 


Body (n.). 1 Law (•.). 


N.,A.,V. 
(Jen. 
I>mt. 

AbL 


carmen, 
cannlii-to. 

carmin-^. 


robfir. 
robfir-fe. 
r6b^^L 
r6bor-€. 


illl 


corpdB. jua. 
corpSMi. ur-fa. 
coip6r-L T«r-L 
corp6r-«. || jur-«. 


Plural 


Songt. 




I .Works. 


Bodien. Lawa. 


N^ A.,V. 

GezL 
D.,AbL 


carmm-tt. 

cannin-iuiL 

carmin-Ibiis. 


rdbor-ft. 

r6bdr-4iin. 

robfir-IbiSs. 


dper-ft. 

oper-ttm. 
opdr-ibds. 


corpdr-i. \ 
oorpor-dm. 


ar-& 
nr-tbfis. 



On this class, observe, 

(345.) As to gender, they are all neuter. Hence, 

Mule of Gender, — ^Nouns which, in the nominative, change 
the stems In into ftn, 5r into iir, and 6r, 5r, or Qr into 
u 8, are neuter. 

Ksoeptkm. (1.) In in: oo^ pectite, p^etMa (mase.), a coimA. 
(3.) 5r izitoiir: none. 
(3.) Sr into tta: none. 

(4.) 5r into Qi : only Ifipiis, Idpdiia (masc.), a hart. 
(5.) ur into nt: mua, murla (ma«c.)> nunue; tellai, flrit 
(fom.), €aiik 



Digitized by 



Google 



128 



N0UN8« THIKD DECLEKBION, CLASS Tl. 



(346.) Under this head may be classed the follow- 
ing nouns of rare endings : 

1. Poem&, &ti8 (neuUr), a poem. Nouns of this form are 
derived from the Greek, and are aU nenters. They prefer the 
MkUng is to Ibi&s in the dat. and abl. plnr. 

2. Halee {ntuUr)j h&ldcis, brine, and l&c {neuter), lactls, 
milk, are the only Latin nouns ending in c in the nom. 

3. C&ptit, capitis, head, is the only Latin noun skiing id 
t in the nom. It is neuter. 

EXERCISE. 

(347.) Vocabulary. 

Arrogance, arrog^antift, a. 

Crvmtt ciimSn, (crindn) ii (VX, 3, 

a). 
To want (lack), to he free from, c4- 

rtre (with aR). 
FoUy, ■talti[ti&. 
Wondcrfidt mlrif icilB, i, fim (minu 

-Kado). 
Naked, nfldiifl, S, um. 
Strong, viUdOs, t, tUn. 
The whole qffair, omsSM r6s. 

(348.) Examples, 
{a) To condemn to death. 



To delay, tardirtt. 

Oift, mUn&B, (nranSr) it (YL, 3, b). 

Quickly, citd (adv.). 

Haret Idpiis, (lep5r) ia {m^ 345, 4). 

Milk, l&c, (lact) is (n.. 346, 2). 

Flesh, cdr^ (cam) ia (£, 340, IL). 

Young man, jay6iiia» ia (m.) : gen. 

pL, QxxL 
Danube, D&ndbiiia, I (m.). 
Jugwrtha, Jagorthi, a. 
If, al (coi\J^. 



C&pitis (or c&pitd) condem- 
nfird ( = to condemn of (he 
head). 

Jttde of Syntax. — With verbs ai condemning, the punish- 
ment (if capital) is put in the gen. or abl. 

(6) To be free from a crime. I Crimlnd c&rdrd ( = to want 
I crime). 

Rtde of Syntax. — ^The ablative case is used with verbs (and 
adjectives) of abounding and wanting. 

(349.) Translate into English. 

Socr&tds arrdgantiae 6t stultltisB criming c&rdb&t. — ^Rhdntis 
et Rhdd&nus magn& sunt flumin&. — Magnft et mirificft simt 
omni&Dei 6pdr&. — Galli semper nudo corpdrfi (8ynt.,716, 2) 
pugn&bant. — Corpdr& Germ&ndrilm vfiHdft et miilfic& fndrunt 
— Magnltadft dpdrfim onmdm r6m tardftbat. — Si mQn6r& 



Digitized by 



Google 



IBRE6ULAE NOUNS. 129 

tardas, nihil das ; bis d&t, qai dtd dat. — ^Vdnfttdr Idpdrds tifml- 
dos in syMs persdqitftar. — ^Athdnienses Socratdm c&plt6 con 
demnarunt.* — Cur t&ldm virom c&pitis condemn&stis ?^ 
Brltanm lactd et camft i^yunt. 

(350.) Translate into Latin. 

Tlie bodies of the young men were strong. — ^The man (yir> 
was free from the crime of folly. — ^The Danube and the Rhin» 
are great rivers. — ^Do the Gauls (num, 280, h) fi^t with naked 
body ? — The works of Cicero are excellent : I read them (eos) 
with {Measure (libentdr). — ^The Romans condenmed Jngurtha 
to death (348, a). — Did the Athenians (280, h) condemn Socra- 
tes to death ? — ^The captives were condemned (imperf. pass.) to 
death. — ^The timid hare was wandering in the woods and fields. 
— ^Is-it-possible-that (280, h) the Britons live (on) (abl.) milk 
and flesh ? — ^Your pleasant scnigs (161, h) delighted (d elec- 
ta re) me. 



LESSON LVI. 
Irregular Nouns. 
(351.) We give here the declension ofafsw irreg* 



ular nouns. 



1. Jupiter. 

Nom. jQpitdr. 

Gen. J5vis. 

Dat. Jdvf. 

Ace. JdvSm. 

Abl. J6v6. 



Digitized by 



Google 



180 



nUtSQULAE yOUNfti 



3. BoSy an ox or cow. 



Singolur. 

Nom. Bes. 


PUffil. 
B«T68. 


Gen. Bdvls. 


Bodm. 


Dat. Bdvi. 


Bobus or Bubiis. 


Ace. B5?dm. 


B6v6s. 


Voc. Bos. 


B6v6s. 


AbL B6v$. 


Bobus or babfis. 




won is inflected; e. g^ 


Respublica (res+publica), a republic^ sta 


Singalar. 

Nom. RespnbKcft. 
Gen. ReipubHca. 
Dat. ReipubKcae. 
Ace. RempnbEcfim. 
Voc. RespubKc^. 
Abl. RepubKcft. 


Plural. 

ReapuMlca?. 

R6bmpnl:^tefs. 

Respubfics. 
Rdbuspubficis. 


4. Jusjurandum (jus+jurandum), an oath. 


Singular. 

Nom. Jusjurandtim. 
Gen. Jurisjurandi. 
Dat. Jurijurando. 
Ace. Jusjurandum. 
Abl. Jurijurando. 


Plural. 

Jurajurandft. 




Jurajurandft. 



Rem. The genitive, datirei asid ablative pinral are not oaed. 



BXBB. 

(352.) Vocabulary. 

Faith, promise, Hdetf, eL 

To bind, obstringSrfi, (5b-i-striBSfir9} 

(perfl-stem, obstrinx). 
To take care of, ctrSrO. 
FoUy, stoltittifi, 8B. 
To lose, imitterg, (&+ni^t6i«) (pec£- 

stem, ftmis). 
To intrust, committdrd, (oon-f-mit- 

t6t6) commla (wil^ dat). 
JSspeeiaUy, maximfi (adv.). 
To ioortkip, ciHHM^ (peril-item, c6- 

Ifl-). 



CISE. 

Apis, Apis, is (£). 

Sacred, sanotus, 8, iim. 

Formerly, oKm. 

Guardian, cnstOa^ (cnstod) Is (m. 

and f.). 
Juno, Jund, (Jdaoo) is (£). 
Husband or wife, coi\)iix, (oonjtig) 

is (m. and f.). 
Nation, n&tid, (nStion) Is (£). 
An Egyptian, JEgyptSs, L 
But especiaUy, mAximd antdm. 
ifuMTvOk l£(nerrfi^ ». 



Digitized by 



Google 



ntftBGULAR KOOKS« ISl 

(353.) Translate into English. 
Frindpes intdr sd flddm et jusjflrandfim dftbant. — ^Aric 
▼ist^ cMtatSm jQrejurando (55) dt obslittbiis obstrinidt. — 
Apiid Kdm&nos, consults rempubllc&m cur&y6nmt. — Muto 
natidnes pdr stultati&m respubllcas snSts ftittisertmt.— Vdtd- 
r&s maxima Jdvdm cdhidrant. — ^gypti Apfan, sanctvLin 
bovdm (225, a), olim cdluSrmit. — Jupltdr est hQjiis nrUs 
custos. — ^Jun5 dr&t J 6 vis conjux. — Civds ir&m Jdvis timenU 
— Comu& bourn sunt magn&. 

(354.) Translate into Latin. 

The robbers will give an oath amcHig dieiQB^vea.-^8B8ar 
binds all the Germans by a promise and an oath. — Caesar bound 
the chiefe of the state by an oath and by hostages. — ^The senate 
hitmsts (com mitt it) the whole republic to Cicero. — ^Thd 
consuls win take care of our republic* — ^The ancients worship- 
ped many gods, bat especially Juf^ter. — ^We have lost the re- 
public by (per) our own folly. — Jupiter is the guardian of our 
house. — ^Apis, the sacred ox, is the guardian of thit city. — 
Minerva was the daughter of Jupiter. — Grood men do not fear 
the anger of JupitOT* 



Digitized by 



Google 



183 RULES OF 6BNDEE9 THIRD DECLENSION. 

(355.) LESSON LVII. 



Summary of Ruks of Gender from the Nominative 
Pormation.* 



I. Masculines either 

1. Add 8, and change the stem-vowel before it; e. g.^ ^ * 
gurgds, gurglt-ls, whirlpool; milfts, milit-is, wl-^ 
aier ; codex, cddic-is, hook, ) 

2. Present the stem er, ul, or, without adding s ; €. ^., 
ans6r, ans6r-ts, goose; consul, constil-^, consul; 
hdndr, hon5r-l8, honour. 



3. Drop n without adding s; t. g.y sermo, serm6n-ls, 
speech; carbo, carbon-is, com* 

4. Change dr of the stem into Is, 5r into ds ; e. ^., 
clnis, cin6r-ls, ashes; pulyis, pulT6r-is, dust; 
flos, i\6r 'U, flower. 

11. Feminines either 

1. Add s without changing the stem-yowel; e.g.^ urb-s, 
urb-ls, city; nox (noct-s), noct-ls, night; tox 
(vdc-s), ydc-!s, voice ; quies, quiet-is, quiet. 



2. Insert a yowel (e or i) before adding s ; e. ^., nt^h-e-s, 
nub-is, doud; n&v-i-s, nay -is, ship. 



3. Drop n, and change i into o ; e, g,, im&go, im&gin-is, 
image ; grando, grandin-is, hail, 

UL Neuters either 

1. Add e to die stem ; e,g,, m&re, m&r-is, the sea. 

2. Present the unchanged stem al, ar, ur, 6r; e. g,, &ni- 
m&l, anim&l-is, animal; calc&r, calc&r-is, spur; 
fulgtir, fulgur-is, lightning ; 3qu5r, aequ6r-is, sea. 

3. Change in of the stem into 6n, 6r into i&r, and dr, dr, 
orQriutous; e.g"., carman, ear mi n -is, «on^; dbtir, 

. 6b6r-is, ivory; 6ptis, 6p6r-is, work; corpus, cor- 
pdr-is, body ; crtis, crur-is, leg. 



* Abundant iOutrations of these roles have been ffiven. The stadent 
•honld now learn them tboroagfaly by hearty and apply them in llie fob- 
sequent lessons. 



Digi'tized by 



Google 



BXCSPTION8. 183 



Exertions* 



I. 1. (My merges, mer^tls (f.), shectf. 

' er, feminine : Itntdr, boat. 

er, netUer : c&d&vdr, ubSr, v6ri)6r, v6r, tilbdr, spin- 
th^r, with all the names of plants m dr. 
I. 2.' 6 T, feminine : arb6r, tree. 

dr, n«uter.- cdr, &ddr, aeqndr, marmdr. 

Eem. The n«u^erf have 6 {ihort) in the stem ; tiie «uif- 
, eulines, 6 {lon^), 

J 2 ^ The abstract nouns' in lo are all feminine ; e. ^., riUio 

I. 4. None. 



'Masculines. Viz,, fons, mons, pons, dens and its 
-rj . I compounds, torrens, ocddens, drlens. 

"^ Grex, Greek nouns in ax, and a few in ix ; liipis, 

vfis, p&ri6s, p6s.* 
' Masculines. Latin nouns ending in nls ; e. g., ignis 
(m.),fire ; with 
IT n i Piscis, orbis, calHs, and candlls ; 

^' ^' ^ Unguis, cauKs, axis, and ann&Hs ; 

Fascis, sentib, fustis, canis, ensis ; 
Vecds, vermis, posHs ; also men^s* 
jj « J Masculines. Ordo, cardo, homo, turbo, 
n. o. J Common. Nemo, margo. 

III. 1. None. 

iSSl, mxisculine and neuter in singular ; mascuUne in 
plural. L&r, Iftils, masculine. 
Fur, furfiir, turttir, vulttir, mascuUne. 
Mcuculine : changing in into dn, only pectin, comh ; 
changing dr into us, only Idptis, hare ; chang- 
ing u r into us, only mus, numse. Feminine : 
tellus, earth. 



• There are also a few Cfreek words that are mascdBiie. As, assls, 
eom, is masculine ; vas, vftsis, vase, is neater. 

M 



Digitized by 



Google 



M. 



COMPARISON OP ADJECTIVES, (LVnL— LX.) 

(356.) ABJECTiVES are inflected both in English 
and Latin to express degrees of quality ; e. g.. 






hraoer, 
fort-i6r, 



bravest. 
fert-iffslmiiii. 



LESSON LVIII. 
The Comparative Degree* 

(357.) The comparative has the ending i6r for 
the ma^cvline^ and ius for neuter. These endkigs 
are added directly to the stem of the adjective ; e.g".. 









Brofoe, fort-is ; 


braver, fort-ior; 


fort-ius. 


Hard, dor-us ; 


harder, dftr-ior; 


dOr-ins. 



Beautiful, piilch-er> 
r-);S 



more beautiful, pnkhr-ior ; ptQchr-ius. 



{stem, pulchr-); 

Rem, 1£ the stem endtf in 8 vowel, the oomparatiTe is ibnaed by lIlA 
xue of mtgis, mare, instead (rf'tiie ending; c g., 

pums, pi-OS ; more pious, migls plus. 

JU, idone-us ; more Jit, mftgis IMtineem. 

(358.) DECLENSION OF COMFARATIYES. 





smouLAm. 






■•se.ndF«in. 


Neat. 


Kaac and Fem. 


Neat. H 


N.andV. 


dur-i6r. 


ddrifts. 


dflr!dr6s. 


dClr-i«rft. 


Qen. 


dur-loris. 


der-iorftu 


diSr-!«rfim. 


ddr-{6r£lm. 


Dat 


dur-iori. 


dftr-iori. 


ddr-i5fibns. 


ddr-idrfbiis. 


Ace. 


dur-idrSuL 


dnrias. 


dur-iores. 


ddr-iOrtL 


AU. 


dflr-IOre. 


dur-I6r€. 


dfir-ISribfis. 


dflr-ioribus. 



J2em. In the later writers, I iivsed for tU. sing, 
instead of S. 



endliif fra^pMd^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



COBIPASISON OF ADJBCnVSS. 



185 



EXEEOISB* 

(359.) Vocabulary. 

ZjOce, iimilar to, simSiB (takes iai^ 

sometiiiiefl gen., 106, IL, c). 
Amiable, ttmfibilis^ is, d. 
Eloquent, eldqxiens. 
Eaxellent, prsestanB. 
Jgneranee, Igndratio, (ignontion) U. 
Knowledge, identia, ae. 

Silver f vrg/soltxa^ L 

Vile, paltry, vilis, ia, fi. 

Juetice, JTutittifl, se. 

(360.) Exampks. 
(a) A pirate is more like a 
wild heast than a man. 



DeoT, precious, ciribi, X, ttm. 
Few, pawn, ^ & (twed only in pL). 
Indeed, qoidem (adv. ; alwajf standi 

next c^ter the word to which it 

refers). 
Swift, cSlSr (105, B. 1). 
Than, qn&n (con>). 
To seek, qmBrevOh 
Antonine, AntOninna^ i 
Future, futorus, fi, fim. 



(&) Nothing is mxrre amiable 
than virttie. 



Praedo ffirae (106, II., &) est 
s 1 m 11 i o r quam h5rolni 
(dat). 
Nihil est &m&blliu8 quam 

virttis, or 
(c) Nihil est virtatd &m&- 
bilius. 

(c) Rule of Syntax, — ^The conjunction quam (than) is fre- 
qnentiiy omitted, and then the nomi with the compara- 
lire must be put in the ablative case. 



Cicero was more eloquent 
than Casar. 



Cicero fiiit CsBS&re fil5- 
qnentior. 

(361.) Translate into English. 

Nihil est virtate prsstaatius. — Vhrtus est prsBstantior 
quam robur (344). — Igpor&tio mSlorum atllior est quam sci- 
enti&. — ^Aurtim gr&vius est argentd. — ^Argentumvilius est 
auro, virtu tlbns aurum. — ^Lupi fdrdcidres sunt quam 
cftnes. — ^Tuflus Hoslalius fdrdcior erat Rdmfilo. — JusHtiam 
qusiimus; rem (app., witJi justitiam, 225, a) aur6 carid- 
rem. — Panels (dat. gov. by c&rior, 106, 11., b) cftrior fides 
est, quam pecunia. — ^Mihi (dat.) ftmici&s fult me ipsd c&ri5r. 
— Omnds suds (t. e., his friends) cftros h&bet {he holds) ; md 
(ace.) quldem s 6 ipsd c&ridrdm. — ^Nemo Romandrum (par^ 
UHve gen.) dldquentior fuit Clcerdne. 

(362.) Translate into Latin. 
1. IVUh qua m.— The horse is swifter than the dog,— -Igno- 



Digitized by 



Google 



186 



COMPAEISON OF ADJECTIVES. 



ranee of future evils is better than knowledge (of them). — ^Lions 
are fiercer than wohres. — ^Antonine was more pious (357, R.) 
than CsBsar. — ^The son was more amiable than the father. — ^A 
robber is more like a wolf (dat, 106, II., b) than a man. 

2. WithotU quam (with ablative). — Justice is a thing more 
precious than gold. — Gokl is more paltry than virtue. — ^Nothing 
is more amiable than virtue. — To Crassus his friends were 
dearer than himself. — He (hcui) held aU his own {friencls) 
dear, but Cicero even dearer than himself. — What (170) is 
heavier than water? GoH. — ^What iflt more excellent than 
strength ? Virtue. 



LESSON LIX. 
Superlative Degree. 
(363.) The superlative ending is i s s i m li s, which 
is added to the stem of the adjective. 

PoMtira. Coiii|wrmtiT». Si^trlathr* 

J9ear, cftr-us ; c^^rer, c&r-ior ; dearest, cS^r-i a simtB, 
Brave, fort-is ; braver, fort-ior ; bravest, fort- i s s i m ii s. 
Happy, more happy, most happy, 

felix (fefic-s) ; fefic-ior ; fefic- i s si m ti s. 

(364.) But adjectives whose stems end in e r add 
the ending rimus. 

Unhappy, miser ; most unhappy, miser- r 1 m ti s. 

Svnft, c6l6r ; swiftest, c61er- r 1 m ti s. 

Beautiful, pnlcher ; m^st beautiful, pulcher- r 1 m ti s. 

(365.) Several adjectives whose stems end in 1 add 
1 1 m u s. 

Easy, fftcU-ls ; tasiut, fi&cil-ll m ft a. 

EXERCISE. 

(866.) Vocabulary. 

Cyrus, CfrlSM, L To p t^ ete tv e moderation^ mftdtim hS- 

Hannibal, Hannibil, (HanoXbil) U, bdrA (= to have moderation). 

DifficuU, difflcmi (dl-KSoQif ). Carthage, Cartbftgo» (CuiaAslh) b. 

Moderation, m6dAB, I, Metal, mdtaUtim, L 

i>«rw«», Diiiw, i To stain, mSoQlarft. 



Digitized by 



Google 



COMPARISON OF ADJEOTIVES. 137 

(367.) Examples. 

(a) Socrates was very wise, i S5crate8 s&pientissimus 
I fuit. 

A high degree of qaality {very good, very wise, &c) is ezpreaied in 
Latin by the superUUive, 

{h) Of aU thesey the ^eZ-l Hdmm omnimn fortisslmi 
gians are the bravest. \ sunt Beiges. 
Rule of Syntax. — The genitive plural is used with the 

superlative degree : the most learned of the Romans ; 

doctissimiis Romanornm (partitive gen., synt, 697). 



(c) Among the Helvetians 
the noblest was Orgetorix. 



Apud Helvdtios nobl- 
lisslmus fuit Orgdtdrix. 



(368.) Translate into English. 

Urfos Syr&cusas (app., 225, a) GrsBC&rum urbium est pul- 
cherrimd. — ^Prsestantisslmi Persarum rSgesfuerunt Cyrus et 
Darius. — ^Pompeius magnam belli gloriam mortd (55, a) tur- 
pissimft m&ciilavit. — ^Hannibal fortissimtis erat omnium 
Carthaginiensium. — Gallorum omnium fortissimi sunt Bel- 
gsB. — Cicdro Sldquentisslmus fuit Rom&norum. — ^Difflcilli- 
mum est modum h&bdrd (161, d). — ^Apud ^duos ndbllissl- 
mus et fortisslmus fuit Divlti&cus. 

(369.) Translate into Latin. 

Plato was veiy wise (367, a). — Plato was the wisest of aU 
the Greeks (367, b). — ^The city Rome was the most beautiful 
of aU the Roman cities. — Of all these, the Britons are the bra- 
vest. — The most excellent leaders of the Romans were Caesar 
and Pompey. — Carthage was a very beautiful city. — Of aU 
things, the most difficult is to preserve moderation. — Of all 
(men), the most happy (beatus) is the wise (man). — The hard- 
est of aU metals is iron. — Among the Greeks Themistocles 
was the noblest. — Caesar led the bravest soldiers across the 
very broad river. 

M2 



Digitized by 



Google 



188 



IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES, 



LESSON LX. 
Irregular Comparison of Adjectives. 
(370.) Several adjectives are quite irregular in 
their comparison. The following are the most im- 
portant. 



Copip«r«tiv. 



SoperhtiTa. 



eood, bdnus. 
bctdf mSIuB. 
greixtf VDk^tm*. 

muck, molttia. 

9maU, parvils. 
oldt sSnex. 
young, Mvenis. 
oviwardy extfinu. 
bdow, inf iros. 

above, stlpdrtUi. 

hind, pofltgriis. 



better, m6lior. 
worse, pejor. 
greater, ml^dr. 

less, ndndr. 
older, Bgni6r. 
younger, jtuoidr. 
fnore outward, ezt^or. 
lower, inferior. 

higher, stipfiridr. 

hinder, post^ridr. 



best, opOmas. 
worst, pessImAs. 
greatest, maximus. 

^^' Jplflrfmtti. 

very many, > *^ •"**"**• 

leoMt, mii^lis. 

wanting. 

wanting, 
outermost, extrSmiitf. 
lowest, infimttB, or 

Imiis. 
highest, Bdpremtis, or 

BommOs. 
hindmost, postr§mag. 



(371.) Several adjectives have no positive, but form 
the comparative and superlative from a preposition, 
adverb, or obsolete word. 



Comparative. 



Superlative. 



(on this side, citra.) 
[withinr, intra.) 

{beyond, ultra.) 

{near, pr5pe.) 
{bad, deter.) 



nearer, ctteridr. 
inner, interior. 

farther, tilt6ri6r. 

neatrer, prdpl5r. 

worse, detSrUSr. 
former, prior. 



nearest, cttlmiiB. 
inmost, intlmas. 

worst, dlterrfmOi 
first, primiis. 



Bern. 1. Div£s, rich', richer, ^thor, ^Tttior; richest, ditlssliniis, 
tissXinTU. (Cicero uses the longer form, CaBsar the shorter.) 

2r Compoond adjectives in dtcns, fleas, vdlus, add entior fi>r the 
comp., and entissimus for the saperl. ; e. g., bSn^-rdlos {Jknevolent), 
bSnST6l- entior, bSnSTSl-entisslmiis. 
EXERCISE. 



(372.) Vocabulary. 

Disgraceful, unworthy, indign&i, fi, 

iim (in+dignos). 
Infamy, disgraceful crime, fl8{^- 

titim, T. 
Wisdom, sSpientii, e. 



The Suevians, SuSyl, dram. 
Warlike, bellicOstis, S, ilm. 
Condition, conditio, (condltidn) If. 
America, AmSrica, 8b. 
Emperor, imper&t$r, dils (355, L, 8). 



Digitized by 



Google 



IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES* 189 



(373.) Exampks. 
(a) It is disgraceful to he 

conquered by a superior ; 

more disgrjiceful (to he 

conquered) hy one inferior 

and lower. 



Indignmn est ft stlpdridre 
viDci; iodignins ab inferi- 
or e atque humilidre. 



pSere the infin. pfuis. vinci is used as a nent noozi, nom. to ei^ and 
indignnm agrees with it in tiie predicate.] 

(h) What is hetter for man i Qidd est h5ii^i mdlitis s&- 

than toisdom ? | pientift (360, c) 1 

[Here homM is in tlie dat (advantage or disadvantage, 106, XL, b).} 

(374.) Translate into English. 

Nihil est melius quam (360, h) sftpientift. — Hibemi^ 
minor est quam Bntannid,. — Nihil est p6jus flftgitio. — Hos- 
tSs cMeiit^r Idcft (309) siipdriora occdp&bant. — Maximft 
pars Aquitaniae ob»[d3s ad Caes&rem mislt. — Suev5rum gens 
est longS maximll et bellicosissimft Germftnorum omnium 
(367, h), — Ailovistus agrum SSquftnum, qui optlmus drat 
totius GaDiae occtipavit — Infimft est comKtio et fortunft ser- 
Tomm. — ^Prlmus et maxlmus rSgum Romanorum fdit 
KomMus. 

(375.) Translate into Latin. 

It is disgraceful to be conquered by a junior, more disgrace- 
ful by a senior. — What is better than virtue ? what worse than 
vice ? — ^What is better for man than honour ? Wisdom. — ^Eu- 
rope is less than Asia ; Asia than America. — The bravest of 
the Be^ans were seizing the higher grounds (ldclj|. — The 
greatest part of Gaul made (fecit) a surrender. — "Ilie first 
and greatest of the Roman emperors was Caesar. — The poor 
are often more benevolent (371, R. 'd^jthan (quam) the rich. 
— ^The worst (men) are often more-happy than (quam) the 
best. — ^Among the Helvetians (by) far the richest and noblest 
was Orgetorix. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 




^St l!».f4~^>s 






r r " 



§ 6. 

SUPINE. 

(377.) The Supine presents the action of the. verb 
under the form of a noun in two cases, the accusative 
and ablative. The former supine ends in um, the lat' 
ter in u ; which endings are added to the supine-stem 
of the verb. 



LESSON LXI. 
Supines. 
(378.) The Supine-stem is formed by adding to 
the verb-stem, 

(1) Inlstconj., ftt; «. ^., &m-&^. 

(2) In 2d coDJ., \X\ e. g.^ m5n-lt-. 

(3) In 3d coDJ., t; «. ^., reg-t = rect-. 

(4) In 4tJi conj., 1 1 ; e. ^., and-it-. 

\Rem. Many supines, however, use different connecting vowels, or 
take s (and not t) before nm and a. For tliis reason, therefore, all 
sapine-stems wiU be given in the following vocabolaries. Where 
no snpine^stem is given, it is to be understood that the verb has no 
supine.] 

(379.) The supine in tim is a verbal noun of tJie accusative 
case, and is put after verbs of motion to express the design of 
that motion ; e» g.^ 



L3g&ta &d CaBsftrSm vdniunt 

rdg&ttim* auidliiim. 
Ir6 dormittim. 



(a) AmlmssadoTs come to 

Casar to ask assistance. 
(&) To go to sleep (to sleep- 

ing). 

(380.) The su^nne in u is a verbal noun of the ablative case, 
and is used afber adjectives signifying good or had, easy or diffi- 
cult, pleasant or unpleasant, 6cc, 

* adgftttlm= accus. answering to the qaestion wkUker. 



Digitized by 



Google 



142 



BUPINB. 



Estf&dld factfl.* 



EstmirftbUd dicta. 



(a) It is {a thing) ecuy to do 
(or, to be done), 

(b) It is (a thing) toonderfid 
to tell (or, to be told). 

(381.) The foDowing are neariy all the supines in u which 
are in use: dictQ, audita, cognlta, facta, inventO, 
m^mdrftta. 

EXEBOIfE. 

(383.) rocabubny. 

To a$k, iemamdt pottiilirS (pcwtu- 

Ut). 
To congratulate, gratulari (giftttt- 

lat), dep. 
To come together, oonTfinirB (0011+ 

y<^mr6, oonvfin-, oomvent-). 
To complain, qnSrdr (quest). 
Custom, consuStudd, (ooiuraetudin) 

U (£, 355, n., 3). 
To collect com, frdmentari (frumen- 

tftt). 
A rrmriow, TrSvfr, I (65). 

(383.) Example. 

Divitiacus came to 

to ask assistance. 



To hmege, oppugnlrft (oppognftt). 

Hand, hand of men, mfinus, tbi. 

Wonderful, mlr&lnlis, S (104). 

Very easy, perf icOis, « (104). 

To do, ftc6r6 (fact). 

To tay, tell, dicdre (diet). 

Best, optimiis, S, um (370). 

To find, inT^nirS ^+v6iurB), iii- 

▼ent 
To happen, acciddftt. 
To endure, tdl6rftr6 (tdl6rat). 
Senate, sSn&tiui, tkf. 



Rome 



Bivitiftciis R m & m vdnit 
auiLlliiim postulatiim. 
Rule of Syntax. — The aceusatiTe is used with the names 
of towns and smtU islands, to answer to the question 
fvhither ; e. g.^ in (a) Rdm&m. 

(384.) Translate into English. 

1. Supine in iim. — Princip^s cMtfttis &d Csesfirem gr&tii- 
latiim convenSrunt. — ^Tr^vM magnSl m&nu (55, a) castrft op- 
pug n at u m ydnerunt. — L^gftti ftb ^duis ven@runt, q n e s t u m. 
— Caes&r ex consudtftdind Qnftm l^gidndm misAt frttmentft- 
ttim. — Leg&ti Rdmftm &d sdn&ttim vdnerunt auxXlium pos- 
tai&tum. 

2. Supine in u. — Est peri^ild facta. — Est jucundtim au- 
dita. — QuaBd&m (178, 1) sunt turiM& dicta. — Qu5d optXmOm 
est facta, f^i&na. — ^Virtds difflcXBs est iuTenta. — ^Midtft 
acddunt dur& tdlSr&ta. 

* F acta = ablatlTe of respect, wherein. 



Digitized by 



Google 



SUPINE. 148 

(385.) Translate into Latin. 

[Wcnrdfl in Italic to be rendered by fnpinei.] 

1. Supine in urn. — The consuls, accordiDg to (ex) custom^ 
sent a large band to collect com. — ^AU the chiefs of the iBdnans 
were coining to Rome to ask assistance. — All the ambassadors, 
accordiDg to custom,* came*together to Cssar to congratulate 
(him). — The soldiers of the tenth legion came to the general to 
oompUdn. — ^The Germans came (in) a large band to attack the 
town. 

2. Swpine in u. — ^It is (a thing) wonderful to he heard. — 
WhsLt (quod) is base to he said, I will not say. — ^What is diffi- 
cult io he done, I will do. — A true (verus) friend is difficult to 
he found. — Some-things are very easy to he done. 

* According to custom :si ex confMtadiae. 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 7. 

TENSES OF VERBS FOR COMPLETED AC- 
TION.— PERFECT, PLUPERFECT, AND FU- 
TURE PERFECT.— FULLER STATEMENT. 
(LXIL— LXIX.) 

(386.) It has been stated (262) that the tense-stem of the 
perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect tenses is the same. In 
Lessons XLIV., XLV. we gave one mode of forming this 
tense-stem for each conjugation. There are several other 
modes, which we now proceed to state, taking up the conjuga- 
tions separately. To make the tables complete, we shall repeat 
ttie first method at the head of each. 



LESSON LXIL 
Forms of Perfect-stem. — FirsP Conjugation, 
(387.) There are four ways of forming the per- 
fect-stem in the^r^^ conjugation, 

I. By adding Hky to the verb'Stem ; &m-&r6, &m-&y 
n. " ii " 86n-ftr«, s6n-fi 

III. reduplicating* the first con- ) , ^ ^ , „ , 

sonant with d ; > 

IV. lengthening the stem-vowel ; j tl v -ftrft, j a v -. 

On this table, observe that Class 

I. ccmtaiiu most of the veiba of the first coi^gatlon. 
IL oontainB eleven simple veibs (of which a list may be found, 664). 
HL contains bat two simple verbs, viz., dftrfi, to give, and stard, to 

stand. 
IV. cfwrtains bat tv>o simple verbs, viz., jiivare, to assist, and Iftvir^ 
to wash, 

(388.) To form the perfect, pluperfect, or future perfect of a 

* To redupUcate a consonant is to pr^ix it to a stem with some con- 
necting-vowel ; thos, mord-, redaplicate with o, momord; st-tre, re- 
daplicate with e, stest-, but the second s is dropped, st6t-. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PERFECT-STBM, FIRST CONJUGATION, 



145 



verb of any of the above classes, simply add the endmga of tlios* 
tenses respectively to the perfect-stem ; thus : 



InfinitiTe. PerfecVstem. Perfect tooM. 



To /<»*«£, v6^a^6, rlitt- 
To give, d-Xrd, d6d- 
Tohdp, jilv.&rfi, juv- 



latL 
It 

imtls. 
istiDi. 
^erant, or ere. 



PlupeifiBut. Foton Piribct. 

ftrim. drft. 

6r§a, 6rl8. 

drftt erit 

firftmiis. fii^tmiis. 

drOBt. drint. 



EXERCISE. 



(389.) [^p* Hereafter, in all the vocabalaries, the perfect and inpina 
stems of verbs will be given in parentheses, inunediately after the infiwi' 
iive. When no perfect or supine stem is given, it will be nndenitood tiiat 
tbose forms of the verb are wanting ; and where two are given, tiiat &a 
verb nses both. Thos: to hdp, IQvard (jftv-, jdt-); to glitter, mioftr<^ 
(micii-); to fold, plic&rS (pUcftv-, pucn-, plicAt-, plicit-). In these exam 
pies mic&rd has no supine ; plictrS has two perfect and two supine forms.] 

(390.) Vocabulary. 

To demand {command), imp^rftre 

(av-, at-). 
To give, dare (dSd-, dftt-, 387, HI.). 
Hunger, ftmfis (is), (300). 
To tame, d6mare (dSmCi-, d5mlt-, 

387. IL). 
To thine, or jUuh forth, SmicSre 

(fimlcii-, §+nucare, 387, II.). 
To surround, circnmst&re (stitt- and 

stdt-). 
The $and, dry ground, azf dam, ! 

{n^eut. of taidja, dry). 
An attack, impStus, ds (110). 
To assist, adjtlvard (juv-, ji&t-, ad-{- 

juvare). 

(391.) Exampks. 

(1) Stare = fo stand; con-st&re, to stand together, to 
halt; circum-stftre, to stand-around, to surround* 
(The compounds of s t ar e, with prepositions of one sylla- 
ble, have stit- for perfect-stem; those with tuH), stfit-.) 

(2) To resist or K^t^tonJJ Alicui rdsistdre. 
any one* I 

Partial Rule of Syntax — Many verbs compounded with 
prepositions govern the dative* 
•N 



Door, nSris, (ftr) Is (300). 

To creak, cr6p&rd (crepii-, crepft-). 

To chide, reprove, incrdpare (in+ 

creplrd, crfipfi-, crdpit-). 
A little while, paullispdr (adv.). 
To withstand, rSsistfird (restiit^ 

rg+stftre). 
To halt, constard (constitt-, con-f* 

stare). 
As soon as, simulatque (adv.). 
To slay, kiU, interfic^re (interim 

interfect-)* 
To make, fiicdre, id (f^, fact^ 

199). 



Digitized by 



Google 



146 PERFECT-STEM, FIRST CONJUGATION. 

(3) To put any one to flight. 



(4) To make an attack. 



ACquem in ftigam d&re 

( = to give unto flight). 
Impdtum f&cdre. 



[The Latin words in the fi^wing exerciies which iUmtrate the let* 
tont are spaced.] 

(392.) Translate into English. 

Oppldftni, obsides qnos Css&r impSr&v-dF&t, ddd-erunt. — 
Venfttores f&nid (abl., 55, a) liipos ddmu-erunt. — ^Ex monte 
suMtd (adv.) flammaB emicu-drnnt. — ImpSr&tor oppid&nos 
frumentd (55) adjuv-it. — ^Num cr6pu-6runt fSrgs? — Cae- 
s&r vdhSmenter (215, IL, b) miHt^s incr3pu-it. — ^Hostes 
nostris paullisper restlt-drnnt. — ^Hostes militibiis (391, 2) 
circnmstdt-drunt, multosqne interfgc-erunt. — Nostn in 
hostes impdtum fgc-dront, atque eos (391, 3) in fugam d3d- 
Grunt. — NostTi simiilatque in arido constit-^runt, in hostes 
impStum f^c-drunt atque eos in fugam ddd-grunt. 

(398.) Translate into Latin. 

The flame shone-forlli. — From (ex) the-top-of the mountain 
(297, a) the flame suddenly shone-forth. — ^The huntsman had 
tamed the wolf.^— The townsmen had given the hostages. — 
The Belgians gave all the hostages that (rel. pron.) Caesar had 
demanded. — The general had reproved the lieutenant and 
(que) the soldiers. — Our (men) were-withstanding the enemy 
(dat.) — Our (men) bravely withstood the enemy, and (que) 
killed many. — The Belgians surrounded our (men) (dat, 391, 
2), and killed many. — The Romans often put the Belgians to 
flight. — Our men haltdd upon (in) the dry-ground. — As-soon-as 
our men halted upon dry-ground, they bravely withstood the 
enemy (391, 2). — Our men put-to-flight the enemy whom 
(dat., 391, 2) they had bravely withstood. 



LESSON LXIII. 
PerfecUstem. — Second Conjugation. 

(894.) The perfect^stem in second conjttgation is 
formed in Jive ways. 



Digitized by 



Google 



FERPECT-STEM, SECOND CONJUGATION. 147 

I. By adding n to the verb-stem ; mdn-erd, mdn-fi-. 
II- " 6v " d6l-6r6, d6l-6v-. 

Ill- " s " mftn-6r6, man-8-. 

IV. reduplicating the first con- } 

sonarU and vmvei ; \ mord-Srfi, m6-mord.. 

V. lengthening the stem-vowel ; v i d -Sr6, v i d -. 

(395.) On this table, observe that Class 

L contains fnott of the verbs of the second ccn^jiigation.* 
n. contains only fler«,«o««e3»; n6rg,to«pf»; d6l€rli, to destroy! 
with the compounds of the obsolete words plSrS, to Jill; 
51er6,t to grow; siiere,t to he accustomed, [For a list, seo 
663, n.] 
HL contains many verbs, of which a list may be fomid (663, IIL). 
The rales of euphony must be applied here. 

(a) b be&re s sometimes passes into s. 

lafinitire. Perftct. 8iq>ine. 

To command, jab-6re, jub-sl=jussi, jussfim (jub-sum). 

(b) t-soond before s dropped. 

InfiohtTs. Perfect. Sopine. 

Tolaughf rid-ere, iid-si=risi, risiUn (rid-sum). 

(c) c-sound +8 = x. Any c-sound before t=c. 

InfinitiTe. Perfect Sopine. 

Totncrease, aug-ere, ang-si=aux-], aucttUn (aug-tom). 
(i) c-sound after 1 or r dropped before s. 

Infinitive. Perfect Sapine. 

To glitter, ftilg-6re, ftdnii (ful(g)s-i), ful-sum(ful(g)sum). 

IV. contains /<wr simple verbs. See list (663, IV.). 

Infinitive. Perfect Supine. 

To bite, champ, mord-€re, md-mcnrd-T, morsum (mord-sum). 
Tovau;,j;>r0mu^spond-Sre, sp5-pond-i, sponstun (spond-sxmi). 
[The compounds of these verbs drop the reduplication ; eg». 

Infinitive. Perfect Supine. 

To answer, rCspond^e, respond-!, responsum (respondHram).] 
V. contains eight simple verbs, for wUch see list (663, V.). 



Infinitive. Perfect ^_„ 

To favour, fiv-er6, filv-i, fautum. 

To move, mdv-erfi^ mov-i, motnm. 

EXERCISE. 
[Befer to 386 and 389.] 

(396.) Vocabulary. 

Carthage, Carthago, (OarthSgin) Is To fill up, complSre (oompl«v-, coi 

plet-, 395, IL) [con+plgrej. 
Oood ioill, vdluntfts, (voluntit) 

(293). 



To destroy, deUrd (delev-, ddlet-, 
395, II.). 



* Many examples of this class have already occurred. 

t Some of these have sco in present indicative : adolesco, oonsuesco. 



Digitized by 



Google 



148 



PBRFEOT-STEMy SECOND CONJUGATION. 



Tq remain^ mSn£r6 (mans-, mans-, 

394, HL), 
To come, vdnirg (v6n-, vent-). 
A slayer, interfbctor, oris (319). 
To tee, vid&© (yid-, vis-, 395, V.). 
To open, fipSrirS (ap6rii-, apert-). 
Gaie, portft, e. 

To flee, ftigere (io), (fiig-, faglt-). 
Bit, bridle, frmxmm, I (plnr. 1 and ft). 
SagvrUum, Sftgontmn, L 
Hill, ooUXs, Is (m., 303, R.). 

(397.) Exampk. 



Seipio ] St^pio, nis. 

(mmome^Q > 
4/Woaniw, ) AfricAnQs, L 
Numaniia, Numantia, s. 
^ defence, fortyication, mtbiitio (nis), 

(C, 333, R.). 
Biven up to, cufar as, nsqiid (adv.). 
Cheat, ingens, (ingent) is (107). 
Standard, signum, L 
Tooth, dens, (dent) Is, (m., 295, R.). 



On the very day of his ar- 
rival. 



Eddem quovdndrat did 
( = £^ wry day on which 
day he had come). 

(398.) Translate into English. 

Hannibal S&guntum dele ▼ it, Scipio Carth&^nem. — Scipio 
AMcftnuB nrbes dnas pbtentis^mas, Carth&ginem St Numan- 
tiam delevit. — Caes&r h&s munitiones diEgentSr auxit. — 
Gain partem coUis, usqtie &d murum oppidi, castiis (55, a) 
complevdrant. — ^Adventtis Idg&ti siunm& sp6 et v61untate 
urbSm compl3vit. — ^Diii barb&ri in fide mansdrant. — It& 
complures dies (191, a) mansdrant castril. — CsBS&r eddSm 
did (118, II., c) in ^duos castr& movit. — Imper&tor, eodem 
quo Tdndrat di© (397) castHi mdvit — BrQtns et Cassius, in- 
terfect6res (225, a) CsBsftris, beUum ingens mdv^runt.* — 
Ldgidnes, slmtilatque noetrS. sign& vide runt, portfts &pdfud- 
runt. — ^Equus frmnoB mdmordit. — Spdpondistind pro am- * 
ico? Sp6pondi. 

(399.) Translate iiito Latin. 

Scipio destroyed Carthage, a most powerful eity. — God has 
fiUed the world with all blessings (bona, neut.). — Socrates 
never laughed. — The forces of the Ganls had filled the whole 
(o m n e m) place, even-up to the wall of the town. — The Gauls 
had filled-up the higher (siipdrior) part of the hill with 
(their) very-crowded (densissimus) camp. — The coming 
of Cesar filled the army with the highest hope and good-wiD. 
For many years the barbarians had remained in friendship and 

* In the sense ofexoited, stirred up. 



Digitized by 



Google 



P£KFECT-8TEM9 THIXD CONJU6AIIOV. 149 

fidelity (fide que). — Caesar moved (his) camp into the (terri- 
tory of the) iEduans on the very day of his arrival. — The ene- 
my saw our soldiers, and fled. — ^The horses were champing the 
bits. — The wolf bit the dog with his teeth (56, a). 



LESSON LXIV. 
Perfect-stems. — Third Conjugation, 

(400.) The perfect-stem in the third conjugation is 
formed in six ways. 

I. By adding B to the verh-stem ; scrib-erd, scrip-s-. 
n. " il " c51-6r6, c61-ii-. 

III. " y, (wiv " p6t-6r6, pet-iv-. 

IV. reduplication ; c u r r -6r6, c ii c n r r -• 
V. lengthening the stem-vowel ; f 6 g-fir6, f fl g-. 

VI. taking the simple verb-stem ; v o 1 v -6r6, y o 1 v -. 

We shall take up these separately, treating in this lesson 
only the first. 

(401.) Class I. — Perfect-stem formed by adding 8 
to the Verb-stem, 

Most verbs of the third conjugation come under this class* 
It has abready been illustrated, but we here give a fuller ac- 
count of the rules of euphony, in connexion with the various 
stem-endings. 

1. b before s or t pMsei into p. 

IftfinitiTa Fwfact. Sopiaa 

To write, scnb-SrS, 0crip«-i (scrib-f-i), Sdiptcan ^iorib4aB^. 
To marry, ntib-iM, nupa-I (nub-8-i), mptiim (aiib4am). 

S. A e^otmd -f8==x (c, g, h, v, gu, qn are classed with c-sonnds. If a 
Btem ends in ct, the t is dropped, and the c unites with s to form 
x). Any c-soond before t = c. 

InfimtiTfe Perfect. Stipiii#^ 

To lead, duc-SrS, dnx-i (dmc-s-I), dnc-tom. 

To cover, t6g-€r6, tex-i (teg-s-I), tec-tam (teg-tooBi). 

TodrcRo, trtth^S, trax-I (trah-s-i), trac-tum (trah-tom). 

N2 



Digitized by 



Google 



150 



PEftFECT-STEBffy THIRD CONJUGATION. 



To live, ▼iv-firt, vix-I (viv-«-i), vic-tom (viv-tum). 

I eztinc-tom 
To quench, extingu-^rt, extiiix-I(extingii-i.I), \ (extrnga-tom). 

To boU, cdqa-4ir6, oox-i (ooqa-s-i), ooc-tnm (ooqa-tom). 

We class here also, 

Iiiflnithr6« Perfe c t. 8iq>iBe. 

To flow, flu-Srfi (fluv-), flax-i (fluv-« i), flnx-nm (flaT-ram). 
To build, ■tra-Ard (stroc-), stroz-I (■trocji-i), ■trao-tam. 

3. d or t before ■ either (a) ii dropped, or (&) paMOf into a. 

Infinitire. Perfect. Sopine. 

(a) To divide, divid-Sr6, dlvis-i (divid-f-i), divi-sun (diTid-ivm). 
{J}) To yield, go, c6d-&r€, cess-i (ced-s*i), ces-snm (ced-anm). 
To send, mitt-^rfi, mls-i (mit^-i), miB-flom (mitHram). 

4. (a.) m or r before 8 sometime* passes into s. 

InfinitiTe. Perfect. Sapine. 

To presi, prSm-«r6, press-i (prem-s-I), pres-som (prem-som). 
To bear, gSr-Srd, gess-i (ger-s-i), ges-tom (ger-tom). 

{b.) Bat if m be retained, it assnmes p befiire it. 

InfinitiTe. Perfect Siqitne. 

To take, 8Am-6r6, smn-ps-I (snm-s-I), somp-tom (snm-tomX 

5. If the stem ends in rg, the g is dropped before s. 

InfinitiTe. Perfect. Sopine. 

To scatter, sow, sparg-dr6, spars-i (sparg-s-i), spar-sunL 
EXERCISE. 



(402.) Vocabulary. 

To bind, surround, cingdre (cinx-, 

cuM^, 401, 2). 
To draw up, instrttere (instrox-, in- 

stract-, 401, 2). 
To shut, daoddre (dans-, dans-, 

401, 3, a). 
To retreat, r6cSdgre (re+c6d«re, 

cess-, cess-, 401, 3, b). 
To approach, accddfire (ad+cSdere, 

cess-, cess-, 401, 3, b). 
To grant, ooncddfire (con+c«d8re, 

cess-, cess-, 401, 3, b). 
To bear, carry on, gSrSre (401, 4, a). 
To spend, oonsAmere (oon+sAmSre, 

samps-, sampt-, 401, 4, b). 

(403.) Exampks. 
(a) In all directions, 
(h) Upon an expedition. 



Rampart, vallfim, i 
Triple, triplex, (tripHc) Is (107). 
Janus, Jftnos, i. 
Numa, Nomft, ». 
Veteran, ySterSnos, S, iim. 
In three dicisions, tripar6td (adr.). 
Suddenly, r^pentS (adv.). 
By-night, noctu (adv.). 
There, Ibl (adv.). 
Dragon, drfico, (drfic5n) is (333). 
Arms, armii, 6ram {used only in plu- 
ral). 
Neighbouring, fii^tiEmas, i, iim. 
State, civltas, (clvit&t) is (293). 



In omnes partes. 
In expdditidnem. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PERFECT-STEM, THIRD CONJUGATION. 151 

(404.) Translate into English. 

In tuS, dpistdl& nihil mlhi scripsisti de tms rdbus. — Bar- 
X^kn. valid et fossft (55, a) hibernft cinxdrunt. — Caes&r tripB- 
cem &ciem instruxit Idgidnum ydtdr&n&rom. — ^R6m&ni tera- 
plum Jani bis post Numa regnum clausdrunt. — Impdrfttx>r 
exercitum in duas partes divisit. — CaBS&r trlpartito milites 
^quitesque in exp^ditionem mi sit. — Prindpes r^pentd ex 
oppido cum copiis rScessdrunt. — ^Mifites noctu usqud ad 
castr& accessdrun t.-^CaBS&r obsidibus (54) fibert&tem c o n> 
cessit. — Germ&ni cum Helvdtiis beUum gesserunt. — Mag- 
num et gr&vS 5nus armorum mifitSs pressit. — ^Explor&tor ad 
castr& hostium access it, atque lb! m&gnara partem di^i con- 
sumps it. — Cadmus dentes dr&conls spars it. 

(405.) Translate into Latin* 

The ambassador wrote nothing concerning his own affiurs. — 
The scout approached even-up to the walls of the town. — The 
aeutenant sent-away messengers in all directions. — Caesar sent- 
away the horsemen in three divisions into the neighbouring 
states. — Cadmns slew (interfgcit) the dragon and sowed 
Lis (ejus) teeth. — Cssar drew up the veteran legions in (abl.) 
a triple line. — The soldiers spent a great part of the day in the 
camp. — The enemy approached the town by-night. — The 
townsmen shut the gates. — The Helvetians retreated by night 
with all (their) forces. — Caesar sent-away the scouts in three 
divisions upon an expedition. — The general sent-away the mes- 
sengers by night in all directions. — The soldiers approached 
even-up-to the rampart, and there spent a great part of the day. 



LESSON LXV. 

Perfect-stem. — Third Conjugation^ continued. 

(406.) Class II. — Perfect-stem adds H to the Verlh 

stem. 

(a) Without change of the verb-stem (see list, 666, II., a) ; 

e.gn 

To nourish, maintain, al-6r6, Sl-il-I, al-tam. 

To honour, euUivate, c5l-«re, cdl-tii, cul4»m. 



Digitized by 



Google 



152 



PERFECT-STEBffy THIRD CONJUGATIOIT. 



{b) With change of yerb-ttem (666, II., h). 
To place, p6ii-«r6, p6§Hl-i,* pos-Ttnm. 

To beget, gign-erg, gia-t-i, gCn-l-tam. 

Ci*A8s III. — Peffect-Hem adds r or Ir to the Verb^ 
stem. 

(a) Adds y (and lengthens stem-yowel, if diort). (List, 666, 
III., a,) 

[These generally drop n, r, or 8c,t or change the order of the letters* 
They most be carefiilly observed, as they occur in the vocalmlaries.] 
To despise, spem-^rS, spr6v-i, Bpr6-tam (spem-tom). 

To be accustomed, Bttesc-ir6, sogv-l, saS-tom. 

(b) Adds iv (list, 666, III., b). 

To 8ede, strive after, pet-6r«, p«t-iyl, pStl-tam. 

EXERCISE. 

(407.) Vocabulary. 



Spaniard, Hispflnus, L 

Command, jnsstis, te. 

Against, eontrft (prep^ ftoc). 

Peoph, p6puliiB» L 

Immediately, stfitink 

Avienus, Avi&aSm, L 

To instigate, stir vp, instigftie 

(av-, at-). 
To place in, to put into, imp^iJSx^ 

(im+p6nerg, 40«, b). 
To remove, rH/toMrfi (riSmor-, rS- 

mot-, re+m&yCre). 
To arrange, distribute, di^raiiSrfi 

(difl+ponSrS, 406, b). 
To relate, coinmdm6rir6 (ay-. At-, 

oonrfmSmorftre). 

(408.) Exampks. 



Property, UuSSk, m. 

To cross over, transirC (trans+iHI^ 

ly-, It-). 

To decree, determine, decemSril 
(d§cr§y-, deeret-, de+oemgre). 

To disamrse, dissMM (diflser»> 
dissert) dis-|-sSr^r6). 

To plunder, dMpSrS (rip«-> r^^ 
di+r«p6re)4 

A beast of burden, jumentom, L 

Sacred rites, sacrS, omm (n., pL). 

Instead of, pr5 (prep., aU.). 

Advice, counsd, oon^fiao, L 

On account of, db (prep., ace). 

To despise, spemfire (406, IIL, a). 

Winter, hiems, (hi6m) Is (293). 



(a) By the command of Ca- 1 Ju s s ft (abl., 55, a) 
sat. 



* P6nd=p6sXno; i>dsai=pos-iy-i. 

t In these verbs the n or sc does not properly belong to the root^ bat is 
employed simply to strengthen the present hidicatiye and infmitivv ; to 
know, nd-ere, strengthened nosc-ere, &c. 

t Observe that the compounds of rfip fir 6, fSc8r6, c«p8r«, with tww- 
OM^ioTM, change a into i m the infinitiye; diripSre, conflcSre, accl> 
p«r«. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PKEmCCT-STZH, THIRD OOlf JUOATIOV. 1S9 

{b) To place on shipboard. 



In n&Yds impdndrd (jmi 

into ikijps). 
Ad exercitum. 
Ad finefl £dii5rTim. 



(c) With (near) the army. 
On the borders of the 
JElduans, 

Ad is often used by Cesar in the sense of near or wUh (i. e^ along 
with). 

(409.) Translate into English. 

BQsp&iH, joflStt C«s&ii0, eo8 exercitQs qnot (165) oo]itr& p5p- 
iilam Rdm&num midtos jam annos (191, a) ftludrant, st&tim 
dimiserunt. — Avi6n6 (toc.), qu5d {Jbecaxue) in Itfilift mifites 
populi Romfini contrft rempQbfioam inttigSksti (349, N.); et, 
pro miHtibiis, tnam fllmlliam in n&ves impdsuisti; db eas 
res, ftb exercita med te r^mfireo. — Csroftr Idgiones qnas in 
It&lift, hibemdrnm cantft (135, II., b)^ dispoai&drat, ad se 
revdc&vit. — Cur consOiom meum spreyisti? — Css&r, his de 
cansis qnas commSmdrftvi, KhSnum transire decree 6 rat. — 
Multi s&latom Mb! (dat.) in fiig& p61iT6rHat (or petiftmnt, 349, 
N.). — Caesftr tMam hiftmem (191, a) ipse ad exerdtam (408, c) 
m&n6re decr^yit. — C»s&r dufts Idgiones ad fhioa .fidndmm 
pdsnit. 

(410.) Translate into Latin, 

The Spaniards had maintained an army (for) many years 
(191, a). — Orgetorix maintained, at-his-own-expense (snmptfl 
suo), a large number of soldiers. — Caesar i^aced the camp on- 
tlw-borders-of (408, c) the Seqnanians^ — Socrates discoursed 
concerning (de) the inmiortality of the soul. — The pirates 
plundered many towns. — Cssar distrifaited three legions in 
Italy, for-the-sake-of winter-quarters. — Thou-hast-despised 
my coimsels ; thou-hast-instigated the soldiers against the re* 
public ; thou hast put beasts^of-burden instead of soldiers into 
the ships : an-accomnt-of these things, I remove thee from my 
army. — ^The Romans honoured most-religiously (maxim ft 
religion e) the sacred-rites of Jupiter. — CsBsar, for (de) 
these reasons, had determined to cross die RMae. — ^Many sol< 
ctofi son^ safety for tfaemsebes (by) flight.-— Th* inhabitants 
■ODght peace frcmi (a) the Romans. 



Digitized by 



Google 



154 



FKEFBCT-STBMf THIRD CONJUGATIOIT. 



LESSON LXVI. 
Perfect-stem. — Third Conjugation^ continued. 

(411.) Class IV. — Perfect-stem reduplicates the 
first Consonant, 

rSome cf these prei ent vowd-iAtmges, which moflt be carefiilly ob- 
MiTcd. la) When the finit vowel ii i or n, the first cooscmaiit m 



redaplicftte^ with that vowel j (b) in oOier verbs, with 6. (c) The 
• , withl] 



served, (a) '^ 
rednplicftted i 
compoonds of d&rd, to give, ^ 

(a) First vowel i, o, or u. 

lofinitive. 

To learn, disc-€r6. 

To demand, posc-ere. 
To beat, tond-«r6, 

(ft) Other verbs reduplicate with e (note vowel-changes in 
stems). 

Perfect 
c6-cid-I Ot tlufrt), 
p8-pul-T, 
ce-(^-I (i long), 



Perfect. Supin* 

dl-dlC'i {b dtoppedj, (nosnpine). 

pd-posc-I, (no supine), 

td-tiid-i, tii-sam (tnd- 



t). 



loflnitiTe. 

To/aU, cld-€re, 

To drive, repd, pell-Srd, 

TofeU, kiU, csd-6r«, 

(c) Compounds of d & r d. 

IndnHiTe. 

To add, ad-dSrd, 

To lote, per-d&g. 



Saptne. 

eft-sum (cad-snxn). 

pul-sam. 

c»B-nm. 



Ad-did-I, 
per-dXd-I, 



Snpioe. 

ad<^-tam. 
per-dl-tom. 



EXEROISB. 



(412.) Vocabulary. 

The whole, flnSversos, 8, Urn. 
Duty, ierviee, mAnns, (mAnfir) Is 

(345). 
WaU», mnnii, iom (pL, neot). 
Coming together, cof^Uct, congres- 

sds, us. 
Seventy, septttaginta (indecL). 
To touch, tangfirft {t»tlg; tact-, 411, 

*)• 
To spare, paroSrS (pfipero-, pardtt-^ 
pars- ; governs dative), 

(413.) Examples. 
(1) To demand peace of 
CsBsar. 



To turrouhd, cingSre (401, 9). 
Nobody, nSmo, (nemin) is (m. and 

f., 25, a). 
Woman, mulier, is (f., 25, a). 
Child, infant, infans, (infant) is (c., 

25, a). 
Thirty, trigintft. 
Eighty, octdginta. 
Immense, inunensus, i, Hm. 
8um-qf-money, pdcunia, n. 
To add, addSre (411, c). 



(a) Cass&rdm p&c6m pos- 
c6r6 ; or (h) p&cdm a CaB- 
sftrS posc6r6. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PEBFECT-STEM, THIRD CONJIJOATION. 155 

Rule of Syntax. — Verbs of demanding (a) govern two ac- 
cusatives, one of the person, the other of the thing; 
but (b) the person may be put in the ablative with the 
preposition a or &b. 



(2) About twenty. 

(3) To give one's self whoUy 
up. 

(4) The leader spared toom- 
en. 



Circiter viginti. 

T 6 turn sd d&rd ( = to give 

one's self whole up). 
Dux mtilieribus p6per- 
cit. 

Rule of Syntax. — ^Verbs of sparing govern tiie dative. 
tW Observe, the perfect of cfldSrS, to fall, k cdoidi ; of cnd€r6, 
to fell or killf cScidi. • 

(414.) Translate into English. 

Legati ad Caesarem vgnfirunt, eumque pftcem (413, 1, a) 
poposcerunt. — Hoc a me (413, 1, fc) munus univers& pro- 
vincifi. p6 pose it. — Pueri linguam LaHnam didicSrant. — ^A 
Grsecis Galli urbes maembus cingdrd didic6runt. — Nostri, in 
primo congressu, circiter septuaginta cSciderunt; in his 
Quintus Fulginius. — Arbdr v6tus c^cidit, quam (165) ferrS 
(55, a) nemo cecidit. — LSg&tus, simulac provinciam tStigit, 
Inertias (dat.) totum se d6dit. — Postquam Caes&r v6nit, ob^des, 
armll, servos p5 pose it. — Milites non mulidribus, non infantl- 
bus, pSpercerunt. — Caesftr l6gionibus cohort^s circiter tri- 
ginta addidit. — Mors nulli (194, R. 1) hominum (partit. gen.) 
p6percit (413, 4). 

(415.) Translate into Latin. 

The JEduans demanded peace of Caesar (413, 1, I). — The 
whole province demanded peace of the Romans (413, 1, a). — 
Of-our-men (nostri, nom., pi.) about eighty fell; among 
them, Labienus. — Have you (135, II., a) learned tlve Latin 
language? — The farmer felled very-many (plurlmas) trees 
in the wood. — ^As soon as the lieutenant touched the province, 
he plundered many towns. — The general demanded seventy 
hostages, and an immense sum of money. — The old trees fell. 
— This service the general demanded of me. — The leader 
spared all the temples of the gods ; but the soldiers spared not 
(n o n) women nor (n o n) children. — Caesar added to the foot- 
soldiers about twenty cohorts. — Caesar added to the foot-soldiers 
thirty horse-soldiers. 



Digitized by 



Google 



150 



PSRPSCnVSTEBff, THUD CONJUGATION. 



LESSON LXVII. 
Perfect-stem. — Third Conjugation, continued. 

(416.) Class V. — Perfect-stem kngthens the Stem- 
vowel of the Verb, 
{a) Without YoweH-chxage. 



To read, gather^ IflfiHW, 
To conquer, vino-tott, 

{h) With TCfwtH-ebBBge. 
To drive, ag-4ir6. 

To break, §nmg-W^ 

(c) io verbs (199). 
Tofty, ffig-i«, 

To take, cSp-id, 

7b east, fic-i6, 

To dig, f dd*i4» 

To make, do, f «c-i4» 



tUs-X. 






cSp-6r6, 
BXEKOISiU 

(417.) Vocabulary. 

Remains, remnant, rSliqoie, inim 

(pL) (OT, B.). 
To collect, ool%dr« (l«g-, lect-, 0011+ 

I6g«r6). 
To receive, take back, r6d[p6re (o§p-, 

cept-, r6+c5p6r6). 
HeadUmg, pfSBcepi, (piiBd^it) te 

<a4i., 107). 
To reodve, acapdre (c8p-, cept>, ad+ 

capSre). 
To bring-together, to compd, cdg6r6 

(coSg-, coact-, con+«g6r6). 
2rV> frrvo^ through, petfriagdrfi (frSg-, 

fract-, peH-fraog^rft). 
Dart, javelin, telum, I. 

(418.) Examples. 
(a) roigto^on^^tf^ei/Aocifc. 

(h) WitMn the memory of our 
fathers. 



ftlg-X, 
C6p-i, 

feci. 



lec-tom. 

Tic-tOSL 



■c-tanL 
frao-tuD* 



fdg-t-tam. 

cap-taQL 

jao-tam. 



fac-tom. 



To hurl, cai^Ic6'« ( j6c-, ject-, ccm+ 

TV? «fu2ertoi«, gaadpSrtt {c€p-> oept-^ 

8ab+cIpSr£). 
To finish, conf icfirt (f 6c-, feet-, con+ 

facgrd). 
To begin, indpdri (inc^^ iiioq^t-, 

in+cap6r6). 
£^a^ tfitas, ft, dm. 
Cappadocia, CappfidOda, s. 
^ district, pftgns, L 
uSgypt, JEgyptQB, i ^). 
£;an^^fik^(adr.). 
TWai, jddlciimk, L 
FamHy cf slatva, fimnia, m. 



S« r«cip6r«. 
Se ddmttm r^edpXt. 
Patrnm D08tr5riim mft- 
m5ri& (abl., 55, a>. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PEEFB0TH3TBM, THOtD OOlfJIWATlON. 167 

(c) Lucius Cassius, the con-IL. Cassias, consul. 

The (j9nntofl»«f») first name is rarely written oat L. stands finrL no ins, 
T. for Titus, &a ComuZ is in appositioD (2S5, <^ witii JL Catnu$, 

(d) In wid-tummer. |Mddi& astfttd (118, IL, e), 
(419.) Translate into English. 

Servus meus or&tioDes et histdrias et carm^a l^git. — L3- 
g&tus r^fiquias exercitils c olid git, Itlndribusque tQtis perCap- 
pftdociam sd in Asiam r^cdpit — Nostri acdtdr impdtom fd- 
c 3 runt atque praecipites hostes 6gerunt. — ^L&bienus, cum 
his cOpils qnas ft Cassftre accepdrat, lid fines JEduorum con- 
teiidit.-^Poiiipeiii8 magnftm ex Asift et iE^pt5 dassem co«- 
gerat. — Mifites facild (adv.) hostium ftciem perfregSrnnt 
atque in ede imptoun fdceraat.— I£c pftgns tlnus, patrum 
nostrOmm m^mdrift, L. Cassium oonsftlem (418, c) interfdcd- 
rat, et ejus exercitom sob jftgom (323, N.) misdrat. — Hostes 
Bul^to tela in nostros conjdcdrunt. — ^Pompetns belkim T«rd 
(in the spring, 118, XL, e) suscdplt, mSdift sestfttd confeclt. 

(420.) TranslcEte into Latin. 

The general had collected (c 5 g d r e) great forces. — ^Pompey 
bvonght-together a great army from Asia and Egypt. — Have 
you read the books of Cicero? — ^The general collected the 
remnant of his army, and betook himself into Gaul. — Oar 
(men) dro^e the enemy headfeng, and slew many. — Lahienos 
had received four legions ftom Caesar.— -Labienus, with the 
legions which he had received from Cssar, hastened to the 
confines of the ^duans. — Orgetorix broi^t-tegettier to Ihe 
trial all his fbmify-of-'siaveB ^m eirery side.— The ^nemy 
brooght-togsulier afl (their) ships into one place. — ^The Romans 
eosfly broke-tiiroag^ the feie-of-battle of tlie JEdoans. — CeMsr 
finished the great wmr hiHiikl-sunmier (418, d) which be had 
bagun in-the-sprifig (118, U^ c). 

o 



Digitized by 



Google 



158 



PBKFBOT-BTBMy THIKD CONJUGATION. 



LESSON LXVIII. 

Perfect-stem. — Third Conjugation^ concluded. 
(421.) Class VI. — PeTfect'Stem = simpk Verb-stem, 
{a) Steins ending in u or v (Ust, 666, VI., a). 

Totkarpen, icii-6r6, icti-i, acu-tnm. 

To roll, volv-firfi, volv-i, volil-tam. 

{h) Consonant-stems (list, 666, VI., b). 

To turn, vert-Srd, vert-i, ver-rom. 

(c) Compounds of can do and fendo (obs.) belong here; 

To bum, incend-fttC, ino«nd-!, inceiiHimn. 

To defend, W€urd qf, d«fend-6re, ddfend-i, ddfen-ram. 

EXERCISE. 

(422.) Vocabulary. 



The back, tergom, L 

ToJUw together, oonfla^re (oonflox-, 
conflux-, con+flaere, 401, 2). 

Discipline, disdCpllnfi, m. 

Austerity, severity, sSySritas, (seve- 
ritftt) is (293). 

To dissolve, dissolTdrtt (■oIy-, lAlftt-, 
dlH-Mlyere). 

To return, r6vert6r8 (r6v6rt-, re- 
yew-, r6+vert?r6). 

(423.) Examples. 

(a) The general appointed 

a day for the council. 
(6) What {number of) long 

ships he had. 
(c) To divide or distribute 

among. 

(424.) Translate into English. 

Hostes terg& vertgrunt. — Divitise (57, R.) quae ad Romam 
confluxgrunt, morum disclplinam sdvdiitatemque d is sol- 
ver unt. — Caesar diem cum legatis constituit. — Dies, quam 
Caesar constituerat cum l3g&tis, Tdnit, et l3g&ti ad eum 



To appoint, to station, to determine, 

coDfltltudre (stita-i stitiit-, oon+8t&- 

taerfi). 
To divide, to distribute, distiibiiSrd 

(btl-, but-, dis+trlbuSre). 
Desirous, covetous, cQpidua, i, iim 

(govemg geniHv^, 
To know, learn, oognoscfirS (oogndy-» 

cognit-, con+DOfodrd). 
To turn, verterS (421, h). 

Imp^r&tor diem concllid 

(dat.) constituit. 
Quidquid n &▼ i u m (180) 1 o nr 

gftrum hAbebat. 
Distribudre (with ace. of 

things and dat. oi ptrson). 



Digitized by 



Google 



PERFECT-STEM, FOURTH CONJUGATION. 159 

<150) rdyertdrunt.—- MiHtes sSse (145, c) fortitter (215, 2) 
defenderunt. — Hostes copias suas in tres partes distribu- 
eraDt. — Caesar, quidquid n&vium longarum h&bebat, legfltis 
praefectisqae (423, c) distrlbuit. — ProeellsB fluctus vastos ad 
littdr& volvfirant. — Csesar exercitum flumen (113, II., a) 
transducSre constituit. — Caesar Dumndrigem ^duum sd-* 
cum (125, II., b) ducdre constituit, quod (conj.) eumt cupl- 
duni imperil (synt, 698, &, 1) cognovSrat. — ^diu ex ifindre 
ddmum (113, III., R.) reverterunt. 

(425.) Translate into Latin. 

The soldiers defended the city very bravely (376). — The 
general stationed the foot-soldiers near (ad, 408, c) the wall of 
the town. — On-the-next-day (118, II., c) Caesar stationed all 
the horse-soldiers in-front-of (pro) the camp. — ^The chie& of 
the states returned to Caesar. — The day which Caesar had ap- 
pointed for the council came, and the chiefs of the states re- 
turned to him.^Our (men) turned their backs. — The riches 
of the Romans had dissolved (their) discipline and austerity of 
manners. — What money (423, b) he had he distributed among 
(423, c) the lieutenants and soldiers. — The i£duans divided 
their forces into two parts. — The tempests rolled vast waves to 
the stars. — ^The general determined to take (due ere) the 
lieutenant with him. — The seas were rolling great waves to 
the shores. 



LESSON LXIX. 
PerfecUstem. — Fourth Conjugation. 
(426.) The perfect-stem in the fourth conjugation 
is formed mfive ways. 

I. By adding iv to verb-stem ; aad-ir6, aud-iv-. 
XL " ii " &p6r-ir6, &p6r-a.. 

III. " • " sSp-ir6, sep-8-. 

IV. lengthening stem-vowel ; v 6 n-ir6, v 6 n -. 

V. taking simple verb-stem ; comp 6 T'ir6^ comp 6 T'. 



Digitized by 



Google 



160 PBBFBCT-BTBM, FOUBTH COMJUOATIOH. 

(427.) On this table, observe that Class 

I. ooiit«iiiiiiM»<oftheT«rb0ofthefbiii1faooc4«gfatioo. 
[Komeioiu example! bate already ocamerpd. Any pecnMar 
are ghraa in tiw voeabolariea.] 
XL contsini/ntr nmide reifaa (aae list, 667, IL). 

InAoitiTtt. Perfect Supiw 

To open, uncover, iper-irft, ip«r-ft-r, iper-tom. 

Toleapy «a-ir«, "il-tt-I* wd-tam. 

ITT, oontainfl nine limple verbs (see list, 667, IIL). 

Infinitire. Pwrfact. SttfrtM. 

To bind, vinc-irB, vinx-i (viuc-s-i), vinc-tam. 

To think. sentW, ieiis^CseDl^i), J (.^iitwwm^, 

nr. fioritafas bat one yreih. 

ItSnitif. Partat Sapiww 

TooMu; v€n4r6, vfin-i, yen-tunL 

V. coiiNiins two Torbs. 

IsAnitiTe. PeHect Sapiafc 

3\> «c«rto»»,/»uJ, comp«r-irfi, iMnp^H oemper^uiB. 

To discover, rtpdr-fre, i«p«r4, rtter-tam. 

EXERCISE. 

<428.) Vocabulary. 



To come togetiher, astemble, couye- 
nire (cCn+renlre, 427, IV*.). 

To find, inyttiilrB O^-pv^nlrd, 4S7, 
IV.). 

Thither, to that place, eO (adv.). 

7\> open, fiperire (427, IL). 

W^^en, qanm. 

Youth, Juventds, ( jfirentfit) is (f.). 

To lay waste, poptUiri, dq>. (pdpo- 
lat-). 

After that, postqaam {adv.). 



Tc leap down, dSsilire (ddsllil- and 

d€sili-, desTll^, dd+sSHre). 
To come near, to approach, appr5- 

pinqoire (fd4-p>@piB<|aire, wr^ 

at-), with dot. 
To agree, consenOre (con+sentire, 

427, IIL). 
To disagree, dissenfire (dfa+senfire, 

427, m.). 
To come to, reach, arrive at, pervS- 

nire (p6r+v6nire, 427, IV.). 

Example. 

{a) In a hutde ^ avcalry. I £ q u e « t r i p r » 1 i 6. 
Bade of Syntux^-'-ThB ablatiTe is used to express the man^ 
ner of ao action, especially with an ac^eetive. 

(429.) Tranship into English. 

MiHtM ex n&^^bua d&iillerunt et hostibus (3d^l. 2) appr5- 
pinqnftnuit (349, N.). — Opf^dani portas &pdru3runt, et ae, 
atque opfildcim CseiiUi dJlddruitf.^-lioflte8 inter se dissensd- 
runt. — Omnes ciTea una nteiit^ (abL, 438, a) consevsA' 



Digitized by 



Google 



PERFECT-STEM, FOURTH CONJUGATION. 161 

runt. — ^Helv^tu jam per angostias cojnas suas transdaxdrant, 
et in iBduorom fines pervgndrant, eorumque agros pdpiila- 
bantur. — Caesar cum L&bi6no Numantiam (713) pervenit, 
ibique consules iny^nit. — Quum miHtes eo c on v end- 
runt, n&ves tinum in Idcum coegdrunt. — ^£d postquam C»- 
8^ pervenit, obsides etarma pdposcit. 

(430.) Translate into Latin, 

After-that the townsmen saw the standards, they (^ned the 
gates, and gave themselves (up) to Caesar. — The Germans, in the 
cavahy battle (428, a), leaped-down from (their) horses. — The 
general led the army through the straits, and on the seventh 
day arrived at the boundaries of the Germans. — The towns- 
men leaped-down from the wall. — All the soldiers agreed 
(with) one mind and voice (▼ o x). — When Caesar anivedHit the 
town, the townsmen opened the gal!e8.-^When the general 
reached Numantia, he called together the citizens. — ^When the 
horsemen reached the town, the townsmen opened the gates. 
— The lieutenant led-back the soldiers to the town, and there 
found the general. 

03 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 8. 

FORMS OP TENSES FOR COMPLETED AC- 
TION, PASSIVE. 



LESSON LXX. 

Tenses of Verbs for Compkted Action, — Indicative 
Passive. 

(431.) The tenses for completed action, passive 
(perfect^ pluperfect, future perfect), are compounded 
of the perfect participle passive and of the tenses of 
the verb esse, to be: thus, amatus sum, I have been 
loved; amatus es, thou hast been loved, &c. 

(432.) (a) The perfect participle of any verb is the form of 
which the supine is the accusative, and is inflected (like an ad- 
jective of three terminations) with the endings iis, &, um; 
thus : 

Sopioes. PerC Part 

Amat-i&m, ftm&t-iis, &, iim, loved, 

M5nit-tim, mdnlt-i&s, &, um, advised, 

Rect-tim. rect-tis, &, i&in, ruled. 

Audit-fim, audit- lis, &, um, heard. 

(b) The perfect participle, then, of any verb, is formed by 
adding the inflection-endings iis, &, tbn to the supiBe-stem. 



Digitized by 



Google 



(433.) 



PEKFECT FORMS, PABSITE. 
PARADIOH. 



i6d 



PBSFKCT PA8SIVK. 



Sm&tds, S, iixn, i 



Singular. 

sUm, I have been laved, 
6s, thou hast been loved. 
est, he, she, it, has been loved. 



Smfttl, 89, S, 



PluraL 

sumds, toe have been loved. 
estis, ye or you have been loved. 
stmt, they Kave been loved. 



PLnPEBFECT. 



Xm&ttis, A, iim. 



ftmati, ffi, ft, 



Sineular. 

SrSm, I had been loved. 
€ras, thou hadst been loved. 
6rat, he, she, it, had been loved. 



Plura]. 

Sramiis, we haid been loved. 
firStis, ye or you had been loved. 
erant, they had been loved. 



FUTUBE PEKFECT. 



ftmatCUt, S, urn, < 



Smftt^ SB, S» 



Singular. 

€ro, I shall have been loved. 
6ris, thou wilt have been loved. 
6rtt, he, she, it, will have been loved. 

Plural. 

Srimiis, we shall have been loved. 
Sritis, you will have been loved. 
grant, th^y will have been loved. 



(434.) Vocabulary, 

To rout, to defeat, peUdre (pfiptil-, 

polfl-, 411, b). 
To dkmlge, emmtiare (e+xnmtiSre, 

av-, §t-). 

Sure, certain, certos, a, um. 

To drive back, rfipellfire (rfipill-, 

repnls-, r6+pell6re). 
Private information, indlcinm, L 

(435.) Ezampks. 
(a) To inform any one. 



{h) Casar was informed* 



(c) All Oavl is divided into 
three parti. 



Beginning, Mtinm, L 

Casticus, Castifctis, i. 

Conference, colldqaiom, t 

To hold, obtin6rd (obtitna-, obtenty 

ob+t6nere). 
Departure, discessiis, Um. 
Nobility, nobHrtas, (nobffitat) U (£, 



Allqudm certidrftm fft- 

c6re ( = to make any one 

more certain). 
CaBsftr certidr factus 

est ( = Casar was made 

more certain). 
Gallia est omnia divisa 

in partes tres. 



Digitized by 



Google 



164 FBEFBCT FOBBCSy PA881VB. 

The perfect paiiive participle ia ■ometimei used widi eit u ta ad- 
jective, and is then to be rendered aa a present ierue; e, g^ in {c), eit 
diyiBA^^ is divided, 

(436.) Translate into English. 

Miles vnhidr&tus est. — ^BeQa gesta £rant. — ^Exerdtos Cassii 
ab HeMtiis pulsus drat, et sub jftgum missus drat — ^Ea 
res HelvStiis (54) per indiciam enuntiata est. — ^Helvdtii de 
Cses&ris adventu certknres facti sunt. — ^f)^bi de Caes&ris ad- 
▼entu Helvdtii certiores facti sunt, legates ad eum miserunt. 
— Barb&ri telis (93, II., 5, R.) et munitione rSpulsi sunt. — 
InitiumfugaB a Duimi5rige et ejus ^uitibus factum est. — 
Legftti a DiVitiaco, JEduo (225, a) ad Caesarem missi erant. 
— P&ter CasUci regnumon Sdquinis multos annos (191, Rule) 
obtinudrat et a sdn&tu p5puli Ildmftni Amicus (80, a) appellfi- 
tus 6rat. — ^Dies coUdquio (54) constitutus est, ex eo diS 
quintus. 

(437.) Translate into Latin. 

The centurions of the first ranks were wounded on the same 
day (118, II., c), — Caesar was inftnrmed (435, a) of (de) the 
approach of the enemy. — The general had been informed of 
the departure (d i s c e s s u s) of the Germans.— -The beaming 
of the flight had been made by the soldiers of the tenth legion. 
— The tenth legion had been defeated by the Germans, and had 
been sent imder the yoke. — The conspiracy of the nobility was 
divulged to the Helvetians through private-informatkm. — ^The 
war had been canied-on (fw) many years (191, Rule)* — "Hie 
enemy were driven-back by the darts of the soldiers. — ^Ambas- 
sadors were sent by Cassius the constd (225, a) to the chiefs. 
— The iCduans were called friends (80, a) by the senate of the 
Roman people. — ^The townsmen were wounded by the darts 
of the soldiers. — The horsemen of the enemy were driren-back 
by the darts of the soldiers. — ^A day had been appointed for tiie 
ronference* 



Digitized by 



Google 



§9. 

PARTICIPLES. (LXXI.— LXXV.) 

(438.) The Participk presents the idea of the verb 
under the form of an adjective : (a) the rising sun ; 
(6) I saw the boy writing a letter. Sometimes, as 
in (fl), its use is wholly adjective ; again, as in (6), it 
governs the case of its verb. There are two active 
participles in Latin, the participle of the present and 
the participle of XYi^ future ; two passive^ the perfect 
and the verbal in dus. 



LESSON LXXL 

Present Participle Active. 
(439.) (a) The endings of the present participle actire for 
the four conjugations are, 

1. 2. 8. 4. 

-ans, -ens, ens, -iens. 

{b) By adding these endings to the stems respectively of the 
▼erbs &m-&re, mdn-6re, rdg-6rd, aud-ird, we obtain the 
present participle active : 

Loving, advising, ruling, hearing. 

Am-ans, m5n-ens, rdg-ens, aud-iens. 
(440.) The present participle is declined like an adiective of 
the third class (108). 

Sizijiular. Plural 

N. V. Amans. N. V. AmantSs, ftmantift. 

Gen. Amantls. Gen. Amantiilm. 

Dat. Aman^, 6cc, Dat. Amantibiis, &c. 

Rem. The abL fdng. ending ii I when the part is used itrictly %b an 
«4J. ; e. g., in florenti roiR, in a hloomint^ ro$e. 



Digitized by 



Google 



166 



PBESENT PAETICIPLE ACTIVE. 



(a) Observe carefully that the Latin present participle ac- 
tive expresses incomplete or continued action ; the language has 
no active participle to express complete action. We cannot 
translate the English having loved by any Latin active parti- 
ciple. 

(h) But deponent verbs (206) have both participles, the pres- 
ent and the perfect ; esdurrting^ hort-ans; having exhorted^ 
hort'&ttis. 

EXERCISE. 



(44 L) Vocabulary. 

To rise, 6nA {dep., ort-). 

To desire, cup6r6 (I6-, Iv-, I^ 406, 

JIL,b). 
Labour, toU, UbSr, (ISb5r) !■ (m., 

319). 
Watching, watchfulness, vigUantift, 

m. 
Especially, prtssertitm (adv.). 
To depart, diBcddSrd (dis+cSdere, 

401, 3, h). 
To tveep, flert (flfiv-, flSt-, 395, 11.). 
To look upon or at, intaSri (dep.). 
AU, the whole, canctiui, fi, dm. 
To worship, adore, ftdor&re. 
Eye, dculxis, L 



A Persian, PenS, as. 

To doubt, dubitarg (ftv-, ftt-). 

To set out, pr5f icisci (dep., prSfect-). 

To sit, 8dder6 (sed-, sess-, 394, V.). 

Firmament, heaven, CGelum, i. 

To shine, micftre (389, EP*)- 

The sun, sol, (sol) is (m., 319). 

PtiU, planus, ft, ihn (with gen^ 

To be wanting, de-essd (with dot.'). 

Star, steUS, as. 

To set [e, g^sA the heavenly bod- 
ies), occIddrS (occid-, ooc&s-, ob-f- 
diderd). 

To throw before, pr6jTc6rB (jdc-> 
ject-, pro+j&cSre). 

(442.) (a) Recollect that, to form pres. part act, yon add to the stem 
ans in 1st oonj. ; e. g., am-ans : ens in 2d and 3d oonjs. ; e. g^ 
mon-ens, die-ens : iens in 4th conj. ; e.g., and-lens. Also, add 
lens in the 16 verbs (199) of 3d conj.; e. g., clip-io, ciip-iens; 
ftc-io, fac-iens. 
ijb) In deponent verbs, the same rules apply: hort-jlri, hort-&ns: 
5r-irl» 6r-iens; inta-eri, intn-ens, &c. The per£ act part, 
in deponents adds (is, ft, um to the snpine-stem: hort-ftri^ 
hortftt-ds, A:c. 
{e) The participle is used to abridge discourse. 

(1) He heard me when J J He heard me saying that, 
said that= \ Me Id dIcentSm andivit 

(2) God, who governs all C QoA, governing all tiiingi. 
\ Deus, omnift giibern&ns. 



things= 
(3) To him that desires^ 



_ i (The man) desiring. 



Cflplenti 



Digitized by 



Google 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE ACTIVE. 167 

{d) He threw himself «^*) r- /•_, 

CflBsar's feet, t a- n '*»j yj- * ^ 

K Se Cob sari &d pSdes prOjccit. 

(e) Can enim, vero, or antem stand first in a clause or sen- 
tence ? (No.) 

(443.) Translate into English. 

M6 Id dicentem audivistiiie ? — Persae sdlem drien- 
tem (442, c) &ddrant. — ^L&bignus, suos (his men) hort&tus, 
cupientibus signum dat. — Non ^Dim l&bor aut vigUantia, 
cupienti praesertim &Hqaid (178, 5), Cassio dedrat (267, b). 
— Caesar ab hibemis in It^Lliam disc^dens, l3gatos convdcat. 
— ^Mulieres flentes 86se Caesari (442, d) ad pedes pr6j6c6- 
runt.~Nemo, cunctam intuens terrain, dS divina providen- 
tia duMtabit. — Caesar, in Italiam prdficiscens, l3gatOB 
omnes ad se rgydc&vit. — Divlti&cus, flens, & Caesard haeo 
{these things) pStebat. — Clcdro C&tdnem vidit in horto sd- 
dentem. — Quant& (184, R. 1) est s&pientia Dei, omni& 
g&bernantls ? 

(444.) Translate into Latin. 

[The words which illastitite the lesson are in Italie.] 

The firmament is fuU of shining (438, a) stars. — "No one, 
when he looks at (= looking, 442, c, 1) the firmament and stars, 
win doubt respecting (d e) the wisdom of God. — Did they hear 
me (135, II., a) when I said ( = saying) that (id) ? — The bar- 
barians were-worshipping the setting sun. — Labienus, having 
exhorted (440, h) his men, made an attack upon the enemy 
(in hostes). — Caesar willingly gave the signal to the soldiers 
when they desired it { = desiring). — To him that desires ( = de- 
siring) anything, no labour wiU-be-wanting (267, 6). —Caesar, 
departing from winter-quarters, giveel rewards to the soldiers. 
— ^The eye, not seeing itself (s6, ace), sees other-things 
(&li&). — The iSduans, weeping, threw themselves at the feet 
of Caesar (442, d). — I saw my brother sitting in the garden 
yesterday. — How-great is the power of God, who governs 
( = governing) the world ? 



Digitized by 



Google 



168 PARTICIPLB PUTURB ACmTB. 

LESSON LXXII. 

Participle Future Active. 

(445.) The ending of the future participle active is 

urusy which, added to the supine-stem^ forms the 

participle ; e. g.^ 

About to love, of one who toill love, &mat-tlril8. 

About to advUe, or one who will advise, mdnH-urtis. 

(446.) PERIPHRASTIC CONJUGATIOIT 

The different tenses of e s s e (to be), joined with the participle 
future active, form what is called the periphrastic conjugation* 

C Smatords stim, / wUl love, am about to love, intend to love, 
Pres. < Mmatorus ds, thou, &c., &c. 

^ So thioagfa aU the persons. 

C Smitorils drSm, I vxu about to love, intended to love, &c 
Past \ Smfttords 6ras, ihoit, 6cc., &c. 

f So throngh all the persons. 

fftmitfirfis 6ro, / tihaU be about to lope, $haU beoniks point of loo- 
ing,&c 
Smatdrfis Sris, thou, &&, &0. 

So through all the persons. 

6XERGISB. 

(447.) Vocabulary. 
To call v/pon, invdcire (in+vdcftre, 

&V-, at-). 
To collect into a Jlock, congrSgfire 

(fiv-, at-)- 
Foreign, ftlienus, S, ilm. 
To procure, oompSrare (tr-, at> ood 

+ptoare). 
To last, durare (dflrav, dflrat).* 
To implore, imploraxe (in+plorare, 

fiv-, at-). 

(448.) Exampk. 

The Athenians sent amhas- I Atheniensds iSg&tos misdront, 

sadors to consult the oracle. \ or&ciilum consulturds. 

*' Darare, transitive, = to harden ; intrans., = to become hard, i e.^ to 
last 
t TransjYcere, transit, = to convey over; intrans., = to cro$$ over. 



Alone, solos, 9l, tUn (194, 1). 

To cross over, tr&jicere (tnyso-, trft- 

ject-, trans+jftcere).f 
Amman, a surname of Japiter, Ham- 

m5n, Ts. 
To behold, speotAre (av-, at). 
To proceed, pergdre (perrez-, p«r- 

rect^). 
To consult, consnldre (constQu^oon- 

snlt-). 



Digitized by 



Google 



PARTICIPLE FUTUSB ACTIVE, 199 

Rule of Syntax, — The future active participle is used after 
a verb of motiou to express the design of that motion. 

(449.) Translate into English. 

1. Avds, in &]i6nas t^ras migrftturse, congregantur.-— * 
Caesar, in Galliam prdfecturus, cent&riones convdcat.-^ 
German!, bellum gesturi, Deos inv5c&v6runt. — Sa^nens 
bdn& ( neut. pi.) comp^Urat semper dar&ttir&. 

2. Periphrastic Conjugation — Caesar de quarts vlgiM castr& 
mottirus est. — Scripturus sum. — Dumndrix impdrium 
suae civit&tis obtenturus erat. — Impdrfttor, cum sd]& 
ddcimft l^gione prdfecturus erat. — ^dui ausilium & 
pdpuk> Rdmano implorfttdri sunt. — Germftni bellum 
gesturi erant. 

3. Future Participle used to express a purpose (448). — Scipio 
in Afirlcam trftj^it, Carthftginem dSletQrus. — ^Ingens hdm- 
inum multitude in urbem congrdg&tur, Iftdos spect&t&r &. — 
Alexander in Asiam contendit, regnum Persftrum occtipa* 
turus. — Alexander ad Jdvem Hammonem pergit, consul- 
turus dS 5ngine su&. 

(450.) Translate into Latin, 

1. The soldiers, when-a^out-to-set-out for (in) Spain, called- 
upon the gods. — Many (men) have procured possessions 
(bdn&) which'wUX-not-last ( = not about-to-last). — The gen- 
eral, when-dboul'to^ross the river, sends-away the horse-sol- 
diers. — Caesar, intending-to-send a messenger, calls together 
the centurions. 

2. Periphrastic Conjugation. — ^Dumnorix was ahotU'to-seize' 
upon the royal-power. — The general is ahout-to-set-out from the 
camp witii five legions. — The iBduans are about-to-carry-on a 
fierce war. — ^The hostages were intending-to-implore aid from 
tiie general. 

3. Future Participle to express a purpose. — The Mdruaa 
sent ambassadors to-implore help from Caesar. — The enemy 
crossed die river in-order-to-hesiege the town. — The men flock 
(congregor) fit)m-every-side to die town, to-hehoLd the 
glumes* 

p 



Digitized by 



Google 



170 



PBftPECT PARTICIPLE PABSITB. 



LESSON LXXni. 

Perfect Participh Passive. 
(451.) (a) The perfect passive participle is formed (as stated 
432, h) by adding tho adjective-eDdings us, &, tim to the su- 
pine-stem; t.g.<, 

InC SapiM-atcin. Peril Part 

Xmfli§, amat-, im&t-ftfl, i, tm, loved, or liomng teea wved, 

C conquered, or hairing &«•» 
vinc6r», rict^ rict-is, «, ttm. ^ conquered, 

{h) It is declined throi^hoat like an adjective of the firU 
doss (76), and must agree with the substantive in gender^ mM»- 
her^and ca$t; e.g., piior laudfttiis, puell& laudfttft. 

(e) The d^nent yerbs use the perfect participle form ac- 
tiivdy; e.^., hortfttns, Aa«tfi^exAor<e«{. 

BXEECISB. 

(462.) Voci^tary. 

Sudden, rdpen^niis, H, ftm. 
To alairm, perturbftre (ftv-, &^). 
To seize, Bnatch up, arripSrS (anrlp- 

io, arripft-, ftirept-, ad+rSpdrfi). 
Auxiliaries, tiiudli&, drum.* 
To pta-to^Jtigfa, diiMeamJU, ffij^. 
To drioe-em Or toge^er, ooosp^ftre 

(oompQl-, oantpoli-, eon+p^drt)' 
To induce, adddcSre (dux-, duct-, 

ad+ddc6r6). 
Influence, auctoiTtas, (auctovftat) Tt. 
To prtoaU Upon, p«naavMi (nidv-> 

mfit-, per-f-mt^VM^ i. «« to novo 

(453.) Examples. 
(a) il< Cbrint^ 
At Romt* 
Ai Catthagtk 
At Athens. 



A wagon, eatriSs, T. 

To buy up, ooimtoft (Cm-, eiiipt> 

coiH-dinfir6). 
Aristides, Aristldef (Aristid) \e. 
Pkarsahis, Phanaliu, ! (f., 25, a). 
To depart^-out'of, 03cc6der6 (ozeesi-v 

ezo«BS-k ex-fcSdiriQ. 
Rhetoric, iAiSltoAA,m, 
To expel, ezpeUfire (ej^iil-, ex* 

pulB-). 

To tUmuUde, nid«o8r0 (dux-, dnot-). 
Btro^-denm, ofipUitfts, (O^ li 
(»»)- 



Gorinthl* 
Rdm«. 
Carth&gln^ 
AthAnis. 
Ride of Syntax. — ^The place tohere is put in the ahl&ihe^ 

* Anzilium in sing. » aid, aaeietance t inphtr. « tmxOimy troope. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PERrSCT PAETICIPLB PABSIYB. 171 

if the name be of the ihird dedensioD or phml number; 
otherwise in the genitive, 
(h) FSrom Rome. I R o m ft. 

From Carthage. |Carth&gln<(. 

Bule of Syntax. — ^The place whence is put In the ahladve. 
(c) To Rome. R o m ft m. 

To Athens. A then ft s. 

Rule of Syntax. — The place whither is put in the accusa- 
tive if it be a town or small island. 
Rem. With the names of countries or large islands, the prep, in or 
ad is employed: to Italy, in Itftliam; to Egypt, ad^gyptam. 



(d) The soldiersjhaving been 
defeated, took to flight. 
(Lat. The soldiers, defeat- 
ed, threw themselves into 
flight.) 

(e) The chief, wften he wcu 
expelled from hiscountrj, 
fled to Rome. 

(/) As large a mumber as 

possible, 
(g) A sudden occurrence. 



MiHtds, pulsi, in fiigam sd 
conjficdrunt. 



Princeps, patrift expuUfts, 
Romam fa^t. 

Quam maxXmut nftmdr- 

us* 
RdpentSnft rSs. 



(464.) Translate into Engluh. 

Nostii {our nun), rdpentinft rS (55, a) pertnrb&ti, arm& 
arripiunt. — ^Auxilift perturbftt&,in fiigam sd conjecdrunt.— 
MiHtes hostes fiigfttosin flumen compilldrunt. — Helvdtii, his 
rebus adducti, legfttos ad Ctesftrem dd deditione mittunt. — 
Gain, bis rebus adducti, et auctOiltftte Orgetoilgis per- 
moti, jumentorum et carrorum quam maidmum numdrum 
coemerunt. — Princlpes, adventu Romanorum permdti, legft- 
tos ad Caesftrem de dddltiond mittunt. — Aristades, patrift ex- 
p u 1 s ii s, Lftcedaemdnem f^gLt. — Didn^sius, Sj^rac&sls e x p u I- 
siis, C5rinthl ptieros ddcSbat — Prindpes, eppidd ex puis I, 
Romam (453, c) ygnerunt. — Leg&tus, rftpentina rft partur- 
bfttu#, ceot^riones conv6eat. 

(455.) Translate into Latin. 

The Hebretians, prevailed up9n by the kifluenee of Casar, 
led (their) army across the Rhine.— The chiefo, induced by 



Digitized by 



Google 



172 ABLATIYS ABSOLUTE. 

these coDsideratioiis (= things), gbe hostages and an immense 
som-of-money to the lieutenant. — Pompey, when he had been 
defeated {= defeated^ 453, d)9X Pharsalus, fled to Alexandria. 
-— Jugnrtha, when he wcu expelled from Africa, came to Rome. 
— The soldiers, alarmed by the sudden occurrence (453, g)f 
take to flight (453, d). — For (enim) Pompey, although-he-had- 
heen-defeaied (=r defeated) (in) no (nullo) battle, departed-out- 
of Italy. — Our (men) drove on the alarmed and discomfited 
enemy into the River Rhine. — ^The Helvetians, induced by 
these considerations (= things), bought-up as large a number as 
possible (453, /) of horses and beasts-of-burden. — The orator, 
having-heen-expeUed-from Athens, taught rhetoric at Carthage 
(453, a, R.). — ^The general, induced by these considerations, 
gave great rewards to the soldiers. — Orgetorix, stimulated by a 
ftrong-desire of royat'power, made a conspiracy of the nobility. 



LESSON LXXIV. 
Participles. — Ablative AhsohUe. 

[Tax ablative abiolate is a very important part of La^ constnictioo* 
and sboold be tborongfaly learned.] 

(456.) The participle is used in the ablative with a 
noun^ "when it is independent of the subject and object 
of the sentence. 



(a) When Tarquin was 
reigning^ Pythagoras 
came into Italy* 



Pyth&g5ras, Tarqulnio 
regnant Of in It&liam vd- 
nit. 



Here Tcvrquin is independent of PythagoraSt the subject of the sen- 
tence. 

(457.) The want of a perfect active participle in 
Latin is frequently supplied by the ablative absolute. 
with a passive participle. 



(5) Ldbienus, having ta- 
ken possession of the 
mountain^ was waiting 
for ovT men* 



L&bi6nus, montft occiip&- 
t5, nostros expect&bat. 



Digitized by 



Google 



ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE. 178 

Here it woald be impossible to say Libidnns, oootipfttas mon- 
tern, as occupdtus is passive, not active. 

(458.) A noun may be put in the ablative absolute 
"with another noun without a participle. 



(a) In the pratorship ofCce- 
ear. 

(h) In the consulship of Mar- 
cus Messala and Marcus 
Piso. 



Caesftre praetord (= Caesar 

being praetor). 
M. Mess&la et M. Pisdnd 

cons til! bus (= Messala and 

Piso being consuls). 



[ThiB constmctioii is used mostly to designate Hie time of an event] 
EXERCISE. 

(459.) Vocabulary. 



To avail, vSldrd (vSlil-). 

Tiberius, Tiberius (i). 

To die, morin and mdri (mortii), dep, 

A pleading, dictio, (dictidD) Is (333). 

Catiline, C&tmnS, a. 

Christ, Cbristiis, !. 



To finish, peiflcere (perfftcere, 
perf §c-, perfect-) ; also, conflcdre 
(ffio-, feet-). 

To reign, regnare (tv-, ftt-). 

Night, mm, (noct) Is (294). 

Territories, fines (pL of finis, 300). 



(460.) Translate into English. 

Nihil praecept& y&lent, nisi adjtiyante nfttQrft (456, a). — 
Deo juyante, f&cilis est l&bor. — ^Tibdrio regnante, Chris- 
tns mortuus est. — Concilio dimisso, principes ad Caesarem 
reverterunt. — Die constitutft causae dictionis, Orgetonx ad 
judicium omnem suam familiam, ad hominum miUia decern, 
undique coegit. — Caesar, op ere perfecto, praesidift disposuit. 
— Caesar, hostibus pulsis (457, b) in fines ^duorum perr©- 
nit. — Caesar, duobus bellis confectis, in hibem& exerci- 
tum duxit. — ^Bello confect5, principSs civitfttum ad Caes&- 
rem, gratiil&tum (379), convengrunt.— ^C&ti]in&, Cicerond 
con sill e (458), conjurfttidnem f&cit. — N&tiirft diicd, nun- 
quam errabimtis. — Orgetorix, Marco Messftlft et Marc 5 
Pisond constilibus, conjtirationem nobiHtatis fdcit. 

(461.) Translate into Latin. 

Our precepts will avail, when nature assists {=: nature assist- 
ing) > — JVhen the sun rises (=the sun rising), the night flees. 
^-When the council was dismissed (=the council being dis- 
missed), the chiefs began to beseech Caesar. — When the coun- 
cil was dismissed^ C»sar called the lieutenants to himsetfU— 
P2 



Digitized by 



Google 



174 ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE. 

CsMar, tohm the work vHufinuihed (= the work being fini$hed)t 
fortified the towers. — Caesar, having defeated Pompey {^Pam- 
fey being defeated)^ retamed to Rome. — Csetar, having finish- 
ed the toar, led-back his arm j into the territories of the ^du- 
ans. — In the consuUhip of Cicero^ Catiline was expelled from 
Rome. — When God assists (= God assisting), it is not difficult 
to labour. — Wi^ Oodfor otar guide (= God leader)^ we shall 
never err. 



LESSON LXXV. 
Ablative Absolute^ continued. 

EXERCISE. 

(462.) Vocabulary. 



Phalanx, philanz, (philtng) U (i»3). 
To hinder, prohibfire (Mbft-, hIbXt> 

pro-|-hftb6re). 
CnauM Pompey, Cnoiiii Pompftini. 
Of owl $ own accord, ultro (mdv.). 
To change, commutftre (tT-, tt-) 
To be bam, iias(^ (n&tos), dep. 
Senate-house, curia, m, 
Augustus, Aogustiu, L 



To mbstain from, abstlnfire (abttX- 

nil-, abstent-, abi+t6ner6), with 

abl 
A plan, purpose, i^ontfliBm, I (not 

ooneilium). 
To harass, l&ceBiSre (Iv-, It-« 406, 

m., b). 

prom higher ground, 6 loc6 fiipe- 

riord. 
A dart, piKim, L 

(463.) Translate into English. 

L&bidnus, mont^ occdpato, nostros expect&bat, praelidque 
abstin3bat. — Barb&ri, conslliocommut&to, nostros l&cessdre 
ccepdrunt. — Milites, d Idco siip^ridre pills missis, f&cUe hos- 
tium ph&langem perfregdrunt (416, b), — CognUo Cses&ris ad- 
ventu, Aridvistus l3g&tos ad eum mittit. — Cnoeo PompeiO 
et Marco Crasso consiillbus, German! flumen Rhenum 
transivfirunt. — Nullo hoste prohlbente, Crassus legionem 
in Helvdtios perduxit, lUque hiem&vit. — ^His rebus cognltis, 
impdratoa* ips6 ad exercltum contendit. — ^Hftc audita pugnft, 
magna pars Aqnitama obsides ultr5 n^it. — Belgse, omnibus 
Ti^is oppidisqne incensfs, ad castr& CsBsttria conteadA- 
nmt. — Augusts regnante, Christus nfttos est. 



Digitized by 



Google 



ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE. 175 

(464.) Translate into Latin. 

The barbarians, having changed their flan ( 3= plan being 
changed), made an attack upon our men. — The soldiers, ^av- 
ing'broken-through the phalanx^ began to harass the enemy. — 
The Belgians, having heard ofthi9 battle^ sent ambassadors to 
Caesar. — The soldiers, having taken-possesaion-of the mountain^ 
easUy put the enemy to flight (391* 3)* — Cicero, v?hen he knew 
of the conspiracy^ went to the Senate-house. — As no enemy 
hindered (=^no enemy hindering)^ the lieutenant led the army 
across the Rhine. — When this battle was heard {of), the Bel- 
gians, of-their-own-accord, sent hostages and ambassadors to 
Caesar. — In the consulship of Cicero and Antony f Auguttns 
was bom. 



Digitized by 



Google 



$ 10, 
INFINITIVE.— (LXXVI.—LXXIX.) 

LESSON LXXVI. 
Infinitive Forms. 
(465.) The infinitive expresses action as completea 
or incomplete, but without reference to person or 
time ; e. g.f 

ACTIVE. 

to lovei OT to he loving, loving^ 
&m-ftre. 



Action Incomplete, 
(Inf. Pres. Act.) 

Action Completed, 
(Inf. Perf. Act.) 

Action Incomplete, 
(Inf. Pres. Pass.) 

Action Completed, 
(Inf. Perf. Pass.) 



to have loved, 
&m&T-i88.d. 

PASSIVE. 

; to he loved, 
I &m-&ri. 
to have heen loved, 
&mfttiis, ft, nm« esse orfuisse. 



[Rem, The names present and perfect do not distingnish properly tk» 
two forms of the infinitive, bat, as they are in onirersal fue, we 
have to adopt Uiem. Hie stadent most remember that the present 
expresses action incomplete, and the perfect action complete ; but 
that the ttme of the acticm most depend noon the verb with which 
the infinitive is connected in the sentence.] 

(466.) FORMS OF THE INFINITIVE. 



] PKESENT. ] 


PSBVKCT. ll 


Active. 


Passive. 


ActiTC 


Tumre. 


1. fim-ftr6. 

2. m6n-er6. 

3. r6g-€r6. 

4. aadire. 


ton-ftrL 
mdn-dri 
r6g-i. 
audiri. 


ftmavO 
m6nd-l . ^ 
rex- f™*' 
audiv-J 


imatOs, «, tun, ) 
mtoltiSs, fi, flm, ^. w . <• -..-x 
rectos, «, dm, ■ «"»« K fawseM 
auditds, i, fim, j | 



Rem. Observe that perf. inf. act. simply adds tiie ending -IssS to 
the perf. -stem of the verb ; and petf. inf. pcus. is formed by the 
perf. pcus. part, of the verb, combined with ess 6 (sometimes 
fuissi). 



Digitized by 



Google 



INFINITIVE. 



177 



EXERCISE. 



(467.) Vocabulary. 

To lay waste, vastAre (av-, at-). 
Chtgkt, dabere (deba-, debit-). 
To be vacant, vScflre (intraiunt). 
/ am able, possum; / was able, 
p6tiu. 

(468.) Examphs. 



Peace, pax, (p&c) ts (293). 
A very few, i>erpaiicX, a, a. 
EvU deed, maldf loimn, L 
To break through, permmpere (peiw 
rflp-, perropt'). 



(a) I wish to ham. 
The enemy began to cross 
the river. 



Cdpio discdre. 
Hostes flQmen transire cob- 
pdrant. 

Mule of Syntax. — ^The infinitiye is used, as in English, 
to complete the imperfect ideas expressed by many 
words. 

gp* Such words are, to with, to be able, ought, to be accustomed, to 
hasten, to determine, Sac\ also, the a^jectiyes dignus, indignas, 
aadax, 5cc 

Helvdtiis est in finlmo (=t/ 1« 
in mind to the Helvetians). 

Nonnnnqu&m interdiH, ssb- 
pids noctfi. 

Iti[n«r6 pr6hlb6re (153, a). 

In conspectQ. 



(6) The Helvetians intend. 



(c) Sometimes by day, often- 

er by night, 
{d) To Jceep-off-from the road, 
(e) In sight of. 

(469.) Translate into English. 

Caesar in Galli& hidmftre constltuit. — Mdm se suaque ab 
Helvdtiis defenddre non pdtufirant. — Agri vastftri non 
debent. — Hostes per munitiones perrumpdre cdnftti sunt. 
—Agri Suevorum v & c & r e ^cuntur. — Mifites incdlas expel- 
13 re non potudrunt. — MultStudo pudrorum miilidrumque 
f ii g 6 r e coepit. — ^Hehrdtii maidmum niimdrum jumentorum et 
carrorum cogmdre constltuSrunt. — Germ&ni copias suas 
Rhenum transdQcdre con&ti sunt. — ^Helvdtii cum proidmis 
civitatibus pftcem et &micltiam confirmftre constltudrunt. 

(470.) Translate into Latin. 

[Place the infimtdye before the verb on which it depends.] 
Our towns ought not to-be-taken-by-storm. — In sight of our 
army, the fields ought not to be laid-waste. — ^The enemy en- 
deavoured sometimes-during-the-day, oftener by-night, to burst- 



Digitized by 



Google 



ITS ACCUBATIVB WITH INPINITIVB. 

dirou^ the fortificatioii8.^-Tlie JEduans were not able to expel 
the enomy from (their) territories (153, a). On oae side,* the 
lands are said to be vacant. — The boys and the women began 
to fly-in-every-direction (passim, adv). — The Helvetians intend 
to make (their) way through oar province. — A very few are 
able to keep-off the HelvetiaDB from the road. — The Helvetiaoa 
ought to cross-over without any (uUo) evil-deed. — ^The remain- 
ing multitude of boys and women began to fly in-evory-diiec- 
tion. 



LESSON LXXVn- 

Accusative with Iitfinitive. 

(471.) Verbs sigoifyixxg to know, to see, to fe^ to 
thinkj to 9ayj with some others, have frequently a 
sentence depending on them, the subject of which is 
in the accusative, and the verb in the infinitive. 

He ^aio that war was ^^a- 1 UndXque bellum p&rftr:i vl- 
ring <m aU $ides. | ddbat. 

Here bellaxQ, the ffOlgeot. «i jBociis»tiv# bftfixie the infiDitive par%ri; 
after the verb ri debate he uao. 

(472.) Many dependent sentences which are introduced in 
English by the conjunction that^ are expressed m Latin by the 
accusative and infinitive. To translate such sentences into 
Latin, observe the following method : 

1. Omit the word (haJt, 

2. Change tiie nominative following OiaJt into the Latin 
accusative. 

3. Change the English verb into tiie Latin infinitive. 



The messenger says that 
the horsemen are hurling 
darts. 



Nuntius dicit, 6 qui tea tW 
conjicftre. 



(473.) If the predicate of the sentence containing the acca« 
satiye and infinitive be an adjective, it must agree with llie 
accusative subject in gender, number, and case. 



Uoa«spti«. 



Digitized by 



Google 



ACCUSATIVE WITH INFINITIVE. 



179 



He knows that Cicero is do- 

quent. 
I perceive that the water is 

cold. 



Sdt Cicdrdnom ettft 616- 

quentem. 
Sentio &quam frigldam 

esse. 



EXJBBCIBE* 



(474.) Vocabulary. 



To fawmr, ftvSro (fiir-, fiuit-» 31^ 

v.), (gorenii dot,). 
While, dam (adv.). 
To lo»e, imitMro (t+mitteni, 401, 

3,*). 



Nuntaus die it 
conjicftre. 

NuDdus dixit 
conjicdre. 

Nuntins dixit 
eonjficisse. 



6qTi!teft tSBl 



ftquXtes tm, 



dqtdtes tm. 



To think, exigtrm«re (Av-, it-). 

To encamp, ooostddre (oons0d-, oon- 

sess-, con+siddre). 
To know, ware (sciv-, 8<^t-). 
Stone, VkpXa, (Iip!d) b (m.). 
Nearer, prftpins (adv., 376). 

(475.) Examples. 

(a) The messenger say« that 
the horsemen are hurl- 
in g darts. 

(6) The messenger said that 
the horsemen U7 ere hull- 
ing darts. 

(c) The messenger said that 
the horsemen had hurl- 
ed ds^rtS' 

{d) Word is brought to Cte- 
sar. 

(e) To have about himself. 

(476.) TranslaU into English. 

Hely^tii existimant, Rdm&nos discdddre. — ^Expldrfttor 
dixit, hostes consfidiss e. — Cssar scit, Dumndrlgem 
fllyere Helvdtiis. — HeW^tii dicunt, se omnem Sj6nft« 
torn & m i s i 8 s e.-— Csesllri nunti^tum est, m i 1 i t e s magnitQ- 
cKnem sylv&rum time re. — Nuntins dixit, dqultes tela 
conjicdre. — Ga)ba certior factus est, 6 alios omnes dis- 
co ss is se. — Explor&tores dicunt, oppldum ab hostitbus 
t e n e r i. — Dum hsc in coUdquio gdruntur, Cses&ri nnntifttum 
est, equltes Ariovisti prOpius acceddre, et l&pides te|aque 
in nostros conjlcdre. 

[Be careful, in translating the following English into Latin, to write 
first the leading sentence, and after it the accos ative and tfaejnfin. 
Hive, observing tibe rules in (472)^ 9^ j^kiwiiif ^ OE^ff^^ 9n|rds 
in we exfunples given above.] 



Css&Ti nnntifttum est (=t< w 

told to Caesar). 
Circum se h&bere. 



Digitized by 



Google 



180 ACCUSATIVE WITH INFINITIVE. 

(477.) Translate into Latin. 

Caesar knows that this (thing) is true (473). — The scouts 
say that the horsemen of Ariovistos are approaching (475, a). 
— ^The ambassadors said that the Helvetians had lost all their 
cavafay and all their senate. — Word was brought to Caesar 
ihat the horsemen of Ariovistus were hurling stones against 
(In, with accus.) our (men). — Word-was-brought to Caesar 
that Ariovistus had-departed from the camp. — Caesar was in- 
formed by the scouts thai the enemy had encamped under 
(s 6 b, wiOi abl.) the mountain. — The lieutenant says thcU the 
mountain is held by the enemy. — The general thinks that our 
plans are told to tlie enemy. — Word was brought to the gen- 
eral that aU the Gauls had departed by night. — The chiefs say 
ihat Diviiiacus always has a great number of horse-soldiers 
about himself. 



LESSON LXXVIII. 
Accusative with Infinitive. — Perfect Infinitive Passive. 

(478.) It has been stated (466, R.) that the perfect infinitive 
passive is formed by the perfect participle passive, combined 
with esse (sometimes fuisse). 

When the accusative is used with this infinitive, die participle 
must agree with the accusative in gender^ number, and case ; 
e. g., 



(a) The messenger says that 
the JEduans have been 
conquered. 

(b) Ariovistus said that all 
the forces had been routed 
in one battle. 

(c) The horsemen brought- 
back-ujord that the town 
had been taken-by-storm. 



Nuntius cKcit, ^duos victos 
esse. 

Aridvistus dixit, omnes cd- 

pias uno praeliofasas 

esse. 
£qultes r^nuntiftverunt, o p - 

pidum expugnfttum 

esse. 



IT* Observe tbat ia (a) the part victos agrees with the aocns. JE duos ; 
in (ft),ffl8as with cdpias; in {c), expngn&tam with oppldam. 



Digitized by 



Google 



ACCUSATIVl: WITH INPINITIVB. 181 

EXERCISE. 



(479.) Vocabulary. 

ToJiTuirOut, r6p€rire (427, V.). 
To frighten completely, perterrtre 

(pertemi-, pertenft-, per+ter- 

p6re). 
TVibuUny, sfipendiiriafl, tH, Hm. 
To bring back word, r6xraiitiAre (&▼•, 

at-). 



To rout, fiindere (ffld-, f dih, 416, a) 
To overcome, ilipCrtre (!▼-, it-). 
Bond, duxin, Tincdhmi, L 
7V> Ao2d m memory, to remember, 

mSmSrit t^dre. 
jTo put (or CM/) tf» cAotfM, in yinctt- 

la cx)^jIcSre. 



(480.) Translate into English. 

Caesar rdpSriebat Mtium f^gsB a Dniim6rige factum esse. 
— ^Impdr&tor dixk, Sqnit&tam esse perterritum. — Caesar 
mfimdrift tdnebat, L. Cassimn constilem occisum esse ab 
HeWetiis. — Aridyistos dicit, ^dnos sfhi (54), stipendiSrios 
esse factos. — Ceesar certior factos est, leg&tos in vinctUa 
conjectos esse. — £qidtes rdnunti&veraiit, castra esse 
m a n i t a. — Dixit bella gesta ess e. — Rdpdriebat dtiam Cae- 
sar, Initimn fiigse a Dnmndrige atqne ejus Multibus factum 
esse; eorumque fi&gft (55, a) r^Hquum dqult&tum perter- 
ritum esse. — Aridvistus dixit omnes OaDorum cdpias CLno 
abese praefio (55, a), fdsas ac s&pdratas ease. 

(481.) Translate into Latin. 

Caesar found-out that the cavaby had been completely-fright- 
ened by the flight of Dumnorix. — ^The ^duans say that they 
(s e) have been routed by the Germans. — Caesar remembered 
(= held in memory) that the consul's army had been defeated 
by the Helvetians. — Caesar remembered that the consul had 
been slain, and his (ejus) army sent under the yoke (323, N.). 
— Caesar was informed by the chie& that hostages had been 
given. — ^The lieutenant said that the ^ambassador had been cast 
into chains. — ^Ariovistus said that all the forces had been over- 
come by himself. — ^Ariovistus said that the Gauls had been 
overcome by himself in one battle. — The ^duans say that they 
(s e) have been made tributary to Ariovistus {dat.)» 

Q 



Digitized by 



Google 



108 



OfnviTiTB Funnts* 



LESSON LXXIX. 
h^Uhe Future Active and Passive. 

(482.) By the combination of the future participle 
active with e 8 8 6 (or f u i s s 6), an infinitive future 
active is formed ; e. g.^ 

&m&tarfltY&,fliii«e88 6, tohe about to love^to intend lovmg. 
, . , ^, ^,. ^ ito have been about to love, to 
*mitartt8,»,ftm.fiii.8«,J ka»ci,dended loving. 

(483^) Finally, by combining the supine with the 
verb i ri,* we form the infinitive future passive; e.g.^ 

&m&tum iri, to he ahout to he loved. 
doGtiim iri, tohe about tohe taught, 

Rem, 1. Thia ibm, bdng derived fimn the tupinet U ap^ed alike to 

nooDt of all senders and of both nomben. 
9. Aj there is no future inJiwUive in Cngliih, we most translate the 

Latin /ifhcfv infinitive by a periphrasis, as above. 



To rtatore, reddere (reddid-, rodfit-, 

rH-dire, 411, c). 
Unfriendly, biimfcos, i, um (bi+ 

imlcas). 
To demmmdrhofk, rSpfitire (i«pMlv-> 

rdpMt-, B&f P^tdre). 
Tq rffute, xiMmre {jkr-, it-}. 



(484.) Vocabulary. 

To penuade, persntdere (per4«aa- 
d€re, S11&S-, sals-) ; governs dot. 

To refnxin, temp^rtre (iv-, fit-, fol- 
lowed by ftb with obL). 

To neglect, aSgfigere (atglez-, oSsr- 
lect^ a»c+l«sSre). 

To eowtptt, oft|;«re (co^-, oo•c^, 
cOn+&g&re). 

(484, a.) EoMtmpk. 

The general said ^tat he | Impftrfttor dbdk « 8 cum 861& 

t(H>iiU come u;t(^ t^ tenOi I dMmft Ifigiooe Tentdram. 

legion alone. \ 

Rem. The e s s 6 in die fiitare infinitive is freqaently omitted ; e. g.i 
intibe above, ventflrnm. 

* Ir ! is the infinitive passive form of the verb It %, to go. It is not io 
nsa, ezoept in combination as abova. 



Digitized by 



Google 



INPINITIVB FUTURE. 168 

(485,) Translate into English. 

ITuture Infinitive Active* 

IDumndrix existlmat sd regnum obtentfLrum esse.^ 
Helvdtii enstlmabant sfi finittmis (dot*) persu&sQros. — 
Caes&r existimftbat, finltiunos tempdratflros ab injOrift. — 
Caes&r dicit, se ^doorum injdriat non neglectQrum. — 
Helvdtii existXmabaat, td i£doo6 vi (301) coactflrot. 
— Aridvistus dixit, ^duis (54) sd obsides redditQmm 
ess e. — Css&r dicit sd, proidrnft noctd (118, II., c), de qnartft 
^^Oi&, eastril m^tQriim. — ^Imp6r&tor, hdmines ininuc5 kdLrxA 
(428, a) tempftr&tfiros ab injuria et mWflcio, noo esistX- 
mabat. 

(486.) Translate into Latin. 

Future Infiudvo Active. 

Cssar said that he would move his camp. — ^Dumnorix thouf^ 
that iie weuld-hold the mlMtaiy^omwaiid of his own state. — 
The |;etteral says that he is-about-to-demand-back the host- 
ages. — ^The iBduaos say that they-are-about-to-implore assist- 
ance frpiQ (a) the EomaB pe<^le. — Dumnorix assures (themy 
liiat he is-about-tOrseiEe the royal-power with his own (sud) 
army. — Ariovistus said that he would not restore the hostages* 
— Cssar did not think that the allies would-refirain from ii^juxy. 
— Caesar thought that he would-compel the Germans by force. 
—•Ariovistus said that he would-refuse the Mendahip of the 
Roman people. 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 11. 

THE GERUND. 

LESSON LXXX. 

(487.) (a) The gerund expresses the action of the 
verb under the form of a noun of the second declen- 
sion, in the genitive^ dative^ accusative^ and ablative 
cases (i, 6, u m, o). 

(6) The gerund-stem is formed by adding to the 
verb-stem, 

In the Ist coDJngatioiii -and; e. g., & m - a n d -. 
•* 2d ** -end; e.g., mdn-end-. 

" 3d " -end; e.g., rfig-end-. 

«* 4th " -iend;* e. ^., aud-iend-. 

(c) The gerund of any case is formed by annexing the case- 
ending to the gerund-stem; e. g., gen.., &mand-i; dat.f 
&mand-o; occ, &mand-um; a52., &mand-d. 

(488.) As the infinitive is used as a verbal noun in the nomt- 
native and accusative cases, so the gerund is used in the re- 
maining cases ; e. g., 

Nom. S crib 6 r 6, urriting. 
Gen. Scribendi, o/*imftn^. 
Dat. Scribendo, to orybr tm^n^. 
. (Scribdrfi, ) .,. 
^'^'^•iscribendum,}^^^^- 
Abl. Scribendd, loith toriting. 
(489.) The rules for the use of the cases of nouns appdy abo 
to the cases of the infinitive and gerund ; c. g., 
Nom. WriHng is useful, scribdre est tidle. 

n rrtL * r '^ ' r i ( BTS SCrib O udi eSt fitf- 

Gen. The art ofumUng is useful, < 

* Also in the io verbs (199) ; e. g., cftp-io, cftp-iendi 

Digitized by dOOQ IC 



THE GERUND. 



165 



Dat. 



D _• -r 7 r M- ( charta scribe nd 6 est 
Paper u ttsefiufir writing, I _ 

( I learn toriting, ^scribdre disco. 

Ace. < I learn during writing, > inter scribendum 

( } disco. 
Abl. We learn by wridng, scribendo discimns. 

Rem. With a preposition, the accttsaHve gerund miut be nsed, and 
m^ the infinitive ; a d (inter, ob) scribendum, not a d (inter, ob) 
Bcribdre. 

(490.) The gerund' governs the same case as the verb from 
which it is derived ; e, g,, 

The art of training hoys wlArs pner5s edticandl 
difficuU. I diifldlis est. 

EXERCISE. 



(491.) Vocabulary. 

To make loar, bellare (&▼-, fit-). 
To plunder, to obtain-booty, prsedari 

(prsdftt-), dep. 
Wearied, defessns, S, um. 
Sufficiently, s&tds. 
To think, cdgitflre. 
Opportunity, time for, spStiom, I. 

(492.) Exampks. 



To deliberate, deliberive (&▼•, It-). 
To take, s&nSre (samps-, sompt-). 
Agriculture, ftgricoltora, e. 
Desire, stddimn, i. 
Life, age, at&a, (setAt) is (293). 
Mind, mens, (ment) Xa (355, IL, 1.) 



(«) 



Sp&tium arm& 
d&tum est. 



c&piendi 



FrQmentandi caus& 
lat.). 



(aft- 



Time was given for 
(= opportunity was given 
of) taJcing-up arms, 
(b) For the sake of collect- 
ing-com. 

(493.) Translate into English. 

Spes prsdandi hdmlnes &b ftgriculttirft rdvdcftbat. — Spa- 
timn defessis ex pugn& excedendi non d&tmn est. — ^Brdve 
tempns aet&tis s&tis est longam ad btod be&teqne vTvendum. 
— Hdminis mens discendo ftKtur.-^Pars fiqnitatus, pras- 
9 a n d 1 causa, missa est. — ^Nox finem oppugnandi ftcit.^ — 
Magna pars equitatus, frfimentandi causa, missa 6rat. — 
Cognovdrat enira Caesar, magnam partem fiquitatas, prsBdandl 
f r u m e n t a n d i que causa, trans RhSnum missam fuisse (471). 
Q2 



Digitized by 



Google 



186 GBRUND. 

-^Imp^ir&tor diem ad deliberandum sQmit. — Imp^rfttar 
dixit, 86 diem ad deliberandum sumptQmm (484, a). — 
Spes prsdandi, sti&diumqne bellandi incdlaa ab ftgricul^ 
tQr& et UUbdre revdc&bat. — Ddcendd ddc6mar, 

(494.) Translate into Latin. 

The desire of plundering and making-war has recalled the 
farmers from (their) fields, — ^Time for (492, a) hurling the 
darts was not given to the soldiers. — Time for (of) fighting 
was not given to the horsemen. — The horsemen were sent into 
the territories of the JEdnans for the sake of'ColUcting'amu — 
The mind of man is nourished by thinking. — Time for depart- 
ing-out^ the town was not given to the wearied citizens. — 
The citizens ask time for (of) deliberating. — ^Wisdom is the 
art of living well. — Cesar recalled the tenth legion into Gaul, 
for-the-sake-of wintering. — We loam by teaching. — Oppor- 
tunity of attacking the town was not given to the soldien« 
thou|^ thej desired it (= desiring it). 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 12- 

THE GERUNDIVE, OR VERBAL ADJECTIVE 
IN DUS, DA, DIJM. 



(495.) (a) The gerundive expresses the action of 
the verb (generally with the additional idea of ne- 
cessity or continuance) under the form of an adjec- 
tive of thejlJr^^ class (76). 

(6) T^e gerundive-stem is precisely the same as 

the gerund-stem. The cases are formed by adding 

the endings of the adjective ; c. g-., 

N. &mand-ti8, &, i&m. 
6. &mand-I, as, I, &c., 

and so through all cases and both numbers. 



LESSON LXXXL 
The Gerundive used instead of the Gerund. 
(496.) The gerundive is used (to express contin- 
ued action) as a verbal adjective, agreeing with the 
noun, instead of the gerund governing the noun ; e. g,, 



Gen. Cf writing a Utter, 



Dat. To or fir writing let- 
ters. 

Ace. To write a letter, . 



AU. By writing a letter. 



Scribends dpistdlae, in« 
stead of 8 crib end! dpis- 
tdlam. 

Scribendis 6 pi 8t5]is, in- 
stead of scribendo 6 pis- 
tolas. 

Ad scrlbendam i^pistd- 
1am, instead of ad scr!- 
bendum fipistdlam. 

Scrlbenda 6pist61ft, In- 
stead of scribendo ftpls- 
t51am. 



Digitized by 



Google 



186 



GERUNDIVE. 



Em. The genmdire musl be used fin* Ae dative or aeeutatk>e of tlia 
genmd when it has an active govemment It may be oaed for it 
in any other case, nnless the object of the gerand is a neuter ad- 
jective or proooon ; «. g., of learning the true = veradiscendi, 
ntit vSrorum diteendarum i of hearing this, hoc ku die ndUno^ 
JMus audiendL 

EXERCISE. 

(497.) Vocabulary. 

To ckooae, ddHgdre (ddleg-, ddect-, 



d6+l6gere). 
To purtue, oonsdqal (consScftt), dtp. 
To failt to be intujieient, d«f Ic«re 

(dfifCc-, defect-, d6+f ftcSre). 
To form a detign, oonsiliam cSpfire 

(io). 
Space-qf-two^eart, biennifim, L 

(498.) Examples. 

{a) The Helvetians redconed 

that the space-of-two-years 

was enough for themselves, 
(6) The space of three-days, 
(c) The house was given to 

the robbers to plunder. 
The farmer gave his house 

to the robbers to plunder. 



To redton, deem, dOcdre (diix-> 

dact-). 

To diecem, cemdre (406, CL HL, a). 
Care, cfira, m. 
To apply, adhibdre (adMbA-, adhib.- 

It-). 
Negligent, negHgens, (neg&gent) is 
(107). 



Hehdtii biennium 
s & t i 8 esse duxemnt. 



slbi 



Tridni sp&tium. 
Ddraus latardidbus diripien- 
^ d&d&t&est. 

Agricdla ddmum latrdnlbus 
diripiendam dddit. 



ly After verbs of giving^ going, sending, receiving, and the 
like, the gerondive expresses a purpose or object, 

(d) For completing (=fin- 1 Ad eas res c o n f i c i e n d & s. 
ishing) these things, \ 

(499.) Translate into English. 

Urbs ft dilce miHtibiis dirlpienda dftta est. — Urbem dux 
miHtibus diripiendam dddit. — Snblto Galli confi^um belli 
gdrendi c^peront. — Subitd Galli Idgionis oppngnands 
consilium c3pdrant. — Ad eas res conficiendas Orgdtorix 
dSli^tur. — Helvdtii, ad eas res conficiendas, biennium sibi 
s&tis esse duxSrunt. — Crassus Iggatos tribunosque militum in 
finltimas civltfttes frumenti p^tendi causft dimisit. — ^Plftto 
Komam (453, c) ad cognoscendas Numae leges contendit. 
i— In vdluptftte spernendft virtus maxim© cemltur. — Muhi. 



Digitized by 



Google 



GERUNDIVE. 189 

in Sqais p&randis, adblbent cdram, sed in ftmicis dfill- 
gendis negBgentes sunt. — ^Militee* ad urbem expugnan- 

dam, tridui sp&tium ^bi s&tis esse duxSrunt. 

I 

(500.) Translate into Latin. 

For completing these things (498, d) Caesar gave to the 
Gauis the space of three days. — ^The JSduans had suddenly 
formed the design of besieging the town. — Crassus is chosen 
for carrying-on the war (498, d). — ^Pythagoras went to Sparta 
(453, c) to learn (498, ^F") the laws of Lycurgus. — Casar 
reckoned that the space of two years was enough for himself, 
for overcoming the Gauls and finishing the war. — ^The general 
sent an the cavalry across the Rhine, (or the sake of seeking 
com. — ^Ariovistus hastened (contendere), with all his forces, 
lo attack the town (498, 17). — The Britons sent ambassadors 
to CsBsar, in>order-(ad)-to-seek (498, 17) peace. 



LESSON LXXXII. 
The Cferundive used to express Necessity, ^. 

THE GERUNDIVE AS SUBJECT. 

(501.) (a) The gerundive in the nominative neuter (di&m) 
is used with esse to express necessity or diUy. If the person 
be expressed, it must be put in the dative. 

One must write, I Scribendtim est. 
I must write. \ Scribendtim est m!M. 

^* Here the gerundive is the subject of the sentence 
(the duty ofvrriting is to me). 

(h) This neuter nominative may be combined with all the 
tenses of esse ; e. ^., 

Scribendum est mlhi, I must write, 
Scribendum erat m!hi, I had to write, 
Scribendum erit, I must write hereafter • 

&c., &c. 



Digitized by 



Google 



190 



0£ftDNDlVB* 



(c) This tieoter nominatiTe may goyern the ease of itt verb ; 

ClTibofl {dat,) mihv6mendani 

est. 
lUtidiie Qtendum est. 



We must kdp ike citizens. 
One must use reason. 



TBS eXKUlTDIYS AS P&SBtCATE. 

(502.) The genindiTe is also used with esse, in all eases and 
genders^ as a verbal adjective, agreeing with the notm, to ex- 
press necessity or worOiiness ; e. g., I am to be l&vedt ftmandus 
sum ; thou art to he lovedt ftmandus ^, &c. The person, if 
specified, is put in the dative. 

Tullift m!hi &niand& est. 



I must love TuUia (= Tul- 

lia is to he loved hy me.) 
All (kings had to he done 

hy Casar {=zCasar had 

to do all things). 
9* Here the gerundive is the predicate, 

EXERCISE. 



Omni& Csesari drant ftgend&. 



(503.) Vocabulary. 

Flag, vexilhun, L 

To tet-^p, prOponSre (prO+pdnfire, 

pdsft-. p6slt-, 408, a). 
To go-fortoardt procMSre (pr6+c§- 

dSre, 401. 3, b). 
A. KtHe too far, paalld longini 

{adv,). 
To think, piitsre (&▼•, it-). 

(504.) Exampks. 

(a) Ctesar causes a bridge to 

he made (= takes care that 

a bridge should he made), 
I must hear. 

Est is often omitted with the 
(&) The centurions thought 

(hat nothing should he 

done rashly. 



To semi for, aroefsflre (areesi^> 

flrcessit-). 
To undSrtUuid, ptiaehe, inttl1Ig6re 

(intellez-. intellect-). 
To detentUite, ttitadre (stfttft-, stS- 

tot-). 

In vain, fraatr9u 

More widely, l&tiiis (adv,, 376). 



Cssar pontem f&ciendum 
(esse) ctUrat. 

Mlhi audiendum. 
gerundive, as in (a). 
Centi&ridnes n!hn tdmfire 

& g e n d u m (esse) existimft- 

bant 



* The aceutaHv ii hardly ever used after the neat gemndive. 



Digitized by 



Google 




GERUNDIVE. 

(505.) Translate into English. 

(1.) OeruTuUve in the itominative muter (dlim). 

MiHtibus de n&vibns 6rat ddslliendum. — MiHtibus 
flimii] et de n&vibus (drat) dfislliendum, et cum hostibas 
6rat pagnandum. % 

(9.) Oerundive as a verbal adjecHve, agreeing wi^ the noun, 

Caes&ri omnia tlno temp6re (118, II., c) drant ftgenda; 
yexiUiim prdponendum; rdvdcandi milites; qui pauDo 
loDgius processdrant arcessendi; &cieB instruenda; mi- 
lites hortandi; signum dandum. — Prohibenda est 
Ira. — ^Bellum D6bis est susclpiendum. — Cses&r slbi l&tiuft 
distrlbuendum exercitnm ptitat. — Impdrfttor dicit, jam 
slbi legfttos audiendos. — Cas&r iibi intellexit frustra tao- 
tum l&bdrem sumi (471), st&tuit expectandam classem. — 
Cses&r pontem f&ciendum ctlrat atque It& exerdtum tr&- 
dQcit. 

(506.) Translate ifUo Latin. 

(1.) Oerundive in natninaiive, neuter (d ttxn). 

We must leap-down from the ships.-^IFc must read. — You 
must hear, — You must fight for liberty (pro libertate). — AU 
must hear ; we must read. — ^Witli whom (quibuscum) must I 
fight ? — We must leap down from the Walls and fight with the 
horsemen. 

(8.) Oerundive ob a verbal a^ectioe. 

I must do afl things at once (= all things must he done hy me 
at one time). — You must give the signal. — We had to set up 
the flag. — C€esar must send ambassadors. — The soldiers must 
fortify the camp. — The general must encourage the soldiers. — 
The Heivetians cause bridges to he made ever the river. — Cae- 
lar thought that the arm/y mfust he led-over. — Caesar thought 
that the army must he divided by him (sibi), kad distributed 
more-widely. — The general says ^uU he must wait-for the 
fleet.— Divitiacufl says that this-thing (hOe) must he done by all 
the Gaols. 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 13. 
IMPERATIVE MCXDIX 



LESSON LXXXIII. 

(507.) The imperative mood expresses the action 
of the verb as a command^ wish^ entreaty, &c. ; e. g.f 
Love thou ! Hear thy parents. 



(508.) 


F0RM8 


OP THE 


IMPERATIYC. 




AcnvB. (1 


Sm- 
mdn- 

aud- 


SdSinf. 

KorhXo. 

fiorlto. 
lorita 


SdSins. 
fttXK 

6to. 
Ito. 
ito. 


SdPhir. 

fttftorfttdtd. 

rteoritote. 

ltd or itote. 


SdPlnr. 

Into, 
finto. 
dnto, 
!«nto. 


. 


FA88IVX. ll 


m6n- 
aud- 


are or ftt5r. 
er6 or etdr. 
6r6 or itdr. 
irt or itor. 


fttor. 
6t5r. 
Itdr. 
itor. 


ftinTn? or ftm&idr. 
emim or 6iidn6r. 
imliu or bnindr. 
imini or imlndr. 


antor. 
ent»r. 
nntor. 
iimt6r. | 



Rem. 1. Observe that the 2<2 pert. sing. act. can be obtained from any 
verb by striking off rd from the infinitive; e. g., inf., fim&rS; 
imper., fim&; and that the fid pert. sing. pass, is the infinitive 
form precisely. 

2. The longer forms of the 2d person are nsed especially in reference 
U} future time ; e. g., in laws, statutes, and the like. 

3. The io verbs of 3d ooig. take Ike imperative endings of ^e 4th in 
the 3d pern, plor.: thns, cfipinnto, let them take; c&piuntor, 
let them be taken. 7 Ac io has 2d pen. sing. fie. 

EXERCISE. 

(609.) Vocabulary. 

[Deponents take, of course, th^ passive endings.] 



Enmity, inlnucltii, m. 

To despise, oontemn6re (con-f-tem- 

ndrd, temps-, tempt-). 
Fleeting, f«gax, (f Agtc) U (107). 



To pursue, folloio, pemSqni (persfi* 

cflt-), dtp. 
Associaiion,fdlo«skip, sdoiStls (fttli, 

293). 



Digitized by 



Google 



IMFERATIVE MOOD. 



193 



SkoWf spdciSi, specie! (117). 

To trust, creddre (crddid-, oi«di»^ 

411, c) ; gorerns dot. 
AdnUrCy adxnirari (At-), dqf. 



Nd audi. 

Nd crdd« cdl5ri. 



Frail, perishable, cidtLc&B, S, iSm 

(from cddSri, to fall). 
To shun, avoid, vitftrd (av-, At*). 
Judge, judex, (judic) is (306). 
To revere, vtodrAri (vgnfirAt-), dep, 

(510.) Exampks, 
(a) Do not hear. 
Do not trust appearance 
(colour). 

Rule, — ^With imperatires, nd must be used for noL 
(Ndn would be very bad Latin.) 
(6) Letthe judge neither give \ Judex prsemia nS dftt6 nfivfi 

nor take rewards. | capito. 

Neither — nor = nS — ndvS. 
(c) Instead of parents =^ |P&rentum Idco (aU.) 

(511.) Translate into English. 

Pueri (voc.), p&rentds &m&td. — Magistri pueros lingu&m 
L&tin&m d 6 c e n t o. — Magn& vis est in virtudbus ; $&s ( 150 ) 
exclt&f si fortd dormiunt. — Abstinetotd omni injuri& 
(dbl.) atque inimidtiis. — I m p S r 3, irae ( 147 ). — Ns p e r s S- 
q u S r e omnia, quae sp^ciem glorise h&bent. — Haec omnia, quae 
h&bent sp^ciem gloriae contemn^: brevift, f ugaci&, c&duc& 
existimft. — N© credits omnibus. — Judlces praemium n© 
e&piunto, n6v6 danto. — V i t a sdcifitatem imprdborum. — 
Vdndr&r© Deum, ven6r&r6 p&rentes, et quos p&rentum 
16c6 (55, a) tibi (54) n&tur& d^dit. — Pueri praeceptores, & qui- 
bus docti sunt, ftmanto etvdnSrantdr. 

(512.) Translate into Latin, 

Bojs, revere (your) parents.— Zrf the master teach the boys 
the Greek language. — Do not rouse-up (your) vices : rouse-up 
(your) virtues, if perchance they sleep. — Abstain ye from (ahL) 
an vices and enmities. — My son, rule (your) anger (dat.y 147). 
— Do not admire all things which have the show of glory .—r 
Do not ye fear death. — Do not trust to the show of glory. — 
Love those whom Nature has given to you in place of parents. 
— Do not seek the association of the wicked. — Neither take 
(cdpire) nor give a reward.--'-H'«ar the wise and good. 

R 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 14. 

SENTENCES. 



[Tbk ■tadenft ■boold now be made to nnderatand sometfaixig of sentei^ 
ces. The fi>Ilowing limple Btatements can readily be nndentood.] 

(513.) (a) The sentence, ** the messenger fied,** ia a simple 
sentence, as it contains but one subject and predicate. 

(6) The sentence, " the m^senger, who saw me, fled" is a 
compound sentence, as it contains more than one subject and 
predicate. 

(«) In the last example, ** the messenger fled" is called the 
PRINCIPAL SENTENCE ; and ** who saw me," the subordinate 
sentence. 

(514.) The following are some of the classes of subordinate 
sentences : 

{a) The accusative toiih the infintUve ; e. g*, Nuntitis dixit, 
gquitds tel& conjlcdrd (The messenger said that the 
horsemen were hurling darts). Here ^quitSs tdl& conji* 
cdrd (that the horsemen were hurling darts) is the suhordincUe 
sentence ; nuntius dixit, the principal sentence. 

(h) Conjunctive sentences, i. e., such as are introduced by a 
conjunction or adverb of time ; e. g*, C<Ksar, when he had 
crossed the river, drew up his army. Here, Ciesar drew 
up his army is the principal sentence ; tohen he had crossed 
the river, the subordinate sentence. 

(c) Relative sentences; e. ^., 'Nuntius, qu! missus est, 
dixit {The messenger, who was sent, said). Here nun- 
tius dixit is the principal sentence; qui missAs est, 
the relatim subordinate sentence. 

{d) Interrogative sentences (i. e.), such as are introduced by 
an interrogative word ; e. g.. Tell me what you are doing ? 
Here what you are doing is a subordinate interrogative sen- 
tence. 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 15. 
CONJUNCTIONS.— (LXXXIV.—LXXXV.) 



LESSON LXXXIV. 
Copulative Conjunctions. 
(515.) Copulative conjunctions unite words or 
sentences together. They are, 

St, quS, &c, atqud. 

NSc, ndqud. 

Eti&in, iM^iGn, qti5qo^, Mm, 

BXBRCISE. 



And. 

Neither, nor. 
Also, 



(516.) Vocabulary. 

Only, BOlftm ; Ttot only, ndn s5lQin. 
A debtor, 6b«ntfta, T. 
Formerly, at one time, qooadun. 
Rick, opaleBS> (dpiUent) U (107). 
To hasten, to march rapidly, propfi- 

rarS (av-, at-). 
To give largess, to bribe, largM 

(largit-), dtp. 
Once tmd again, sdmil «tq«i^ ltd' 

E*tate, res f ftimliArls, e (104). 
A wheel, rSta, «. 

(517.) Examples. 

(a) Darius equipped a fleet, 

md placed over it IkUis and 

Artaphemes. 



Some {some persons), nBmmSS, m, S 

(nOn+DoUAs)! 
Javelin, trlgiili» m. 
To hurl under, ivbjIc&NI ( jte-, jeet-, 

Bub+jttcdre). 
I profit, ben^, prostbn* (prd+som) ; 

govems dot. 
To the scmte place, eOddm (adr.). 
IW much, i^mi «% i, Am. 
TV)^, summit, oalxnAB, (oiilni&i) &i 

(345). 
To pray, 6rare (ftv-, at-). 

D&riuB classem eompiir&yit, 
eiqu6 Datim prssfdcit 6t 
Art^pherneni. 



(a) lit coimeots independent words and sentenees; qad join8 one 
word or senteiice to another lather as an appendage. Thus,, in (a), dt 

*Pr6stimis inflected like stim, bnt inserts d before the vowels; 
e.^., prod-ess e, prod-Ss, prod-est (not p«>-«^ pro-est). 



Digitized by 



Google 



196 COPULATIVE CONJUNCTIONS. 

joins Dfttim and Artftphernem; and qafi joina the aentence 
^placed aver ii" Ac, aa an i4>pendage to the eqw^ment of the fleet. 

Hdmines fdri &c barb&ii in 
provinciam v^niebant a t q a 6 
in Italiam contend3bant. 



(b) Fierce and harharotu men 
were coming into the jprov- 
ince, and were hastening 
into Italy. 

{b) Ao iMWied heAn cotuonanU, hat JMO^heSare vowels ark, Atqii6 
Biay be used before either yowela or oonaonanta. 



(c) Casar both Jiad indvl- 
ged and teas greatly con- 
fident in the tenth legion. 



D6clmsB Idgioni CsBsar dt in- 
duls6rat dt confiddbat max- 
ims. 



{c) £l t Mowed by another 6 1 meana both—and. 



Eti&m atqud dti&m. 

Et 3tiam. 

Non soliim — s'dd Stiam. 



(d) (1) Again and again. 

(2) And again. 

(3) Not oidy — liU also. 

(618.) Translate into English, 

OrgStdrix &d judicium omndm su&m f&miliam coS^t, 6t 
omn3sclient@sdbsBr&td8qud eodem (adv.) condnxit. — Carth&go 
dt Cdrinthds atqu^ Numantia, dpulentissimae qudnd&m St 
v&HdissimsB civitates, dsletae sunt & Rdmanis. — Css&r finem 
prdpdrandl (489) f &clt, pontem q u S &d flumSn Khdnum poi^t. 
— Discipiili S t audiunt 6 1 &mant praeceptorSs. — ^Rom&ni n 6 n 
solum ItinSrum causS, (135, II., R.) sSd Stiam possessionis, 
culminft montium occupS,v@runt. — ^Non solum vires (plural 
of vis) sSd Stiam tela nostris (dat.) deficisbant. — ^His rebus 
Dumndrix S t suam rSm f dmiliarem auxSrat 6 1 f^ult&tes &d 
largiendum magn&s comp&r&vSrat. — ^Hostes 6t & Idco supSriore 
in nostros tela conjiciebant 6t nonnulH intSr carros rdtasqud 
tr&gtUfts subjlciebant, nostros q u d vulnSr&bant. — Contemnuntur 
ii qui ndc sibi nSc alter! (194, R. 1) prdsunt. — NSc mSlidr 
virfuitScipi6ne(360,c)qui8qufi,m, n6c clariSr. — ^dui nSqud 
obaides r6pStiv6runt nSquS awdlium implorftvSrunt. — S&pi- 
entSm nequS panpertHs nSquS mors nSquS vinculo tor- 
rent. — ^Nimius somntis n d q u S corpdri n S q u S &ntmd (dat.<, 51 6) 
piodest. — Rdgo te, St oro; Stiam atquS Stiam tS r6go. — 
JEdui sSmSl atquSitSr^m ctim Germfinis contendSrant. — 
MiKtes ex castris SrapSrunt (SrumpSre) atquS omnem 
spSm s&lutis in yirtatS pdsuSrunt. 



Digitized by 



Google 



DISJUNCTIVE AND ADVERSATIVE CONJUNCTIONS. 197 

LESSON LXXXV. 

Disjunctive and Adversative Conjunctions, 

(519.) I. The disjunctive conjunctions (meaning 

or) are a u t, v e 1, v e, and s i v e or s e u. 

Rem, 1. Ant indicates a real difference of object; e, g,, 

Here, soldiers, toe must conquer or | Hie vincendum ant mdrienddxn, mi- 
die/ I litSi! 

When aut is used, but one of the conditions can be fulfilled, 
as in the above example. 

Rem. 2. y 6 1 (derived firom velld) means if you toish^ oi- 
raiher, (Hence it is used for even,) 

The nobles can either corrupt ot V&i ndbilSs vdl oonumpSrS moiil 
correct the mortzls of the state civitatits, v 61 conlgdrd posaiml^ 
(t. e., tbey can do whichooer 
they please). ^ 

Rem, 3. V3 is always affixed to another word; dud, tr6sv% 
== tiDO or three. 

Rem, 4. These conjimctions are frequently repeated, 
r aut — aut. 
Either— or, }v61 — v«l. 

( 8iv6 — 8iv«. 
Whether— or, \ seu — sen. 

(520.) II. The adversative conjunctions express 
opposition {but). 

The most important are, 

At, atqui, aut6m, caetSriim, s6d, v6riim {but). 
Tftm6n (however); vSrfi (truly). 
exercise. 
(621.) Vocabulary. 



To run up, aoctUTfirfi (accurr- and 
aocucorr-, aocurs-, ad+curr6r6). 

Very rich, perdivfiB, (divit) is (peiH- 
divgs), 107. 

Chance, caaila, fUi. By cJuince, cftsA 
(abL). 

Goodness, bttnltSa (fttb). 



To pay up, persolvfire (aohr-, §6* 

IfLt-). 

To suffer fuU punishment, pom&g 

periolvSrg. 
Handsome, fonnOsus, ft, ibn. 
Eloquent, f acnndtis, ft, dm. 
Ulysses, Ulysies, (Ulyis) U. 

R2 



Digitized by 



Google 



198 



coNjUNeriONS. 



To poBtesi, pot^firft (pots«d-, pos- 

■eu-). 
We^ng, fletuf, ill. 
Hfect, effectfia, fUi. 
Sorrow, sadnaa, tristittiS, as. 
OeneraUy, pleromqatt (adr.). 
Joy, gaodiiim, L 



Daily, qaStidianiis, ft, &n. 
^ 2mn^ being, atiTmang, (i 

Is (107). 
Motion, XD6ttbi, ud. 
Vorunu, diverans, ft, iim. 
To M0MW, ii«tar» (ftv-, it-). 
SomeHmes; interdun. 



Fortes sunt h&ben^ n5n qui 
f &ciunt, add qm prdpubant 
injuri&m. 

Gyges ft nana vlddbfttnr, ^ps^ 
antSm onmift Yiddb&t. 



(522.) Examples. 

(a) Those are to It esteemed 
brave, not who do, but who 
ward off injury. 

(b) Gyges was seen by no- 
body, but he himself saw 
all things. 

{a) S d d indicates a strong opposition ; it always stands first 
in its clause, as in (a). 

(b) AutSm expresses a weaker opposition than sftd. Au- 
tSm and v6ro never stand first in a sentence, but ah?\rays after 
obe or more words. 

(523.) Translate into English. 

Nostri c616rlt6r accurrerunt ; & t Germani fortlter impStum 
gl&diorum exc6perunt. — ^Amici rfegis du6 tr^sv^ (519, R. 3) per- 
divites sunt. — Siv6 cftsu (55, a) siv6 consilio deorum immortft- 
lium, paenfts persolvSrunt. — Nonnulli, sivd f6Bcit&te {abl.) 
quad&m, sivS bdnit&te naturae, rect&m vitae sScuti sunt viftm. — 
Fort@8 6t magn&nlmi sunt h&bendi, non qm f &ciunt s d d qui 
propulsant injuriam. — ^Non formosus ^rat, s ^ d drat f^undus 
UlyssSs. — ^A-varus n6n posslddt divitifta (57, R.) sed cfivitiaB 
possldent etim. — Fl3ttis plerumqud est ef^BCtus tristStiae ; inter- 
diim v3ro dtiam (even) gaudii. — ^Helv^tii f^re qudtidianis 
praeliis (55, a) cum Germftnis contendunt, quum a u t su'is fiui- 
bus eos prdhibent, aut ipsi in eorum finlbus beUum gdrunt. — 
Animantium mot^s diversus est; v61 ambulant 6t currunt» 
vfil vdlant, t61 nfttant. — Corpus mSritur (dcp.), v6rtlm M- 
miis nimquam mfiri^tur. — MiHtes nostri fortes fuSrunt, sdd 
ftvari. 



Digitized 



by Google 



§ 16. 
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.— (LXXXVI.— XCII.) 



(524.) The subjunctive mood expresses affirma- 
tion douhtfullyj indefinitelyy or as conceived by the 
mind; e. g., / may write; I might write; I might 
have written ; if I should write ; if I had written. 

Rem, — The subjundiTe has no future tense-form. 



LESSON LXXXVI. 
Subjunctive Present. 
(525.) Forms of e s s e (to be) in subjunctive present. 



Pres. 



stokt 
I may be. 



BiB, 

thou may- 
est be. 



•it, 

ke, she, it 

may be. 



■imiis, 
toe may he. 



ye may be. 






(526.) Forms of regular verbs. 
(a) The'subjunctbe present adds the person-endings 
m, 8, t, mus, tis, nt, for the active<t and 
r, ris or re, tur, mur, mini, ntnr, for ih» passive, 
to the verb-stem bj means of the foUowing connecting voweb, viz., 



(6) 


Istconj., e; e. g.f tai-€-m, ain-«-r. 
2dcoig^ 6a;e.g'., mdn-eft-m, m6n-e»-r. 
3dconj., A; ft^., rtg4^na, r8g-«-r. 
4Uicoi:^., ia; e. g., aud-Iia-m, and-ia-r. 
PARADIOM. — SUBJUNCf IVE PRESENT. 


AcTiTK. — IfMiy love, advise, rule, hear. || 


Stem. 


Sinjular. 


^I.ni. II 


Sin- 
mon* 


6m. 
Mm. 
fan. 
Iftm. 


68. 
6tB. 

as. 

T&8. 


6t. 
6ftt. 

at. 
ait. 


fimfis. 
eaihiis. 
ftmCu. 
I&mtls. 


gtits. 
6atite. 
fttils. 
ifttifl. 


ent. 
«Ant. 
Ant 
lant. 


PASsms.—/ may he loved, advised, ruled, heard. \\ 


Sleio. 


SinRalar. | 


PluraL II 


ftm- 
mdn- 
rfier- 
aad- 


6r. 

6ar. 
&r. 


erfs or ere. 
Saris or &r6. 
aria or Ar6. 
Tftris or ar6. 


etur. 
«&ttLr. 
atCir. 
Ifttdr. 


emOr. 
SamOr. 
ftmfir. 
iftmOr. 


emini. 

eau^LDL 

iftminl. 


entur. 

eantur. 

ftntfir. 
lAnteir. 



Digitized by 



Google 



200 



SUBJUNCTIVE PBE8ENT* 



EXEBCISE. 



(527.) Vocabulary. 

Value, pr^tiiim, I. 

To obey, pirert (pirfi-) ; governi dot. 

To despcnr, d§8p6r&re (&▼-, ftt-). 

Otherwise, fHaXAr {adv.). 

To kinder, impjklire (iv-, It-). 

Carefully, Btfididie {ado.). 

To exercise, exercdre (exercil-, ex- 

ereit-). 
To grieve, d51«re (d^-, dSUt-). 
WotOd that, dtitnam (coi^). 
To fear, mStafire (m6tii-). 
Incredible, incredlbflis, e (104). 
Mind {talent), ingdziniin, L 

(528.) Exampks. 

[The urincipftl use of the fahjimctire m Latm is in dependent len- 
tenoes ; bat in this lesson we show its uses in principal sentences, in 
which it occurs only when something is said without dq/initeness or eer> 
tainty.] 



To be ignorant, igndrtre (!▼•, at-). 
To deny, n«gftre (flv-, At-). 
To know, nosc6r6 (nov-, nOt-). 
To afford, praebSre (pneba-, prabit-^ 
To make on^s self a judge, s« jndi- 

cdm pra^>dr6. 
To apply, to employ, adhlbSrd (Sl«k 

It-), 
Cautious, caotiis, S, txxL 
Rashly, tSmfirt (oiv,). 
Ever, onqoim {adv.). 
Truly, obviously, prarsQs {ado.^. 
Finally, d€nlqad {adv.). 



(a) 1. No sane man can doubt 
about the value of virtue. 

2. May i he safe! 

3. I hope you are apell 
(^may you be safe). 

4. May I not he safe, if 
I write othenoise^hn 
I think. 

6. I hope my father is 
alive ( = would that 
my father may be 
alive). 

6. I wish he wovld come. 



Nemo sftDus dd Tirtfitis prfttid 

dab!t«t. 
Sim salyiU! 
Sahiis sis! 

Nd s! m-salvus, si ftHtftr scrlbo 
ftc senfio. 

Utfnam p&ter vivat. 



Utinam vdni&t. 



(a) The subjunctive present is used for the English poten« 
ttal, may, can^ &:c., and also to express a wish^ when the thing 
wished is possible. A negative wish is expressed by n 6 pre- 
fixed, as in (4). 



(&) 1. Let us believe. 

2. Let us obey virttLe. 

3. Do not despair. 



Cr3d&mus. 

Virtuti p&reftmua. 

Nd ddspdrea. 



Digitized by 



Google 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



201 



(fi) The subjuoctiTe present is used, instead of the impera 
tzve, to soften a command. N 6 is used for prohibition. 



(c) Who vxntld not love vir- 
tue? 
What can I do? 
Who is ignorant ? 



Quis virtutem non &met? 

Quid f^iam ? 
Quis ignoret? 



Digitized by 



Google 



202 



BQBJUMOTIVB MOODw 



^•I-hopeHhat {utmam) ih» oommaoder is albe (=may Ihre);-— 
I hope our friendft Hiay eome ! — ^May tliese things be true !r— > 
May the citizens be wise. 

{h) Let OS not believe this. — Do not believe these &bles. — 
Let us exercise ourselves diligently. — Let us love our friends, 
let us obey our parents, let us worship Qod. — Know your (own) 
mind. — ^Let the soldiers take-possession-of the mountain. — Let 
us not love the wicked. 

(c) Who can say this ? — ^Who can love a fool ? — Who would 
obey a wicked king ? — What good (man) can doubt concerning 
the value of virtue 1 — ^Who can deny that aQ avaricious men 
are slaves 1 



LRSSON LXXXVIL 
Subjunctive Perfect 
(53 L) Form of esse {to be) in subjunctive perfect. 



Il fuSiim, 



I may 
been. 



havetkou 



fudris, 

mayest 
have been. 



foerit, 

he^ »he, it 
may have 
been. 



I fhdifaiilfli 
wemayhave 
been. 



fiidiftis, 
been. 



yemayhave they 



fuSciiit^ 



have been. 



(532.) Forms of regular verbs. 

1. The subjunctive perfect active adds the endings 

firim, 6riB, 6rlt, firlmus, firltli, firlnt, 
to the indie, perf. stem of the verb; «. g., &m&v-drlm, &c. 

2. The subjjAnctive perfect passive b formed by combining 
the perfect pisdciple with the subjunctive present of esse; 
e. g,, & m S. t ii s si m, dec. 

[ ^7* Deponents, of course, are formed like passives.] 
3* PARADIOM, SUBJUNCTIVE PERFECT. 

Acnyg.— /may haoe loved, advimd, tided, heard. 



Hxxay- 
mdnii- 

MX- 

andiv- 



fiiiin. 



«ris. 



firit 



firlmtbi. 



difHs. 



diint 



Passivx. — Imof haoe been loved, advieed, ruled, heard. 



Sing. 



^ im&tfis, ft, um, 
mdnitiis, ft, Urn, 
reetOa, ft, tlm, 

^ anditus, a, Qm, 



aim. 

Bit 



Plur. ^ 



'ftiDftti, n, ft, 
mdniti, ob, ft, 
recti, 89, ft, 

^ aaditi, a, ft, ^ 



BunQs. 
sitia. 



Digitized by 



Google 



SUSJUNOTIVB MOOD. 



208 



EXERCISE. 



(533.) Vocabulary. 

Health, vAletadd, (valetodin) is (3a»}. 
Sot thus, itft {ad/».) 
Kindness, pardon, y^nia, ». 
To take captive, dLpdrd (io, cdp-, 
capt-, X9»). 



Patience, pi^entta, sb. 

To slay, cut to pieces, caddrd (oS- 

cid-, caes-, 413, JS^), 
It makes no difference, it matter$ 

not, nSbSL rdfert 



DC/** Form the subjunctive perfect active and pass- 
ive of the follov^ring verbs : 

Absikn, to be absent (no passive). 
PrSsiim, to profit (da). 

Ddsum, to be wanting (do.). 
yhcikA,tocaXL 
Oonfinntrd, to assert, 
DicSrd, to say (dix-, diet-). 
Tr&ddrd, to assert, deliver (tradid-, 

tradit-). 
Laadare, to pndse, 
Vld«re, to see. 

(534.) Examples. 

(a) Do not doit. | N© fscfiris. 

(a) The subjunctive perfect (as weU as the present) may be 
used in prohibitions, with n@, or nihil, instead of the inoper- 
ative. 



Inv3nir6, to find (invdli-^ invent-). 
Scribdrfi, to write. 
r4c6r6 (io-, fee-, fact), to do, 
L6qvl (16eu^), to speak {dep.). 
Cens^rd (censd-, cens-), to think. 
OppTimSr<$ (press*, press-), to re- 
press, crush, 
Constituere (stitii-, stitd^), to place. 
Oppugntrd, to assault. 
Rdvdcard, to recall, restart. 



PacS tua dixdrim ; or, Vdni^ 

tua dixdrim. 
DixSrit Epicurus. 
Forsit&n &Ilquis dixdrit. 



(h) By your leave I woxdd 

say. 
Epicurus may have said. 
Perchance some one may say. 

(5) The subjunctive perfeet may be used with or without an 
adverb, to express a supposed case (that may be true). 

(c) I think I can assert this. Hoc confirmav6rim. 
You will scarcely find a man Vix ulKus gentls hdminem in- 
of any nation. v 6 n 6 r i s. 

(c) The subjunctive perfect (as well as present) is used to 
soJUn an assertion. (Such phrases as, Probably I mighty I 
think I can, I would, perhaps, &c., can be expressed in Latin 
by one word in the perfect subjunctive, as above.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



204 SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Car ridSs? 

Die* mihi c&r ride&8« 



&bl faisti? 
Nescio dbi fndris? 



(c^ (1) Why do you laugh? 
(2) Ten me why you 

laugh, 
{!) Where have yoif been? 
(2) I do Dot know where 
you have been. 

The sentences marked (1) are direct interrogative sentences, 
and take the indicative mood ; those marked (2) are indirect (or 
subordinate) interrogative sentences, and take the subjunctive. 
Hence, 

{e)Rule of Syntax, — The subjunctive mood is used in all in- 
direct interrogative sentences. 

Ran, Sadi ■entencet mre introduced by die intenogative pronoanB 
qoifl, qui* qoantoi, qaali«, oter, &c^ or die adverbs nlri, nnde, qnan- 
do^ qoo, cur, num, otrom, an, ftc. 

(535.) Translate into English. 

(a) Qu5d dubltas, nd fScSris. — Id nd dixdris. — Nihil in- 
commddd (to the injury) v&letadinis tu8B fdcSris.— Cftm im- 
prdbb ftc stultis ndldcQtns sis. 

(6) F&ciat hoc &Kquis. — ^Fficfirit hoc &fiquis. — ^Dixdrit 
EplcQriis, Deum essd nullum. — For^tan eiim &m&v6ris. — 
Forsltan lt& censuSris. — Pueriim magistri mdnudrint. — 
XJrb6m hostes oppugn&vdrint. 

(c) Fr&t^r (voc.), bdnft tu& vdnift dixdrim, me& sententi& 
mSlidr est. — P&tientiam laud&vdrim boum (351, 2) atque 
dquorum. — Ingdni& studi&qu6 oppressdris f&cUius (376) 
qu&mrdvdcftvdris. 

(d) Nescio ctir ride&s. — Die, ctir ftd mS non veneris. 
— HelvStu lb! drunt, db! eos Cnsar constittLerit. — Magno 
ctLm pgriculo (89, II.) id f^cit. — Intelfigit, quantO cilm peri- 
ciilo id fecSrit. — Multi in praeUo csBsi sunt. — ^Multi in praelio 
capti sunt. — ^Ubi {when) victdri& &miss& est {is lost) nihil rdfert, 
qudt in praelio cssi aut in fiigft capti sint. — Die mihi 
tih'i fuSris. 

(536.) Translate into Latin. 
(a) Do not love the wicked. — Do not hear the foolish. 

* The imperative of dlc^r^ ia die, not dicA. 



Digitized by 



Google 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



205 



(h) Some philosophers may-have-denied the sonl to be im- 
mortal. — Perhaps-yoU'have-advised the young-man. 

(c) I thinfC'I-can-advise the young man. — You may easib^ 
Tejpress the minds of young mea.^-You cannot easily recaU the 
industry (studium) of men. 

(d) The mind itself knows-not what (qu&Bs) the mind is. — 
Tell me tohere you were. — ^I-do-not-know why you did not come 
to me. — Tell (me), were you (fuerisne) in school yesterday ? — 
It makes no difference how many are taken-capdve. — The boy 
-will remun (erit) there, where the master may appoint him. — 
I win tell you what I have seen. — I will tell you what I have 
heard. — Tell me what you have done. 



LESSON LXXXVIII. 

Subjunctive Imperfect and Pluperfect. — Conditional 
Conjunctions and Sentences. 
(537.) The subjunctive imperfect simply adds the 
person-endings, 

m, 8, t, mus, tis, nt, for the active, 
r, ris (re), tur, mur, mini, ntur, for ihe passive, 
to the present infinitive form of the verb. Thus, 



(538.) 



lBf.PtM. 


ImperC 8abj. Act 


ImperC Snbj. Pi 


^•ue,tobe. 


eiiem, I might be. 




ftm§r6, to lave. 


ftmire-m. 


ftmflre-r. 


r6g€r6»torule. 


rSgfire-m. 


rfigSre-r. 



PARADIOM. SUBJUNCTIVE IMPERFECT. 



L EMfan.— Jm^yfa, eovldt would, or should be. 



essSm. 



essds. 



OM^t. ii ess£mti8. | eesetls. \ essfint. 



2. Acmvm.-^I might, could, would, ifc, love, adviae, rule, hear. 



Smar- 
mdndr- 
r6g«r- 
aadir- ^ 



Sm. 



et. 



fimiig. 



etiCs. 



a VAMm^I might, anOd, would, ifc, be loved, adoUed, ruled, heard. 



imftr* "^ 
mdD6r-l I 



'fills or fir6. 



6tttr. 



smfir. 






tatfir. 



S 



Digitized by 



Google 



906 



BUBJmrOTIVE MOOD* 



Memr-^VtM romeL e of A* eadiag ii long, «zo6pt where it oooMfl be&re 
m or t final, when it u ibort of neeoMity. 

(589.) (a) The subjunctive pluperfect active simply 
adds the person-endings, 

m, s, t, mns, tie, nt, 
to the past infinUive form of the verb. Thus, 

iniauB, to have been. iuiu§(i-m, I might have bern^ 

imaviMSy to have loved. im&viiBS-m, I might have loved, 

{b) The subjunctive pluperfect passive is formed 
by combining the perfect participle with the subjunct- 
ive imperfect of e s s e ; 

E» g^y &m&tii8 essdm (sometames with the subjunctive 
pluperfect of e s s S ; e. g., & m ft t ii s f il i s a 6 m, &c.), 

(c) PARADIGM. — SUBJUNCTIVE PLUPERFECT. 



Inugkt^ could, would, should have been, 9fO. 



faisaftm. | ftiisses. | fuisset. 

i. AcrmL—Imi^la, could, ife., hmu 



I faissemiis/ | itiissetis. ( faissdnt. 



lot>eitadti$id,rMl^htard, 



imftT- ") 
mdnti- 
rex- 
aadiv- 



I8861XL 



UMOi. 



iuet. 



iis&ntSB. 



isaetzb. 



usdnt. 



a PAa8iVK.--/m^Af, covld, j/c, have been laoed, advited, ruled, heard. 




essSm. 
ess^s. 
estSt. 



i^Qr. 



aaditi, s, 8. 7 * 



Conditional Conjunctions and Sentences. 

(540.) (a) The coiiditional coDJunctions are si, if; si'n, but 
if; nisi, or nl, \fnot, unless. 

(5) A conditional sentence is one which is introduced by a 
conditional conjunction ; e. ^., if men were good, they would be 
happy. 

Rem,. The sentence introduced by {fis called t^e conditional $en. 
tence ; the other, the eonsequeTit sentence : ^ men were good is die 
conditional ; they would be happy, the consequent 



Digitized by 



Google 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 207 

EXE&CISB. 



(541.) Vocabulary. 

To diminish, mlQudre (miirii-, mX- 

ntit-). 
To croM over, tnuuXr^ (nreg.). 
The world, orbfo ten&rjim. 



To subdue, subTgert {rnhBg-, gubac^ 

Bub+ttg«r«). 
Longer, dxatittg (adv., eompar.). 
I wish thai, titiEnam (ooi4>)> 



(542.) Exampks and Rules. 



(a) Would that my father 

were alive ! 
I wish he cotdd come ! 



UtaDam p&ter TiT^ret ! 
tJtinam v d n i r e t ! 



^^ la these exan^les (which refer to present time), th» thing wiihed 
iA supposed to be impossible (the wisb is vain), 

Iwiihhehad Ivoed! Utilnam vixisaet ! 

I wish he had come ! I IJtiiiam vdnisset ! 

ST lit these examples (which refer to paU time), t^ tinng wished \» 
■op^posed to be impossible (the wish is vain). 

(a) Bude of Syntax. — ^The imperfeet and pluperfect sub- 
junctive are used to express ao imposnble swppontion^ or 
a vain vnsh ; Ae imperfect, with reference tx} present or 
fuXwre time ; the pluperfect,, with reference to past time. 

(6) Conditional Sentences. 

(1) If he has {any) money, [Si pdcuniam h&bet, d&t. 
he gives (it). | 

Here the man is BTq>posed to have money ; the condition expressed hy 
* if" is therefore real. 



(2) If he has (any) money, 
he will give (it). 



Si pdcuniam h&beat, 
d&bit. 



Here the conation is possible, if not real. The man may have money. 

(3) If he had an^ money, ^e I S i p^cuniam h&bSret, 
iDould give it. | d & r e t. 

Here the man is supposed to have no money: the condition is unreal. 
(Obsenre that it refers to present or future tivfie.) 

(4) If he had had any money, I S i pdcuniam h&buisset, 
he would have given it. \ d d d i s s e t. 

Here the man is supposed not to haive had any money ; the condition is 
therefore unreal (referring to past time). Hence, 

(6) Rule of Syntax. — In conditional sentences (1), a real 



Digitized by 



Google 



208 SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

condition 'n expressed by the indicatiTe ; (2) a pamble 
condition by the present or perfect subjunctive ; (3) an 
unreal or imjfossihU condition in present time by the im- 
perfect subjunctive ; and (4) an unreal or impossible con- 
dition in past time by the pluperfect subjunctive. 

Rem. 1. In cases (3) and {4), the snbjimctive most be used in the 
contequent as well as in the conditional sentence. 

8. It follows that the perfect or pluperfect indicative can never be 
nsedwithn. If he had come = bI y^uxb b^ t^ not tS.y%Ditcit. 

(543.) Translate into English. 

tjtlnam salvos essds. — Si hoc dicis, erras. — Si hdc 
d i c a s, erres. — S i hoc dicdres, errftres. — S i hdc d i x - 
isses, errftvisses. — Si v3nisses &d exercltum, &b impdr&- 
tore visus esse s. — Frftter mihi narr&bat quid Amicus tuus 
fecisset (534, <£). — Mdmdri& minuitur, nisi e&m exer- 
ce&s. — Si Helv6tii flClmen transir6 conentur, Csesar ede 
pr6hibdbit. — Si Helvdtii flu men transire cdn&rentur, CsBsar 
eds prdhibdret. — Si Helv6tii flumen transire con&ti 
e s s e n t, Caesar eds prdhibuiss6 1. — S i obsides &b Helv6tiis 
Caes&ri (54) dentur, ctim iis pftcem f&ciet. — Si obsides &b 
Helvdtiis Caesari d&rentur ctim iis pacem f&c^ret. — Si 
obsides &b Helv6tiis CaBsari d&ti essent, cun^ iis pftcem 
fdcisset. — Non stkpSr&rdmur, civds (voc.) si nostri fortds 
essent. — Non stip^rftti ess^mus, civds, si fortiores 
mifites nobis (dai,,, 125, II., a) fuissent. — ^Alexander totum 
ftrd orbdm terrftrum subdgit. — Alexander, si diutlus vixis 
set, totum orbem terr&rum siibegisset. 

(544.) Translate into Latin, 

I wish my father had lived longer. — lunsh you had come. — 
Would'that the soldiers had been braver. — If you-would-read 
this book (542, 6, 2), I would give (it) to you. — I wish the gen- 
eral had led the army across the Rhine. — If you had any thing 
(quid), you would willmgly give (it). — If they had had the 
money, (hey would willingly have given it. — If-you-had-loved 
the boy, you-umild-have advised him. — If youlove the boy, 
you-unU-advise him. — Tjfthe soldiers would com^ to the army, 
they-would-be-praised by the general. — If the Germans had-led 
(theur) army across the Rhine, Caesar would-have-m^de an at- 
tack upon (in) thfm. — Ifwe-are brave, we shall not be overcome 



Digitized by 



Google 



SUBJUNCTIVE WITH UT, NE. 209 

LESSON LXXXIX. 



Digitized by 



Google 



210 UT, NE, EXFRBSBINa ftTEFOBE. 



The general commanded tkcU ' 
the soldiers should keep 
their stations ; 
or, 

The general commanded the 
soldiers to keep ^ir sta- 
tions. 3 



Dux imp^rftvit, iit miHtes 
st&tiones sufts sery&rent. 



(b) I beseech you that you 1 

do not do this ; I „, - « , «- . 

_ >Td obsScro nft hdc f&cias. 

or, I 

I beseech you not to do this, j 



The genera] commanded that ' 
the soldiers should not 
desert their stations ; 
or, 

The general commanded the 
soldiers not to desert their 
stations. 



Dux impdrftvit nd mill tea 
st&ti5nes sufts ddsdr- 
6rent. 



(a) These examples show that b. purpose or aim may be ex- 
pressed in English by that, in order that, or (especiaUy after 
verbs of asking and comnuinding) by the infinitive. In Latin, 
such sentences are expressed by u t, with the subjunctive.* 

(6) An object to be provided against is introduced in English 
by that not, in order that not, or by not, with the infinitive. In 
Latin, such sentences are always expressed by n 6, with the 
subjunctive. 

(549.) Translate into English. 
1. tJt. 
.Edimus tit viv&mus, n5n vivlmus tit ddftmus. — Ydmo 
tit disc&m. — VSm ut discdrem. — Org6t6rix persuftdSt 
Castled (dat.) H t regnum o c c ti p e t. — ^In eo itindre, persua^ 
Castlco, cujus pftter regnum in civit&te suft multds annos (191, a) 
obtinuSrat, H t regnum in cMt&te suft occupare t. — Orget- 
drix persuftdet Dumnoilgi iit id6m (150) c6n6tur. — Orget- 
drix persuasit Dumnoilgi 6t Iddm cdn&r@tur. — Helvdtii 
persuftdent Raurftcis, uti ctim iis proficiscantur. — Helv6- 
tii persuftdent Raurftcis 6t Tuling^, ti ti, oppldis suis viclsque 



* Jubiri takes aocosative with infioitive. 



Digitized by 



Google 



UT, NSy BXPB£E|8ING PURPOSE. 211 

exnsfis (457), un& ctim iis proflciscantur. — CsBs&r castelUl 
community ^ t Helv^tios prdhlbdre p o s s i t. — Caesar casteDa 
communivit u t Helvgtios pr6hlb6re posset. — Caesar rdgat 
Divitiacum H t f inem orandi f & c i a t. — Caesar rdg&vh Divitift- 
cum ii t f inem orandi f ft c 6 r e t. ^ — Helv6tiis (147) Caesar im- 
pdrat titi perfugfts r^ due ant, — Hely^tiis Caesar impdrftvit 
tlti perftigas rSducSrent. 

2. Ne. 

T© obs^crftvi n 6 hoc f & c 6 r e s. — P&ter filium obs^rat n 6 
quid turpiter f ft c S r e t. — Milites, n 3 ftb hoste circumv^n- 
i r e n t u r, audftcitis (376) resistSre ac fortius pugn&re eoBp6- 
runt*— Divitiftcus Caesftrem obsScrat, n6 quid grftviiis in frft- 
trem st&tuat. — Divlti&cus, multis cum Iftcrymis (89, II.) 
Caesftrem obsScrftre coepit, n3 quid grftvius in frfttrem stft tu- 
ft ret. — ^Praeceptum est (perf. pres., it has been enjoined to or 
tipon) Labigno, n e praelium committat, nisi Cses&ris copiae 
visae sint (542, by 2). — Praeceptum ftrat Labi3no, n3 praelium 
committftret, nisi Caesftris copiae yisae essent. 

[Hecollect that a purpose or aim is often expressed in English by liie 
infinUive ; "but in Latin ncrer— always by u t with the subjunctive for a 
positive aim, by n e with the subjunctive for a negative aim.] 

(550.) Translate into Latin. 

The general commands the lieutenant (147) not to do (= that 
he may not do) this. — The general exhorted the soldiers to make 
(= that they should make) the attack diarply. — The &ther be- 
seeches his daughter to make an end of praying. — Some-men 
(qmdam) live to eat, not eat to Uve. — He comes to see the gen- 
eral — He came to see the general. — The Helvetians persuade 
the Tulin^ans to set out together with them. — The captive 
beseeches the general not to decide-on any-thing at-all-severe 
against (in) him (sS). — Caesar commands the Gauls (147) to 
bring back {=that they should bring back) the deserters. — 
The Romans, that they might not be surrounded by the Gauls, 
began to fight more bravely. — The commander enjoins-it-upon 
the lieutenant not to join bcUtle, — The commander enjoined it 
upon the lieutenant not to join battle. 



Digitized by 



Google 



212 



SUCCESSION OP TENSES. 



LESSON XC. 

Succession of Tenses. — t^t expressing a Result. 

(551.) (1.) We cannot say in English, ** He comes^ that he 
might see the general ;" or, ** JEfc came, that he may see the gen- 
eral ;" but we must say, ** He comesy that he may see the gen- 
eral,'* and, ** He came, that he might see the general.*' It is 
obvious that this tense of the verb in the subordinate sentence 
depends upon that of the principal sentence ; and this depend- 
ence is called the sitccession of tenses. 

2. The tenses of the Latin verb are divided into primary 
and historical. 



(<,)Pfimar9, J ^"^ 



Fotarc 

Smftbit, 
hetciUlove. 



PrM.PerC 

ftmavit, 
he?uu loved. 



{b) Historical, ^^^^ 



Pluperfect 

ftmftvSrftt, 
he had loved. 



PerC Aoriat 

ftm&vTt, 
lieloved. 



Imperfect. 

; &mftb&t, 
s was loving. 

3. The Rule for the succession of tenses then is : If there be 
a primary tense in the principal sentence, there must be a pri- 
mary tense in the subordinate sentence ; if a historical tense in 
the principal, a historical tense in the subordinate. 

[The examples in tiie preceding lesson illostrate this role, and tixwe in 
the present lesson will farther confirm it] 



EXER 

(552.) Vocabulary, 

To strive, contend, niti (nis- and 

nix-), dep. 
Despair, despSrfttid, (desperation) 

Is (333, R.). 
To run together, concnrrSre (con- 

cnrr- and concttcnrr-, concurs-). 
Storm, tempestas, (tempestftt) is 

(293). 
To rise (as a storm), coorui (coort-, 

con-f-orirl). 
Palisade {rampart of stakes) val- 

HUn,L 



CISE. 



To cut or tear down, scinddrS (sdTd-, 

sciss'). 
To begin, inoIpdrS (incdp-, incept-, 

in+c5p6r6). 
To afford means or facUiHes, dSiS 

ftcoltitem. 
Deceit, dolus, I. 
Rather, migXs. 
Integrity, prdbltfts, (prdblttt) is 

(293). 
Course, corsQs, As. 
Change, commtuatio (finis, 333, B.). 



Digitized by 



Google 



9T WITH THE SUBJUNCTIVE. 213 

Svhordinate Sentences expressing a Result, 
(553.) Examples and Rules. 



Tant& v!s pr6blt&tis est, iSt 

e&iD vSl in hostd diligft 

mus. 
HebrStii it& & p&txlbuB 8ui8 

didicdrunt, fi t m&gis yirtQte 

qu&m ddlo mtantur. 



So great is the power of in-* 

tegrity, that we esteem it 

even in an enemy, 
l^he Helvetians have been so 

taught by {=have so leqm- 

edfrom) their fathers, thai 

they contend (or, as to con- 
tend) rather vjith valour 

than deceit, 

(a) These examples show that a result (especiaUy after the 
words such, so, so great, &c.) is expressed in English by (hat 
with the indicative, or, as to with the infinitive ; in Latin, by & t 
with the subjunctive. 

ijb) Rule of Syntax. — Xit, signifying that, and introducing 
a result, governs the subjunctive. 

Rem) trt, expressing a resuU, generally follows the correlative words 
thWn, tvLUtun {suchf to great); ftdSo, sic, itft («o); and verbs 
signifying to accomplish, to bring to pats, &c. 

(554.) Translate into English, 

Impdr&tor perflcit, uti S3qu&ni dent obsidSs. — Dumnorix 
perflcit, ilti Sdqu&ni dent obsides, n6 itin^re (153, a) Hel- 
vdtios prohibeant (548, b). — ImpertLtor tan t ft vi (55, a) oppi- 
dum oppugnat, lit desper&tio ftnimos oppldftnorum occtipet 
(551, 3). — Imp6rftt5r t an t a vi oppldum oppugn&vit tt t despdr- 
fttio &iu[mos oppidftnorum occupftre t. — T a n t u s timor om- 
nem exercltum occup&vit, u t omniiim ftnlmos perturb&ret. 
— Tantft tempestas stibito coort& est (perf aor.) Ht n&v6s 
cursum t^ndrd non p o s s e n t. — Impdrfttor t a n t a m sib! (54) 
jftm in Gallift auctoritfttem compftrftv^rat, ii t undique &d eum 
l6gfttiones concurrSrent (551, 3). — Galli vallum scindunt. — 
Gall! vallum scindSre 6t fbssam compldre incipiunt. — GalH sic 
nostros contemnxmt, tit vallimi scind^re ^t fossam complSre 
incipiant. — Oppidum nfttura (55, a) 16ci sic muniebfttur, 
tit magnam ftd ducendum (496) bellum d ft r 6 1 f ftcultfttem. — 
Anxilidrum adventu (55) magnft r6rum commutfttio facta est. 



Digitized by 



Google 



214 auo, auiN, auoMiNUs, with subjunctive. 

— Horum adventu t a n t & rdrum commut&tio iactft est, i& t nos- 
tn fortius pugn&rent atque hostds r6pell6rent. 

(555.) Translate into Latin, 

[Beoollect that a to with the Bngluh ioflzdtiye nrnst be translated by 
ut with icibjimctiTe.] 

The commander broughtM-to pass that the Seqnanians gave 
hostages. — The Sequamans gave hostages that they would 
not prohibit the Hebretians firom (their) journey (153, a). — So- 
great-a fear suddenly seizes the whole army, thai it alarms the 
minds of all. — So great a tempest suddenly arises, thai the 
ships can not hold their course. — The commander procures for 
himself so great authority in Italy, OuU even the senators run- 
together to him. — The Helvetians begin to cut*down the bridge. 
— The Helvetians so despised our men, that they began to cut 
down the Inidge. — ^By the approach of tiie ^duans, so great « 
change was made thai the Helvetians began to fight mcHre 
bravely. — The Helvetians had so learned from their fathers, 
as to contend rather with valour than deceit. 



LESSON XCI. 

Periphrastic Conjugation, Subjunctive. — Use of quo, 
quin^ quomtnUs, with the Subjunctive. 
(656.) The want of a future subjunctive is supplied to some 
extent by the periphrastic conjugation, fcHined by combining 
the participles in r ii s and d u s witiat the subjunctive tenses of 
e s s d, to be. 



▲cnvx. i 


Pres. 
Jmperf. 
P»f' 
Pluperf. 


ftmftturus sfm, / tnay be about to lave. |{ 
ftm&torfis essgm, I might be about to love. | 
ftmitnrus faftiim, I may have been about to love. i 
taaaturus fuigsfim, I might have been about to love. || 


PAssnrjs. 1 


Pres. 
Plup^. 


ftmandus aim, / may be to be loved {one must love me). 
toiandus essdm, I might be to be loved. 
ftmandiLs faQtim, I may have been to be hved. 
ftmandus fiiissgm, / might have been to be loved. 


Esse ito be). |{ 


Pres. 


fatfiras aim, I may be about to be. fl 
f iitarag eagfim, I might be about to be. 1 



Digitized by 



Google 



auo, aunfy auoMiNus, with bubjunctiye. 215 



EXERCISE, 

(557.) Vocabulary. 

To hold back, restiviih r^tlna^ (r^- 

Uxx&'t rgtent-, rg+t6n6re). 
To stand in the toayf prevent, 6b- 

Btftr6 (obstit-, obst&t*, oH-sUre). 
To sustain, nutioidre {tSjoA-, tent-, 

sab+tSnerS). 
Novelty, novitfta, (ndvitftt) It (293). 
To decree, ooniciBcSre (cooMdv-, con- 

8Cit-). 

To commit suicide, lYbl mortem ooo- 
sciscSiS (= to decree deatb to 
cme'f lelf ). 



Cowardici, ignftvia, e. 

r<? <aA:e away from, firip^rt (io-^ 

eripa-, £rept-); govemi ace. mod 

abl 
To train, educate, ddflcflri {tv-, &t-). 
To deceive, faU&rS (f «feU-, fals). 
It loas Ccesar's fauU, FSr Csesft- 

rem stStit (=it stood throagli Ca* 

sar). 
7\) finish, perflcire (peif fie-, per 

feet-). 
Suspicion, fvploio, dnlf (333, E.). 



(558.) Examples and Rules, 

{a) Gaetar erects forta, that I Cvsar caiteM commiimt, qu5 
A« may the more easily \ f&cllius Helydtioe prdUtb- 
- keep (^ tlie Helvetians. I 6re p o s s i t. 
(a) Q uo is used to express a purpose (instead of ft t), espe- 
cially when a comparative enters the sentenee. 

Csf&r cutellft commdnit dt poiiit {that he may, &&). 
Cassar cafltell& communit qa6 f&cUiiifl poasit [that he may more 
easily, &c.). 



(6) (1) There is no one hut 
thinks ; 
or, 
There is no one who does 
not think, 

(2) There is no one so 
hrave as not to he con- 
founded, 

(3) It is not doubtful hut 
that the soldiers vAU 

fight bravely, 

(4) / did not doubt that 
the soldiers toould fight 
hravdy, 

(5) They could not be 
restrained from hurl- 
ing darts {=. bat that 
they should huri darts). 



Nemo est quln piitet. 



Nemo est tam fertis qufn 
perturbetur. 

Ndn diibium est q u i n mifitea 
fortiCtdr pugnfttQri sint. 

Ndn dtibit&bam quin mIKtes 
fortifter pugnfttUri es- 
sent. 

N5n pdtdrant rMnftri quln 
teUl conjicdrent. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Nihil impddit, quGmlnus 
hdc f&ciat. 



216 acjo, auiN, auoMiNus, with subjunctivb. 

(b) Quid is used in the sense of *' 5t«C or ** as not,^^ nftor 
negative sentences ; and in the sense of ** that not" and ** that^^* 
after non dubito, non dubium est, &c. ; in the sense of 
'^from" (= but that) after verbs of restraining, &c. 

(c)(1) What stands in the Qnid obstat quo minus Jfi- 
way of Julius being lius sit hiatus? 
happy (= what stands 
in the way in order 
that Julius may not be 
happy) 1 
(2) Nothing hinders him 
from doing this (= no- 
thing impedes, in order 
that he may not), 
(o) Quomintis is used (in preference to nd) after verbs 
ci hindering, prevenUng, standing in the way of Sec. (It can 
general^ be rendered into English by of or from, with a parti- 
ciple, as above.) 

(559.) Translate into English. 

(a) dud (= in order that, used instead of Q t, with comparatives), 
Caesar miHtes hort&tus est iit fortes essent. — Caesar nulites 
hortatus est qu6 fortiores essent. — Eo dpdre perfecto 
(456) Caesar prsesldift disponit, castellft communit, qud f&cil- 
ius, si Helvetii transire conentur (542, b, 2) prdhibdre possit. 
—Scrips!, ut auctdilt&tem h&bdrem. — Scrips! quo in suadendo 
(488) plus auctdrit&tis (186, a) h&b3rem. — ^Auxilium rdgant, 
tit hostitim copias sustineant. — Subsidium rdgant, quo f&- 
cilius hostium copias sustineant. 
{b) anln {= but that). 
Nemo est tarn fortis quin r^i n5vit&te (55, a) perturbetiir. 
— -Orgdtorix mortuus est, ndqud abest suspicio qmn ipsd sibi 
mortem consciv6rit. — ^Helvgtii non diibitant quin Kdm&ni 
JEdius {abl,, verb of depriving) Kbertatem Srepturi sint. — 
Ndti dubium est quin civSs, ub! (when) patri& in pdiiculo 
ftitur& sit (534, c), fortater pugnAtari sint. — Non dubito 
quin pu6rumbdn6 educAttlrus sis. — Turpfi estfalfi. — Tur- 
pitis est failure. — Non dtibium est quin turpius sit failure 
quam fall!. — Germftid rdHndri non potSrant quin In nostrds 
tel& conjicdrent. 



Digitized by 



Google 



aUUM WITH flUBJUKCTITB. 217 

(c) dndmlnfls {:= in order that nei^, 
Pdr L&bidnum st^tit qu dm in us Rdm&nl opptdum oeeupft* 
rent. — Noetrorum igoavi& obst&bat qud minus hostes si&per- 
ftrentur. — Non m6 impediSs quomlnns Id f &ciam. — S6n- 
ectus non impddit qudminus littdrftrum Bt&di& t^neftmus. 

(560.) Translate into Latin. 

[Bemember the rale for the Succession of Tenses (551, 3).] 
(a) and. 
Csesar, having finished the work (== the work herag finidied), 
exhorted the soldiers to he of a braver spirit (fortiori &Mmd). — 
I ask your assistance, that I may do this the more eamly. 
{b) auin. 
There is no one who does not think that die wise are tHwujB 
happy. — It is not doubtftd that CsBsar vfiU cross the Rhine. — I 
do not doubt that pij father will come. — I was not doubting that 
you had educated the boys weE. 
(c) dadminfts. 
Nothing hinders me from being happy. — It was the fault of 
the commander that the soldiers did not fight brately. — ^The 
eowardioe of die commander stood in the way of our taking- 
p o aae B s ioa -of die town* 



LESSON XCIL 

Use of Quumy with the Subjunctive. 

(561.) The conjunction quum (sometimes written cum) 
has two uses : (1) to denote time simply (when, while) ; (2) to 
denote a cause, or reason (sin^e). The former is called quum 
temporal^ the latter quum causal* 

EXEBOISE. 

(562.) Vocabulary. 



To contemplate, ooBtemplftri (it-), 

dep. 
To perceivef iaimadyertSrd (vert-, 

rers-, animnm+ad+vertere). 
To dday, tardtrt* ^-, tt-). 



To get sight if, oonspfcfco (spex^ 

«?peet-). 
Incessant, continuous, continent 

(nent) Is (WW). 
Ofrigh^fmtHVf J« («M. flf j«s). 



Digitized by 



Google 



218 



aOUM WITH SUBJUNCTIVE. 



To order, jilbdr^^ does not take ut 
with rabj^ bat aoc. with in! ; he 

. ordered them to €noait=:^tiBAte^ 
expectard. 



DeUructiony interit&i , ill. 
To make-hastet matdiire (av-^ at-) 
To announce, uontiaie {kv-, it-). 
To me^, coavfoire (Ten-, vent-). 



(563.) Examples and Rides, 
(a) When we contemplate the\(^Xi\km coelum contemplft- 

firmament, toe wonder at\ mur, Dei magoltudinem 

the greatness of God. I admirftmnr. 

(a) Ride of Syntax, — Quum, when used simply to express 
the time (especially with the primary tenses), is followed 
by the indicative. 



Caesar, quum Pompeium vi- 
cisset, in A^am tr&jdcit. 



(6) Casar, when he had con- 
quered ( = having con- 
quered) Pompey, crossed 
over into Asia. 

(ft) Rule of Syntax. — Qnnm tentporal is followed by the 
imperfect or pluperfect subjonctive, if the events de- 
scribed depend on each other, and especially when the 
aorist perfect is used in the principal sentence. 

[In the above example, the verb tr aj e ci t, of the principal sentence, 
if in the aorist perfect In all snch cases, t^ sabordinate sentence with 
qnnm can be rendered by the English participle, as in the example 
above, and in the two following.] 



The prator, having come 
(=when he had come) 
into theforum^ percfived. 

The commander, having got 
sight of the enemy, or- 
dered. 

(e) Since these things are so. 

Since they cannot defend 
them^selves. 

Although the soldiers were 
retarded by rains, yet they 
overcame aU (obstacles). 



Praetor, quum in ffirum vS* 
nisset, ftnimadvertit(p6rf.). 

Impdrfttor, quum hostSs con- 
spexissit, jussit. 



QusB quum it& sint. 
Quum sft defenddre nOn 

possint. 
Milites, qujim imbilbus tar- 

d&rentur, t&men omnift 

siiper&v@runt* 

(c) Rule of Syntax. — Q u u m causal (signifying since, or 
although) IS always followed by the subjunctive. 



Digitized by 



Google 



aUUM WITH SUBJUNCTIVE. 219 

(664.) Translate into English. 

1. daum temporal, wit^ sabjimctiYe (563, b). 

Caesar, quum id nuntintum esset, m&tQravit &b urbe 
prdficisci. — Quum legio dScimH constitisset, omn^s host^s 
&d eum Idcum contenderuut. — Quum Iggatus ad oppidum ac- 
cessisset, puSri milliSresqu^ pacem &b Rdm&nis p3tiv3runt. 
— Quum Caesar &d oppidum accessisset, oppidam p&cem 
&b eo pdtierunt. — Quum imper&tor signum d 6 d i s s e t, miHtes 
In hostes impStmn f gc^runt. — Caesar, quum Gallos vicisset, 
in Italiam contendit (per/,), — Quum l3g&ti CaesarSm in Itiuerd 
conyenissent, eos suum adventum expectare jussit. 

2. duum causal (since, or aUhough), with gabjaiictive (563, c). 
MiHtes, quum frigdr^ 3t imbribus tardHrentur, t&men 

contanenti labors (55, a) omnia sup^raverunt. — Cic^o jurd 
patdr p&triae dictus est, quum urb^m ab intdritu servasset.* 
— ^i£dui, quum s3 suftque ab Helvdtiis def endure non pos- 
sint, legates &d Caes&rem mittunt, rdgatum (379) auxilium.— 
Quum omnes hdmines mortales sint, dtiam tu mdriSrls. 

(565.) Translate into Latin. 

1. da am temporal, with sabjoxictive (563, h). 
The ambassadors having asked (= when the amhasBodoTB had 
asked) peace of Caesar, he ordered them to await his coming.— 
Caesar having ordered them (= when Ccesar had ordered them) 
to await his coming, (they) obeyed. — The lieutenant, when thai 
was (=had been) announced, returned to the citadel. — The 
fifth legion having halted, the enemy made an attack upon 
them. — The praetor, having come into the forum, saw the cap- 
tives. — ^The boy, having approached the wood, heard a Yoice. 

3. da am causal, with subjoxictive (563, c). 

Since these things are so, let us believe (528, &, 1). — Nations, 
whev^ they cannot defend themselves, ask assistance. — The 
scout, though he was delayed by the cold, came to the camp.-— 
Since Caesar took- away (6r!pSre) liberty from the ^duans, 
they rightly feared. 

* * Contracted from ■ err avisset 



Digitized by 



Google 



«!20 



&ELATIVB 8ENTBNCE8. 



LESSON XCUL 

Use of the Subjunctive in Relative Sentences. 

(566.) The relative pronoun often takes the place of a con- 
junction in introducing a sentence, and is therefore followed by 
the subjunctive. The following examples illustrate some of 
these uses. 



(a) Yoa err because you thinks 

(b) They semt men to Mek for 
peace = 

(c) I am not such a man at to be 
delighted witli 



Yoa err who think. 

They sent men who should seek for 

peace. 
1 am not ^ who eon be delighted 

wittk vices. 



EXEECIBE 

(567.) Vocabulary. 

A herald, a prockdmer, praco, (pr»- 

cdn) !s (333). 
A Nervian, Nerviili, !. 
It pleased, pUiooIt (with dot.). 
At length, ddmnm. 
Affectum, affectio, (tidn) Ti (333, B.). 
To huH, ndcSre (with dot.). 



To be present, SdessS (ad+^sse). 
To bear, ferrt {irreg.). 
Fortunate, IbrtaaitdBi ft, ttm. 
A youth, ftddleiooM, (oent) is ^ 

and f., 25, a). 
Innocence, itmttcMitia, s^ 
FUfor» iddneik, ft, vm (wUh dot.). 



(568.) Examples and Rule. 
(a) Hannibal did wrong in 

wintering (= tecause he 

wintered) at Capua. 



M&15 fecit Hannibal, qui Ca- 
pU8B hiem&vSrit {^^wko 
wintered at Capua). 
Here qui introduces the ground or cause of the judgment liiat Hanni- 
bal erred. 



{b) They send ambassadors 
to say {=who may say). 

They sent ambassadors to 
say {^who might say). 

Here qui (=St ii) introduces 9l purpose. 



LSg&tos mittunt, qui die ant. 

L6gS,tos mls6runt, qui died- 
rent. 



(c) You are_ not the man to 
be ignorant. 

He ordered aU (those) who 
could bear arms to be 
present. 



Non Is ^s, qui nesci&s 

(=you are not he who can 

be ignorant). 
Onmds (eos understood) qui 

arm& ferre possent, ftdessd 

jussit. 



Digitized by 



Google 



KELATIVE 8SNTENCXS. 2^1 

Ib Ihese extuBpleg, qui introdooes a nearer deflmtum of the demoa- 
•tratiTe, which ia expreised or implied. 

(d) Rule of Syntax, — The subjunctive is used in a relative 
sentence to express a ground^ a purpose., or to give a 
nearer definition of a demonstrative expressed or implied. 

Rem. 1. Talis, tarn, tantns, ita, &c., maybe these demonstra* 

tives, as well as is, e§, id. 
2. The relative to express a purpose is very common, especially in 

Caesar, and shoqld be dioroughly studied and practised. 

(569.) Translate into English, 

[Remember the mle for the Succession of Tenses (551, 8}.] 

(a) dni, ground, cause, or reason. 

Enrfts qui censeas Deum esse injustum. — Fortun&ttts 
fuit Alexander, qui virtu tis suae H5merum prseconeip (225, a) 
inv3n3rit. — O fortunate &ddlescens, qui tuae virtutis Hd- 
m3rum praeconem i n v e n S r Is. — Nervii inctlsaverunt r^Hquds 
Belgas qui s3 p5puld Rom&no (54) dSdi dissent. 

(b) dvLi, purpose. 

Eripiunt dJiis (153, a) qu5d &lus (54) largiantiin — 
Legates &d Romanes misdrunt, qui p^t^rent psU;em. — Caesar 
dqultatum praemittit, qui*vldeant qu&s In partes hostes ItSr 
f&ciant (534, d), — Imp^rator misit exploratores, qui cognos- 
cSrent qualis esset (534, d) nature mentis. — Caesar copifis 
suas in proximum collem subduxit, gquitatumque, qui s u s - 
tlneret hostium imp^tum, misit. — Ariovistus onmes copias, 
quae nostros perterrerSnt, et munitidne (153, a) pr6- 
hib@rent, misit. — Piacuit CaesUri tit ad Ariovistum Idgatos 
mittSret (548, a), — ^Piacuit Caesari ut ad Ariovistum legates 
mittSret, qui abed postularent, tit afiquem Idcum coUd- 
quio (54) dlc^ret (548, a). — ^Tiim d3mum Ariovistus partem 
Buarum copiarum quae castra oppugnarent misit. 
{c) dui, defining a demonstrative {express or implied). 

Impdrator omnes cives qui arma ferrd possent adesse 
jussit. — ^Legatus p5poscit (411, a) ob^des, arma, servos, qui ad 
Helvetios perfugissent. — Milites ea quae imp6rarentur 

* Eqnitatam [cavalry) being anonnof mnltitade, the relative qai 
MAjf be in the ploraL 

T 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



222 RELATIVE SENTENCES. 

BboDter f dceront. — Ndn talis siim qui te fall am. — ^Innft- 
centia est affectio tftlis &iilmi, qus ndceat ndmiiu (54). 

(570.) Translate into Latin. 

(a) Caesar did badly in-crossing (who crossed, perf. subj.) the 
fthine. — They err who think that the soul is not immortal. — 
The father censured his son for setting-out* (= who had set out, 
plup. subj.) from the city. 

(b) Caesar sends forward scouts, to choose (= who may choose) 
a place fit for the camp. — Caesar sent ambassadors to Ariovistus 
to demand (=^who should demand), — ^The general brings back 
his forces to the hill, and sends forward the cavafay to sustain 
(= who may sustain) the attack. 

* Profidsoor. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



224 ORATIO OBLiaUA. 

(574.) Exampks and Rules. 



Ariovistus dixit, 8 6 ^duis 
bellamndnill&turum 
esse. 
(a) Ride of Syntax. — In principel sentences in oratio 

obli qua, tlie accuscUive with the infinitive is used. 
Rem. When they exproH a command or vitk, the sabj. is xued. 
(b) Ariovistus said that he Arioyistus dixit, s6 iSduis 

bellum non esse illft- 
t u r u m, «{ stlpendium qudt- 
cmnis pend^rent. 



(a) Ariovistus said tJ^at he 
vxndd not wage war upon 
the ^duan$. 



wovld not wage war upon 
the ^duans, if they paid 
the tribute yearly. 



(h) In subordinate sentences in oratio obliqua, 1die sub- 
junctive is always used (e. g.j p e n d e r e n t). 



(e) The lieutenant denied 
(hat he had crossed the 
Bhine. 

He denies (hat he can give. 



Leg&tus, n^g&vit seRhenum 
transisse.* 



N6gats6 poss6 d&re. 

(575.) Translate into English. 

Caesar dixit sd, postquam hostds ffisi essent, castra 
muniturura ess6.r— D6 d6dni& li^ione Caesar ndn d&blt&bat. 
— Caesar dixit, sd dd ddclm& Idgione n6n dtiblt&re. — 
Cesar dixit, sd cum sdl& d^clmft legione esse iturum.f 
— Caesar dixit se cum sola dMm& Idgione, d6 qu& non dtibi- 
t&ret, essd iturum. — Impdr&tor dixit, maximas n&tione« 
pulsas s,iip6rfttasque esse. — HelvStiis (54) perf&cil6 drat 
totiiis Galliae impdrio (ahl.) pdtiri. — Dumndrix ostendit, Hel» 
vdtiis perf&cile esse, quum virtutd (55, a) omnibus 
(dat,) praest&rent, tdtiiis Galfiae impSrio pdtiri. — Dumndrix 
ipse Castled (54) regnum concUiatQrus drat. — Dumndrix con- 
firmat se Casticd regnum conclliaturum esse. — ^Hel- 
vdtiis est in &nlmd iter pdr provinciam f ^dre ; ftliud iter 
h&bent nullum. — Sibi essdinftnimd (573, BP*),dicunt Hel- 
vdtii, lE^nd ulld m&leficio iter pdr prdvinciam f&cdre, prop- 
tdre& qudd ftliiid iter h&beant nullum. — Impdrator non 
pdtest iter Helvdtus (54) pdr provinciam d&re. — Impdr&tor 

* Put infin. of tranurS. ^ f Fat isfin. tilth, to go. 



Digitized by 



Google 



ORATIO OBLiaUA. 225 

ndgat 8 6, mord St exempld pdpiili Kom&ni, posse Iter Hel- 
▼dtiis p6r prdyinciam d&re. 

(576.) Translate into Latin. 

Caesar said that he, after Pom^ey was conquered, would 
cross-over into Asia. — Caesar had full confidence in 
{=:did not douht concerning) Ibe fourth le^^n. — Caesar said 
that he would attack the toton with the fourth legion 
alone, in which he had full confidence, — Cicero said that the 
greatest cities had been attacked. — The lieutenant 
affirms that he will lead the army across the 
Rhine, if the enemy attempt to hinder (them) (prohlbSre). — 
The HeATetiamfULj that they intend (573,17) to seek 
peace of Casatp 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 18. 
IMPERSONAL VERBS. (XCV.— XCVI.) 



LESSON XCV. 
Impersonak. — PudeU PigeU TcedeU 4^. 

(577.) Impersonal verbs are those which have no subject, 
and take the pronoun it before them in English; t, g., plui t, 
it rains* 

(578.) (a) Some impersonals are never used in the personal 
form; e»g.%pig<&U it grieves, &c.; (b) others are simply the third 
person of personal verbs : e. g.<, pl&cdt, it pleases (pULced, I 
please), (c) Again, the third person singular of many intraa- 
sitive verbs is used impersonally in the passive: curritiir, 
they run (it b run); I am envied, invidetur mihl; nun- 
cifttiim est, itwastcld. 

(579.) (a) The following impersonals (which e^qiress certain 
feelings) take tiie axicusadve of the person and genitive of the 
cause of the feeling. 

FIgfit, plgutt^ U grieves, 

Pildfit, pilduH ^itzham^ 

i oneu ashamed, 
Poonltfit, poonltult, itrqxiUs, 

TsBdfit, pertesum est, it wearies, ditgutts, 
MliSrSt, onepities, 

Yowr folly grieves me, I M€ plgdt Btaltftise tun (=t^ 

I grieves me of your folly), 

(5) Sometimes the cause or object of the feeling is expressed 
by the infinitwe, or a sentence with q u 5 d. 



I am not ashamed of having done 
this. 

I rtjpeni of qffending you. 



Ndnpiid€txneh6c fdcisse {=zit 
does not shame me to have done 
this), 

Poenitet md qudd td offendl 
(=zit repents me that I have of- 
fended you). 



Digitized 



by Google 



IMPERSONAL VERBS. 227 



EXERCISE. 

(580.) Vocabulary* 



Indolent, ign&v-iia, S, dm. 
Folly, ineptise, arum (57, B.). 
To sin, pecc&r3 (ftv-, at-). 
Business, udgotiiim, i. 
Undertaken, suaceptfis, fi, fim (part, 
of sascipgre). 



To confess, f Steri (fasi-), dep. 
Because, since, qaSniim (cof^*.). 
Almost, pspnS {cuh,). 
Some day, Sliqnandd (o^^.). 
Innocent, inndcens, (iundC^nt) u 
Lot, sors, (sort) Is (293). [(107). 

(581.) Translate into English. 

{a) Ignavum poenitebit ftHqaando igD&yiaB. — Ndn poBi^- 
tet m© Eujus consilii. — Tui* m6 misfiret. — Eos inep- 
tiarum poenitebat. — Poenitebat m© pecc&ti. — ^Misdret tfi 
ftliorum, tui* n6c miseret, n6c pudet. — Nos misSret cft- 
l&mltatis tuae. — Nunquam Caes&rem suscepti negotii 
pertaesum est. — Me civitatis mo rum piget, tsedetque. 

(h) Ilium poenltet quod m6 offend6rit. — Socrfttem 
Ddn puduit fftteri se multas res nescire. — ^Tdldpiiduit 
f&c6re. — Non poenitet m© vixisse, quoniam ndn frustrft 
vixi. — Q u 6 m pcenitet peccasse, paene est iDndcens. 

(582.) Translate into Latin. 

(a) Thou wilt repent of thy foDy. — He will be ashamed of 
his indolence. — We shpJl be ashamed of thee. — We pitied 
them. — He was ashamed of us. — We shall never repent of our 
industry. — The boy will some-day be ashamed of his indolence. 
— Thou wilt some-day repent of thy foDy. — ^We are weary of 
life. — He was ashanaed of the citizens. — I am ashamed of you 
and your ignorance. — Many are grieved (at) their lot (gen.) 
(= It grieves many of their lot).— ^I am not only grieved at, but 
also (sed etiam) ashamed of, my folly (=It not only grieves, 
but also shames me of my folly). 

(li) I repebt of having-sinned. — I am ashamed of doing this. 
— ^A wise man is not ashamed to confess that he is ignorant-of 
many things. — I am weary of living (vivere). — I repent of hav- 
ing lived in-vain. — The boy repents of having offended (quod, 
with ferf. subj.) the master. — The young man is ashamed of 
having lived in-vain. — The general repented of having moved 
(inf.) the camp. — ^The Helvetians repented of having crossed 
(inf.) the river. — ^The barbailans repented of having approached 
(inf.) the rampart (use ad before the accusative). 
* (?en. oft*. , 



Digitized by 



Google 



228 



IMFKReONAL VKRBS 



LESSON XCVL 



Imperional Verbs, contmued. 
(583.) Vocabulary. 



Ought, U behooves, dportet, Hbt, 
nit, kc. (with ace. and inf.). 

It it becoming, ddc^t (with ace. and 
inf.). 

It pleases, pUcSt, placalt, &o. (with 

It is of importance, it interests, in- 
terest (with gen.). 

It concerns, it matters, rtfert (with 
gen.). 



It is agreeable, Ubet» or liibet (witli 
dot.). 

It is allowed, lawful {one mtut), li- 
cet (Ucoit and licitimi est), dot. 

It happens, eontingit {dot.). AccidTt 
(med rather of evil accidents). 

It is expedient, exp^dit [dot.). 

With mp permission, me& vdluntite 
{abl, 55, a). 



(584.) Examples and Rules, 
(a) Boys ought to he dili- 
gent. 



It becomes a young man to 
be m^odest. 



Pudros dportet diligeotes 
esse {=it behooves boys tg 
be diligent). 

Ddcet v^reeundum essd 
&d51e8centem. 



(a) Oportet and ddcet are followed by the accusative 
and infinitive. 

[0^* Oportet is also followed by the subjunctive.] 



Majori parti plftcuit castrii 

defend^re. 
Pl&cuit Cass&ri tX U Ario- 

vistum Idg&toa mitteret. 



(6) (1) It pleased the mct^or- 
ity to defend the camp. 
(2) Cdesar determined 
{=it pleased Casar) to 
send ambassadors to 
Ariovistm. 

t> (5) P 1& c d t (expressing a, purpose) may be followed by tlui 
dative, with (1) the infinitive^ or (2) the sijd>juiictive mAi t^ 



(c) I may go (= it is allowed 

to me to go). 
You may go. 
J might have gone (^s it was 

allowed to me to go). 
I may he idle. 
I do not choose (smU is not 

agreeable to me). 



Mlhiire licet. 

Tibilre licet. 
M&i Ire Iteuit. 

Mlhi 6tia96 esse fleet. 
Ndn Hbet mfiii. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IMPERSONAL VERBS. 229 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 19. 
IRREGULAR VERBS. (XCVIL— CII.) 



LESSON XCVIL 

PoS'SHm^ PoS'Si^ Pdt'Uif to be able^ (can). 

(587.) Po8-siim is compounded of p 6 1 - i s, able, and the 
▼erb 8 Am. The t before 8 18 changed to s; e. g., pdt-siim, 
po8-8Jim ; pdt-8nnt, po8-8mit. 



INDICATHTK. 



Pres. Ipos-sftiiL | p6t-^i. Ipdt-est. Ipoi-giimttg. Ipdt-estis. Ipos-sunt. 



Imp^ p6t-6rftm; Perf., p6t-al; Plup., p6t-adr&m; FtU., p6t-£rd; Fut. 
Perf., pdt-qftro; all regular. 



8UBJUNCTITS. 



Pre*, pos-sim. po«-iif . poa-sit Ipoi-simAs. poi-sitits. pos-sint. 
Imperf.\g<M-^6m. |po»g6a. pofl-a6t |poa-g6miis. jpoa-setig. |pog-Bent. 



Perf., pdt-tt6rim ; Plup., p6t-m8»gm : regular. 



1^/in.Pres., poa-sd; Per/., pdt-aiasd; Part., pdt-exui (used only~i 
acyective). 



EXERCISE. 



(588.) Vocabulary. 

Laughter, nsiii, xu, m. 

To MOW, 8dl«I« (86y-, sftt-). 

Good deed, act of kindneis, btefifl- 

citim,i 
Beap, meters (messii-, meu-). 
To do good to, to ben^, prftdessd 

(prOf d-, prO+sdm) ; goyemi dot. 
Hang over, impend^rS. 

(589.) Examples, 
(a) To he very powerful. 

(6) CfihewhoU of Gaul, the 
Helvetians are the most 
powerful. 



To render, redd&re (reddfd-, red- 

dlt). 
If^fiuence, gratia, m. 
Fraud, (nxiM, (fraad) Is (293). 
Restrain, rStinere (rdtwa-, r6tent-, 

rft+tfinere). 
With equanimity, aeqaO anlmd {obL, 

= with equable mind). 



PlQiimupi posse (= to be very 

much able). 
Totius Crallia plaiimum Hel- 
Tdtu possunt. 



Digitized by 



Google 



(c) A very few can keep 
off (many). 

(d) In the rest of Gaul. 



POSSE, TO BE ABLE. 231 

Perpauci pr6hlbere poBsunt* 



In r«Iiqii& Gallia. 



[What is the rale for the Soccearion of Tensei 7 551, 3.] 
[What case do the oompoondbi of sxun (prosiun, destun, &e.) gorem f 
S67, b.] 



Digitized by 



Google 



232 



VBLLBt nOVLMf MALLE. 



LESSON xcvni. 



FeZfe, to be willing. — NollSt to be unwilling. — MoMf 
to be more wiUing^ to prefer. 
(592.) Nolo = non volo ; malo = magis volo. 



Pret. 



W 



nAld. 
mftld. 



DOQVig. 

mavis. 



(a) IWDICATIVK. 



vult 

DonTaU. 

mivult 



v6lamdi. 
DAldmiis. 
mftlumtis. 



Tultifs. 

Donvultlt. 

mftvuUls. 



Ydloiit. 

m&limt. 



Bern, The ibUowing tenses are regular: Imperf., T61dbizn, ndlft- 
bftm, mal6b&m{ Perf^ vdlui, n6lai, m&lai; Fvi^ VQlim, 
n6Um» m&lftm; Put. Perf.,Y bluer 6, nOlaSrfl, malndrd. 



i| (6) suB/UNcnvx. |{ 


C 

Pret. ^ 


v6l. 
n6l- 
mfil. 


1- 


is. 


ft. 


mils. 


itib. 


int 


Impeff.^ 


reU- 
noU- 
mall. 


1- 


es. 


6t 


dmos. 


«ti(s. 


ent 



Mem. 1. Begalar are, Pei/, voluSrlm, n6ladiim, mtlnerim ; Pluperf., 

v5hiissSmi ndlnissdm, mftlnissj&m. 
S. Imperative^ n6li, n6lItA ; ndlite, nOUtdtS, ntinntd. (Imperative of 

▼616 and maid wai^inf .) 

3. Participles, vdl-ensi ndl-ena. 

4. Infimtives : Pret., vellfi, n^S, mall9 ; Pdsl^ yi^lnlsid, n^faiiaaS, , 
mftloissd. 

EXERCI8B. 

(598.) Vocabulary. 



To be mnphf, unecetipied, vikAie 

(&y-, at-), tn<m«u. 
Ndghbour, fioltlmils, 8f flm (with 

dot.). 
Attentive, attentOs, X, tUn. 
Attentively, attenW (a<io.). 
Grant, eemeettien, onoeistts, tla. 
Content, oontontH «, Qm (with 

(594.) Exampks. 
(a) If Aeyyjitk anything. 
(a) .The verbs velle, noil 
goveni the accusative. 



To teewh ilOBd {paea. of vidMI). 
To retwm, to oome ^aek, rivei^ 

(revers-), dep. 
Old man, s&iez, (sen) Ts (108, 13L 1). 
On (he Idas of April, «d Xdis Apil- 

Ifii (die ISA of April). 
i^M4Apiak,lB,m.(S5,«>. 
/>actA^dO(!XlKft(m). 



I 81 quid v^liat. 

e, malle, as transitive yeriw, 



Digitized by 



Google 



Non vult Caesar etim Idcum 
vftc&rd. 



VELLBy NOLLE, MALLB. 283 

(6) He is mUing to hear. |Vultaudire. 

(b) The verbs vell^, nolld, mall^, take the mfinitiTe 
after them, as the complementary object (210). 

(c) Caesar is not willmg that 
that country should remain 
unoccupied, 

(c) The verbs T e 1 1 ^, nollS, malld, admit the accusative 
with the infinitive after them. 

[What is the rale for principal trentenoes in orttio obliqaat (574, a) 
For tubordinate sentences 7 (574, £).] 

(595.) Translate into English. 

£go n5n e&dem vdlo, sdnex (225, a) quae v5lui ftddlescens. 
— Si vis ftmari, ftma (imperative). — Nan vult Caesar earn 
15cum v&c&re. — Noluit Caesar eum *15cum, undo Helvdtu 
disceflsdrant, v&care ; n6 Germani finitimi Galliae (54) essent 
(548, b). — Bdni hdmlnes, mls^ri quam impr5bi esse, mftlnnt. 
-r-Fdre fihenter hdmines id qu5d vdlunt, credunt. — fdem 
veil 6 dtid^m nolle, e&* firmft ftmicltift est. — Ddcllis est qui 
attente vult audire. — QuSm docilem v61is f&c6re, s!miil 
attentum f &ci&s oportet (584, a, |^^). — NM Caesar Kom^nis 
(147) solus imp^r&re v51uiss6t (542, b), & Bruto et Cassio non 
interfectus esset. — ^Ariovistus dixit se regnum m a 1 1 e (574, a) 
Caesaris coneessa (55, a) qakm ^duorum b6n6ftcio habere.— 
Malum us, ctim virtute, paucis (55, a) content! essd, qu&m 
sine virtute muhH h&bere. — Aristid3s bdniis esse m S, 1 e b a t 
quam vid^. — H^bet iracundi& hoc mali (186, a, R.) ; non vult 
rfigi. — Caesar legatis respondet (574, a) di6m s© fid deliberan- 
dum (489) sumpturum (esse); si quid v61int (542, i, 2) fid 
Idus Aprilis revertantur (574, b). — T&mSn Caesar, iit spfitium 
interced^rd posset (548, a) dum miKt^s convSnirent, l@gatis 
respondit, di^m s3 ad d^Kberandum sumpturum ; s! quid v e 1 - 
lent, fid Idus Aprilis r6vert6rentur. — Caesar fib HelvStiis dis- 
ceddre nolebat* — Omnift Snmt f ficllifi si v 5 1 6 s (542, b) * — 
Ariovistus respondet ; si quid Caesar a se v d 1 i t, ilium ad se 
▼Snire 5port6re. — ^Ariovistus respondit, si qidd Caesar a s6 v el- 
let, ilium fid 8^ vdnire 5port@re. 

• Bi is in appowtion with lihe clause idem velle et idem nolle. 

U2 



Digitized by 



Google 



234 



FBREBy TO BEAR, BRINO. 



LESSON XCIX. 
Fero, Ferre, Tuli, Latum, to bear^ bring. 

(596.) (a) PARADIGM OF IRREGULAR FORKS. 



ZNDICATIVB. 



Pres. Act. 
Pres. Pass. 



{6t6. 
fdrdr. 



fen. fert. 
feriTs. fertiir. 



fSrimfts. 
ffirimdr. 



fertts. 
fdrimlnL 



f 6 runt, 
fdruntdr. 



XNTINITIVS. 



Act. 
Pass. 



Pres.t ferrH, to bear, 
Pres., ferri, to be borne. 



P€ff.,tMMB6,to have 

borne. 
Perf., latiis essd, to 

have been borne. 



Fut., iStoros esBd. 
Fut., f Srendum essS. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



Imperf. Act. 
Imperf. Pass. 



ferr- 
ferr- 



6m. 
dr. 



es.. 
eria (g). 



et&r. 



emor. I dmlni. entdr. 



lAIFERATIVB. 



Singular. 



Active. 
Passive. 



2. f 6r, ferto. 
2. ferre, fertdr. 



3. ferto. 
3. fertdr. 



2. ferte, fertdte. 
2. f erimlni. 



3. f 6nmtd. 
3. f enmtor. 



(h) The remaining tenses are formed regularly from f d r «, 
the present stem; tul-, the perfect stem; and l&t-, the supine 
atem. 

1. From f6r-, 

Imperfect active and passive, f drebam, f drebftr. 
Future active and passive, f dram, es ; f dr&r, ens. 
Participle active and passive, fdrens, f drendiis. Oerund, 
f drendi, &;c. 

2. From tul-, 

Indicative perfect, tiili ; pluperfect, tiildr&m ; future per^ 

feet, tiildr5. 
Subjunctive perfect, tiilMm ; pluperfect, t^ssSm. 

3. From l&t-, 

Participle passive, Ifttiis : hence all the passive forms, l&ttls 
sum, dr&m, dro, sim, essem, &c. ; l&turtis sum, sim, &c. 

(c) The compounds are inflected in the same way ; e. g., 
inferre, to bring against ; intuH, illatum ;* inf 6ro, infers, in- 
fert, &;c. 

(d) Tollo, tolldrd, to raise, to take away, forms its perfect 
and supine from tuli, latum, viz., sustuli, subl&tum. 

* ia+lttumsillfttiizii, n being changed into 1 before I 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



296 riMMif VDUtE* 

est — PdcQniam prseferre ftmicltiaB sonfidom est — ^Amiciti* 
ampreferre p^cQmaB hdnestnm est — Ariovistus pdpAlo R5- 
mftnd beSum Id till it — Css&ri DuncUUmn est (578, c) Ariovk- 
turn p6piik> Rom&no beUum intulisse. — iEquo ftoiind f dra- 
in us quicquid ndbis accidat. — Fdrenda est fortunft, pr^o- 
sertiin qas &best & eulp&.*-Iinproln &d rdlupt&tem fdruntur. 
— Poeta fdrunt (598, h), gigaotds beHom diis (62, R. 3) in- 
t ii 1 i s s e. — Demetrius, qunm patrift pulsus esset (563, h) &d 
Ptdlgmaeum rfigem sd c o n t d 1 i t. — CatUinae sdcii arm& contra 
p&triam fdrdbant — Ddmos sufts Helvdtii reliqudrunt, ut 
tdti (194, K. 1) Gallin beUum inf errent (548, a). 



LESSON C. 

Fieri, to beconut to b$ done^ to happen. — Eder e, or 
E s s e, ^0 eat. 

1. Fieri. 
(600.) Fieri forms the passiye of f & c 6 r 6, to majc^^ to do. 
The tenses are formed regularly with the endings of the 4th 
conjugation, except the infinitiye and the imperfect subjunctire. 



INDICATIVE. 



Pre:t fi-o, fl-s, fl-t, &c Imperf.f i\h\4m, bas, &c 

Fvt^ flim, fids, &c. Pwf., factiis sam* €', est, ^ 

Pluperf., factfts grfaa> Crito, Ac Put, Perf., factfis 6ro> gris, &c. 



SUBJUNCrXTB. 



Pre*., fiim, f i&a, &c. Impevf., fI6r6ni, fier^s, Ac 



INFINITITS. 



Pres., fieri ; Peff,, factua, &, um, esae ; Put., factum in, or futuriim 
esse, or forS. 



FABTICIPLES. 



P,re*. wantang ; Perf., factta ; Put,, f ficienddt. 



Rem, Observe that in all the fonns of this verb except fieri and 
fler^m, r6s, &c., &e i is long, contraiy to the g^eneral role tliat a 
vowel be£cire another is short. 

2. Ed6re (ess6). 
(601.) £ d 6 r 6 (or e s s d), to eat-, forms all the tenses regu- 
larly Mrith the endings of the third conjugation ; but it hA9. ia 



Digitized 



by Google 



FIERI, EDERE. > 287 

addition, a few forms similar to thosii of essd, to he^ which 



Digitized by 



Google 



288 



IRE, auutE, NsauutE* 



■ar, litteris (55, a) Labidni certior fid bat, omnes Belgas con 
tr& pdpiihim Rdm&nam conjur&rd, obeidesque inter se d&re.— 
Impdrfttor dixit, id fidri posse. — Nostrorum propter paucity 
tem nihil fi6 ri pdtftrat. — Labidnos preelium commisit, ut un- 
dlque und tempdrft (118, XL, c) in hostes impdt^ fidrdt.-^ 
Ndmo fi t c&sa (55, a) bdnfis. — Po6t& nascltur, non f i t. — Si 
fatd (55, a) omni& f i u n t (542, 6, 1), nihil nos admdnSre pdtest 
at cautiores f i & m n s. — Contr& vim sine vi nihil f i e r i pdtest. 
— Dffigentift (55, a) omni& f i un t fftdli& (603, c).~Apud v6t6- 
rds Rom&nos, ex ftgricdlis interdum fi3bant consules ; ita 
Cincinn&tos consul (603, c) f actus est. — Omni& quae se* 
cundCim n&tur&m fiunt, h&bend& sunt (502) in bdms.* — 
Sepe qui ex paupdribus divites fiunt, divitus (a&Z., 316, h) 
fill nesciunt. — V ivimus ut d d & m u s ; ndn ^ d i m u s ut vi- 
v&miis. — £ddre dport^t ut vivamus, non vivSre tit fid&mus. 
— ^E 8 s d (601) dportet ut vivas, non viv6re ut 6das. — PerpStu& 
cur& &nimum &v&ri exest. — ^Bibd, 6s. — ^Bibite, estd.— * 
iBgritado ftnimum exest. 



LESSON CI. 

Ire, togo. — Quire, tobeabk{can). — ^Nequire, to 

be unable {cannot), 

(605.) Eft, irS, ivl, ittlm, to gOy mostly follows the 4th conju* 

gation ; but is irregvdar in the present tense, gerund, and su* 

pine, as appears by the follovnng 

PARADIGM. 



TXNSC8. 




SUBJUNCTIVE. 


Imperf. 
Fut. 
Perf. 
Plupt^. 
FiU. Perf. 


e^ is, it, imtis, itis, eont 
ib&m, ibfts, ibat, kc. 

ibd, ibis. &c ibunt. 

ivi £>r ii, ivistt, ivXt or iit, &c. 
ivgrftm, ivfirfts, &c. 
iv6rd, ivgris, &c. 


eftm, eas, eat, fiamSs, 6«Hs, 6ant. 
irSm, ires, irSt, &c. 
itords, sim, sis, stt, &c 
iv6iim, iv6ris, ivfirit, &c. 
iviss6m, ivissSs, ivissot, Amx. 


lUPEIl. 


INFINiriVK. 


SUPINE. 


PABTICIPI.B:. 


OERUND. 


i, ltd, ltd. 
It^ itdte. 

eontd. 


Prts., ire. 
Perf., ivisse or 

issS. 
Fut.t ituriim 

essS. 


itiim. 

ita. 


Prea., lens (eantls). 
Fut., itnrfis, 5, urn. 
Verbal, exmdfis, 5, um. 


eundi. 
eundd. Sec 



* H«b«ndS sant in b$nis = should be reckoned among bteMsing^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



IRE, aUISE, NEaUIRE. 239 

Jbent, 1. In tiie same maimer the oompoondi are fijnned ; i. g^ exirS, 

abirS, &c. ; bat they generally drop the v in the perfect-stem; thus, 

&b-ii, ab-isti, ab-iit, abissd, abissdm, &a 
% Some of the compoonds obtain a tranntive force, and then take a 

passive form like other transitive verbs ; e. g., prsBterird, to pa$s 

by ; pnet^redr, / am passed by, &c. 

(606.) Queo, / can^ I am able ; ndqueo, / cannot, I am UU' 
ahle^ are conjugated like eo, I go ; but they rarely occur except 
in the present tense. 

EXEBOISE. 

(607.) Vocabulary. 

By what route? qnd Itiberd (ail, 

$5, a). 
To perish, pdiird (p6r+ir6). 
ManfuUy, vMliter (215, 3). 
2W2 me, die {imperat. ^dicSr«). 
Whether-^or, ntrom— fin. 
Taken away, snblitQs, i, Am {part, 

pass. ofnuSerre (sab+ferre)). 
Ctf Zurich, Tigurinfis, «, Urn. 
To suffer, allow, pit! (pass-), d^ 
To fight, dgcertare (ftv-, at-). 
To be sick, sgrotire (ftv-, «t-). 
Light, lax, (iQc) Is (293). 



To go out, exirS (ex+ir6). Takes 
abL, wiih or withovi prep, dd. 

To return, r6dlr6 (re+ir« j d insert- 
ed for euphony). 

To undergo, sabirC (sab+Ir6) ; gov- 
erns aecus* 

A return, returning, rSdItio, (rddl- 
ti6n) is (333, IL). 

Ready, prepared, pftrfttiis, i, iim 
(part, of pir&rS). 

To pass over, transird (trans+urS)* 

Before, pne, txdv. (or prep, with abl.). 

Of Canna, Cannensis, d (104). 

Whither, qao, adv. 
1^* Beoollect, ^Aey tP6n^ = Iv6rant or idrant. 

he departed ^}Lh lit, rather tiian ftblrlt; and lo of 
other compounds. 
[GKve the Bale for ft t (purpose), 548, a). 

(608.) Translate into English. 

Helvdtii dd finlbus suis exeunt. — Orgdtorix Hebdtiis (dai.) 
persuftdet, ut dd finlbus suis exeant. — Orgdtorix Helvdtiis 
persuAsit, ut dd finibus suis cum omnibus copiis (property) 
e X i r e n t. — Ddmum (113, III., R.) r d d e u n t. — Omni& pdri- 
ctlUi siibeunt. — Helvdtii, ddmiim recKtidnis spd sublAtft 
(456), pftr&tidres ad omni& pdricul& subeundft (496) drant. 
— Caesar in Xsiam transiit. — Pompeius in Asiam trans- 
idrat. — Ddmd (aW.) exird possunt. — -Erant omnind itandra 
dud, quibus ItSndrlbus ddmd e x i r e possent. — ^dui per fines 
suds Helvdtids ird piitiuntur.— Pftgils Tigurinus ddmd exi- 



Digitized by 



Google 



240 utE, auuis, ifsauiKB. 

Arat. — Hic pifos Q11118, qiram d6iiid exisiet, L. Cmsumn, 
consttlem, interfecdrat, Ht Hjus exercYtam s&b jtignm misdrat. 
— Helv^tii in e&m partem ibunt, tibi Csesar consHtu^rit.— 
Quo Itin^re (55, a) hostSs i 6 r n n t ? — ^£5ddm Mn^re, quo hos- 
tea id rant, Caesar ad eos contendit, dqult&tumque omnem 
ante sd mitdt. — I bam fortd Vi& Sacrft (55, a) sicut meus est 
mds. — I prse, dgO sdquar. — ^Ex pugn& CaimeDSi admddum pauci 
Rdm&Dt d6mum rddifirunt. — I, qud t6fbrtan& y6d6t (534, dl). 
— Quicquid trausilt tempdris (186, a, Rule) pdrilt. — Quidam 
ferro (55, a) d^ert&re ficerrimd possunt, segrdtard vliifitdr non 
queunt. — Sind iQcd cdlords esse ndqueunt. — Pompeius 
pdriit. — Die utrum que&s &n ndque&s mScum Ir6. — 
Risiis interdtira Ita rfipentd erum^dt, ut e&m ctipientds (442, e) 
Idndrd ndqueftmus (553, 6, R.). 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 20. 
DEFECTIVE VERBS. 

LESSON CIL 
Aioj Inquam, Novi, Memini, Caspif Odi. 
(609.) A i 6, Isay, say yes, affirm^ is used in veiy few tenses. 



Ind. Pres. 


aio. 


ids. 


m. 1 






aiunt 11 


Ind. Imperf. 
Stdj. Prei. 


aiebtoL 


-has. 


-bat. 


-bamds. 


batis. 


bant 




fii&s. 


aiat. 






aiant. 


Part. Pres. 


aiens (aientis) used acAy as ac^ec. 







(610.) Inqu&m, Isay, is used between the words of a quo- 
tation. 



Ind. Pres. 
Ind. Imperf. 

Ind. FiU. 
Ind. Perf. 
Subj. Pres. 


inquam. 
inqaiam. 


inqois. 

inqoies. 
inqaisti. 
as. 


inquit. 
inqniibftt 

or 
inqolbat. 
inquiet. 
inquit. 
at. 


inquxmus. 
atib. 


inquiunt 1 
inquiebant. 

ant. 



(611.) NSvi, I know; mdmlni, I remember; coepi, I 
have begun, I began ; 5 d i, J hate, are perfect forms with 
present meanings. AU the tenses made on the perfect stem 
exist, regularly formed. 



ndvissS, 
to know. 



mSmlnissS, 
to remember. 



ccapissS, odissS, 

to have begun, to hate. 



INDICATIVE AND 8UBJUNCTITS. 



ndv- 

xnemin- 

caep- 

6d- 



""I, isti, Xt, &c. 

Srftm, 6ras, Srftt, Sec. 

grd, eris, firity &c. 

grim, 6ris, 6rit, &c. 
Jssfim, isses, issSt, &c. 



Ind. Pres., I know. 
Ind. Past, I remerrAered. 
Ind. Fut, I shaU begin, 
Subj. Pres., / may know. 
Subj. Past, I might hate. 



Imperative, mginentfl, mgmentotg (the others wanting). 



EF* Recollect, n 6 vi= J Anoto (not I have known) ; n 6 v e ram, I knew 
(not / had known), dec; and so of the others. But coepI, n6vi, &c., 
may b« used as perf. pres.t ^: / have known, I have begun, &c. 

X 



Digitized by 



Google 



242 



AlOy INaUAM, NOYI9 ETC. 



EXEfiClBE. 



(612.) Vocabulary. 

To faU haekt to gioe way, pSdem 

rtfeird (= to draw back the loot). 
Young, raw, inexperienced, tiro, (ti- 

rto) it (107). 
8uHy, f erteAlAf, i, ftm. 
Ludue Variue, L. Variaa, I. 
Forgetful, immemor, (immSnior) !• 

(107) ; governa genit. 
Calmly, fuieay, tranqninitte (tras- 

qoiU-Qa, 215, IL, a). 

(613.) Examples. 

(a) He eahcrU them U> r^ 

member, 
{b) AriHidc$f when a$ked 

v;kat VHU ju9^ i«pliod, 

** Not to covet what belongs 

to othen:' 



Cruelty, snrltiS, «. 

Demonax, Dem5nax, (ic) is (a phi- 

kNMypher of Hadrian's time). 
To pkOoMopkixe, pUldadphari {dep.). 
In no way, by no wteans, nollO mddo 

(««.). 
Conscious, oodmomm, i, iim (with dot. 

of penoo, gen, of tbing). 
Lioy, Llyiiu, L 



Horlftlttr ede ut m«m!ix6- 

rint. 
Aristidea inteir6g&ta8 quid 
ju»tam 0S8et? ««Ali«a&," 
in quit, **ndii coiicnpi8e6r«(*' 
(= •* Not to coY^t," said hsi, 
"what," &c.). 

BT Inquam is used in quoting the yery toords of another 
(oratio recta), and is alwaja placed among the words qooited 
(as *^said he^* in Eng^h). Ait is used generally in quoting 
the MUM, not the exact wmrds of another (or at 10 obliqua). 



(e) He began to btdld the 

city. 
The city began to be bvUt. 



Urbdm iBcB[f!cAre c as p i t. 

Urbs sdfficftrl coeptft est. 
1^* If a passive infinitiye is used with the word begin^ you 
must employ the passive form, oosptus sum, instead of coepi} 
cospttis eram, instead of cosperam, ice. 

(614.) Translate into English. 

MiKtea, vulndnbu* ddfessl, pddem rdferre ooepenrnt.— ^ 
''Quid to,'* in quit LaM^nus, ''miles Ifro (voc.) tarn f^&rocfl- 
Ins ds7*' Turn milea: '*Ndn sum," in quit, «'tiro, Labidnd, 
add dd ddciml^ l^dnfi v^terftnus.*' — ^HelydtS nostroa l&oessdre 
ccepdrunt. — Host@s, qui in montem s6se r6c6pdrant, prselium 
r^dintegr^e coepSrunt. — Cssar dicit (574, a). Id fieri possd, 
si .Sdul ftidtimfinua ftgros pdpulftri c(Bp«rint ($749 b).^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



AIO, INaUAM, NOVI, MEMINI, ETC. *243 

IM^tes in mQrum l&p!des j&cdre c ob p 3 r u n t. -» Undique in 
mUrum l&pides j&ci (613, c, ^*) ccepti sunt. — Dux militSs 
hort&tur ut vdtdris gloriae m^minerint. — Ldgati dixdrunt sd 
portus {accus. pi.) insulasque n 5 v i s s d. — Multi td oddrunt, 
81 td solum &m&s. — German! siiperbiam L. Varii 6t ssevitiam 
5 diss d ccepdrant. — Omn3s immdmdrem bdneficii dde- 
run t. — ^TuUus Hostilius, ut Livius a i t, f dr5cior dtiam RomMd 
(360, c) fuit. — Socr&t^ interrdg&tus qmn&m hSmines tranquil- 
Eter vivfirent (634, e)1 "Qui," in quit, "nulKus turpitudi- 
nis siU conscii sunt." — ^Demonax interrdgfttus, quando coepisset 
(534, e) pliilds5ph&n ? "Turn," in quit, "cum cognoscdre 
meipsnm (159) cos pi." — ^Hannibal Romftnos nc dddrat, ut 
in gr&tiam cum ilEs rddire nuUo mdd5 (55, a) posset (553, b, R.). 
— ^Is miser est, quem omnds bdni 5derunt. — Ndvimus 
Aristidis juslStiam, ndyimus Socr&tis s&pientiam. — N6ii 
ftmftbimus bdndtBuSres, si ndn dddrimus m&lds. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 






PART I I L 



SUMMARY OF ETYMOLOGY. 



X2 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



SUMMARY OP ETYMOLOGY. 



§ 1. LETTERS, QUANTITY, &c. 

(615.) 1. The letbem tare the lame u in Englirii, with t^M omiMum of w. 

2. Six are voioels, «» e» i, o, n, y : tiie rennuning idneteen ard consmumti. 

3. The oonaonants are divided into 

(a) Liquids, I, m, n, r ; 

(b) Spirants, h, a, j ; 

{c) Mutes ; the remaining oonsonanta, among which there are 

(1) 6-BoandB, c, g (ch) ; q ; 

(2) p-sonnds, b, p (ph) ; 

(3) t-sonnds, d, t (th) ; 

(4) Doable oonsonanta, x, z. 

4. The diphthong! are» an, en, ae, oe (rare» ei, ei, viV 

(616.) GENERAL RULES Of QUANTITY. 

(1) A vowel befiore another is short ; e. g., via. 

(2) A vowel before two consonants, or a double one, is long ijf posi- 
tion ; e. g., amant. 

[As a mute followed by a liqaid causes some exceptions to tiiis role* 
we shall mark the quantity, hi that case, doubtful ; thus, i^] 

(3) AB gphth ongs are long ; e. g., mensS, aUrum. 

(4) Contracted syllables are loi^; e, g^ cOgo (obfligo); 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 2. NOUN. 

(617.) 1. The noun if the name of any object (penon or tlungr). Nomw 
are proper (13, a), coM«Mm (13, 6), or abUraet (13, c). 

2. There are tkrte genders, moieuHne, fiaUmnet and 4i«tc^ .* fvw nima* 
beis, singular and plural : six cases, lUMnifMi^tt^ geniiive, dative, aecuus" 
five, voeatioet and abloHve : nndjive declensions. 

3. GENERAL RULES OF GENDER. 

Males, rivers, winds, and numnt(xins most we find 
Widi months and no^icm* Masculine declined ; 
Bjit females, cities, countries, trees we name» 
As Feminine ; most islands, too, the same. 
Common are such as botk the genders take» 
And Neuter all words nndechned we make. 
[There are many exceptions from these rales, which must be learned 
bj obsenration.] 



First Declension. — {Genitive-ending ae.) 



(618.) 




case-endings. 






h 


Nona., Vog. 


Gen. 


Dat. 




AH II 


Sing. 
II Plur. 




ae. 
ftriim. 


n. 
is. 


im. 
is. 


t 



Bern, 1. QtMsn/*^.— Final syllables all long bat i, mom, and voc ; 
im, ace. ; and dm, gen. plur. 

9. Oauier.— Noans of first dedenskm are/antmjie; except names of 
male beings, &c. 



Second Declension. — {Genitive-ending I.) 

(619.) Masculine noons of second declension have nominatiye-enduig 
iis ; neater noans» dm. 

(a) CASE-ENDUfGS, MASCT7LINE8. 



r — 


Nom. 


Gen. 


DaL 


Ace 


Toe 




Sing. 
1 Plur. 


As. 
L 


L 
drfim. 


6. 

u. 


6S. 


6. 
I. 


6. 





(d) CASB-ENDIKGS, NEUTERS. 




ll -o. 


N., A., V. 


Gen. 


DaL. AbL II 


1 11^: 


Am. 
i. 


L 
flrjim. 


t 1 



Digitized by 



Google 



NOUN. 



249 



Rem. 1. QMmtUy.-^8hort final fyllaUei, lis, «, «m, «. 

I/m^ " 1,6, ig, df. 

51. Gender, ^~Il few nomui are feminine in tL a, and a few neater (aea 
63, B. 1). 

3. Stemt in r. — (I) All noons whose stems end in r, reject the ending 
iis in nom. and S in voc. ; e* g,^ field, jnom., Sgdr (not Sgdr-tts) ; toc., 
ftgdr (not SgSr-A). (2) Most which have d in nom. drop it in the 
remaining cases ; e. g^ nom., Igfir ; gen., flgri (not igdr-i). 

4. Exeeptiom to Cate^ndinga. — (1) Proper names in ins, with 
filins, genias, mens, have voc. in i ; e. g., Qeorg-% fil-l, ml. (2) 
Deds has voc, detts, nom. plnr., dii, dat and abL plnr., diXs. (3) 
A few take Urn in gen. plnr., instead of 6r ilm ; e. g,, sestertiihn. 



Third Declension. — {Genitive-ending Is.) 

(690.) (a) CASZ-BVDUIGS, MASCULINES AND rEMININES. 



1 


N<»i.,Voc 


Ora. 


Dat 


Ace 


— sr-| 


1 ^: 


es. 


Is. 

ttm (Imn). 


1. 

ib«s. 


Sm (Im). 
6s. 


5,S: 





(b) CA8B-BNBINGS, NEX7TEB3. 






N..A.,V. 


Oen. 


Dat 


AbL 


1 Plnr. 


iW 


is. 


ihSs. 


UL 



Mem, 1. QHaniity.-^T'uul syllables all short bnt I and 6 s. 
9; Euphonic Rules, — (a) o-soand+s=:z: arc-s=:aix; leg-ssslex. 
{b) tHWond before sis dropped: laQd-s=laxis; mont-ssmons. 

3. Rulee of Gender from the Formation cf the Nominative, 

[Learn these fiom 355.] 

4. PeeuUar Catetnding8.-^1) Ace. in Xm : (a) commonly In 

Febils, pnppls, pnlvls, 
S6cfiris, restls, tonls : 
(b) aZwajfsin 

Srtls. tossls, 
vis, amossXs. 
(9) AbL in 1 : (a) sometimes in those which take Im in aoc wttk 
IgnXs, dvSi : {b) always in vis ; and in neuters whose nom. ends 
in il, ftr, or 6. 
(3) Gen. plnr. inm i (a) in all which take I in abL sing. ; {b) in 
monosyllables whose stems end in two consonants (e. g,, mont«, 
mont-Ittm); (c) In all which insert a vowel before adding s in 
nom. (e. g,, nftv-I-s, ntv-Ilim). 



Digitized by 



Google 



3W 



NOQN. 



(631.) MasouIiUib Dominathre-eiiding fti ; natter naounatiTQ-endlD^ €. 

(a) CASB-Bin>IN08, MASCULINES. 



Il Noiiv,Toa. Gen. 


Dat. 


Ace AbL ll 


Sing. fts. us. 
|] Phir. Ak fltSm. 


ibiis. 


dm. A. 

^ ibds. 1 



{h) CAMhKIH>IV«9, SBVTIBS. 



-^ — ^ 


Bk>ninAoe.,Voc 




'iXL^Aii. 


Sins. 
Hot. 

]^^ — =.-= 




uiim. 


Ibis. 



iZbfi. 1. QiMMietljr;--^s Vmgi exoept is bom. Bingi, omI dsfc nd abL 

plnr. ; A and i long alwayi. 
8. Oenden,— Only the following noons are fernhdnat 

AcQs, m&nus, ttlbiis, 

INMuAs, poftfcufft <ifuf IcRUh 

3. Peculiar Ceu&andmg.—The Mowii^ take A^bAs k dat and abL 
pior., instead of lb As : 

ArcAs, icAs, portAs, vdtA* 

SicoSy^UiaAs* actAs, 
SpAcAs» qneroAs, obo pficA». 

THbia toa, and paitAs» 

4. DAmAs, house, is thus decUned : 




Smgf 
Fhir. 



doia-As, 
ciD!m>uS* 



-Ai. 
.!bA«. 



"Am. 
? -As (ronrfy). 



•A» 

-Ms. 



06s. The genitLve d Ami is used only in the sense of at hornet o^ my 



Fifth DedetmMnLr-^ G e miiM' ^uUng ei.) 

(622.) There are bat few noons of this declensi<m : aft ftmihine except 
d!6s, day, and merXdIds, midday; and even dfAs is feminine in singo- 
lar when it means % fixed day. 



(623.) 




CABE-ENDINGS. 









Nom., Voc. 


Geo. 


D«t. 


Ace 


AbL 


Smg. 
Hnr. 


6S. 

ds. 


erAm. 


AT. 
ebAs. 


Am. 
As. 


, A. 
AbAs. 



Bffn, 1, Quantity. — ^Tbe e in el is ^on^ when a vowdLgfcanda before 

it, as cU-A-i ; short when a consonant^. as fid.A-i. . 
S. The genitive, dative, and ablative plural are wanting in all noons 

nf this declension except rAs, dIAs, spAciAs. 



Digitized by 



Google 



§3. ADJECTIVE. 



(624.) The adjective exproMei a qulky or property belongkig to an 
object ; e. g,^ good, Mmali, lokiU, 4tc. In LaiCin, t^ectvreB ace divided 
into tbree clMses, according to their endinga. 

I. cLAis I. (a a, a, urn). 
(625.) These take theymtmne-ending of first declension of x 
culine and neuter endings of the second. 

(1.) CASK-BirDINOa. 





SINOUI.AK, 1 








Mmc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 




M«K. 


Fein. 


N.<.t. \ 


N. 


ds. 


i. 


jhn. 


N". 


I. 


m. 


i. 


G. 


L 


e. 


I. 


a 


dr&m. 


arim. 


ardm. 


D. 


6. 


e. 


6. 


D. 


Is. 


la. 


fli; 


A. 


iim. 


am. 


ftm. 


A. 


68. 


as. 


ft. 


V. 


«. 


i. 


lira. 


V. 


1. 


OB. 


i. 


A. 


6. 


a. 


d. 


A. 


IS. 


IS. 


la. 



(2.) Stems in er. — ^Adjectives whose stem ends in er reject tts and 6 
in nom. and voc 

(a) Most of them idao drop ^ in (Sie nora. in the odier easea ,* e. g^ 
beautiful^ pnlchdr. 

Xoob Fakhdr, pcddirt^ pnlchrflnfc 

Oeuw Palchri, pidchras, polchn, &c 

(&) But aspdr, Hk^r, liMr* n^Mr,. pro^dTr tftufir, retain tbe 6 ; e. ^., 
Nom. Mis6r, misSrS, ndsSn&m. 

B%a. Misdri, ndsSra, misdri, &c. 

(3.) Peculiar Case-endings. — Some a4)ectives, numerals, and a^eo- 
tive pronouns have gen., itta, and dat, I; e. g., Uniis, nniUs, hqL 
[They are dnns, uitHM, b6Ms, nidKia, nfifia, tiSfis, altdr, ttSit, nentdr, 
JlterquS.] 

2. CLASS II. {T^oo Endings). 
(626.) Adjectives of the second class have Is in the nominative angular 
for maseoluie and feminine ending, and £ fin: neuter. 

(1.) CASB-EKDINOa. 






smoutAM. 




PLUKAL. ll 




Hue; 


r«iii. 


N«vt 




MaM. 


Fem. 


Veat 


N.,V. 


la. 


Is. 


«. 


N.,V. 


«8. 


«a. 


fft. 


G. 


la. 


Is. 


la. 


G. 


ram. 


Ifim. 


lam. 


D. 


I. 


i 


L 


D. 


Ibtis. 


Ibiis. 


Ibils. 


Ace. 


•m. 


«m. 


6. 


Ace. 


68. 


fis. 


». 


AbL 


I. 


I 


I 


Abl. 


Xbiis. 


ibtla. 


IbOs. 



(2.) Sonw adjectives oTliiis dass take 6r for the ending of the nonk 
i&g. miOM. instead of la ; e. ^ ., tcdr, ieifr, fere. 



Digitized by 



Google 



253 



ADJECTIVE. 



(3.) The aUotiTe haa 6 initead of i in jardnXf, you£k; m^lVitt, 
adile. The genitiye plural haa iim instead of ium in cfilfir, 
Moift. 

3. CLAsa III. {One Ending). 
(637.) (1.) Adjectiyea of the third diut have hat one ending in the ncmi- 
inative for all three gendera ; e. g., happy, fdlix (m., £, n.) ; bold, 
and ax (m., t, n.). Participlea in ns fall under this doss. 
(3.) The case-endinga are tiioae of noons of ttaid dedension (see par- 
adigm, 108). They have abL 1 generally, bat 6 in pauper, senex, 
and a few odiers (108, R. 1); neut plur., IS; gen. plur., iftm. 
y^tOs has nom. plur., Tdter-fi, gen. plur., vdtdr^m. 
For participles, abL, 6 ) . 
" adjectires, abL, I 5 " 

4. COMPARISOV OF ADJECTHrxS. 

(638.) Comparative-endmgf I6r i iuperkaive,i»»lmi^n. 

Brave, fort-is, fort-id r, fort-is simils. 

Hard, ddr-iis, ddr-ittr, dar4ssimfts. 

Rem, The comparative is declined (after third declension of noona) 
dius: 
Nom. Dtri5r, dflri5r, dibri&s. 

Gen. Dflri6r-is, dflrioris, dfbrioris, &c. (See 358.) 
(629.) Acyectives whose stems end in r have rimiis for ivperiative'eod* 
ing (instead of isidmiis) ; e,g., 

WiB&r, mXs6r-ittr, ndsernrimus. 

Pulchdr, pulchr-i6r, polcher-rimiis. 

(630.) Seyeral a4jectiTes whose stem ends in 1 have llmfts for tvpsria- 
^»oe-ending; e.g., 

ttcXL'ldT, f^lcfl-llmiis. 



Ficil-is, 
They are 



Similis, dissimilis, and HkSOa ; 
HdmiHs, diflRcOiB, and grfidOis. 

5. IRBIOULAB COMPARISOir. 



(631.) 


Irregulars. 




r Good, 


bdniis. 


meti5r. 


ootiunus. 


1 ^^• 


mfilds. 


p©j<>r. 


pessimtis. 


Great. 


magntls. 


xnajdr. ^ 


max^tls. 


Much, 


multns. 


Jplfis (n.smg.). 
^plur68,ftgL). 


plfiiimua. 


SmaU, 


parviis. 


min6r. 


TOcSlSxtoSLB. 


Old. 


stoex. 


Bdnidr. 


VHmling.\ 
loarUing) 
extrSmuiB. 


Young. 


jjiv6i^. 


jani6r. 


Owtward. 


extdrOs. 


exterittr. 


Bdow. 


inf^rns. 


inftridr. 


SinHmus. 
/imiis. 


Above. 


siip^rds. 


sttperittr. 


sapremiis. 
I siimmiis. 


Hind. 


postfirfts. 


p08t6ri6r. 


postrfimda. 



Digitized by 



Google 



COMPARISON or ADJECTIVES. 



253 



(633.) DefecUvet. — {Comparative and Superlative formed from a Prepo- 
sUion, Adverb, or Obsolete Word.] 



(on this side, dtra.) 
[within, intra.) 

{beyond, ultra.) 

{near, pr6pe.) 
{bad, deter.) 



nearer, citSrldr. 
inner, intdridr. 

further, nltfiri5r. 

nearer, prdpiOr. 

worse, deteridr. 
former, priCr. 
swifter, dcidr. 



nearest, dtimfis. 
inmost, mtibnds. 

worst, ddtenimuB. 
^rst, plimiis. 
swiftest, acisslmtigi. 



_^ . , . « ( ^tidr, , c dltissimtlf . 

Sem. 1. Steh, diyes ; rteher, \ ^^5^ ; ''*'^*' \ divItUsimfii. 

[Catar nBes the shorter form.] 

9. Compound a4JectiTe8 in diciis, ficiifl, v5liiB, add entittr for tiia 
eomparative and entissimiifl for the superU^tvoe ; e. g., 

Bdn^Tol-iifl, bdndyfil-entittr, bdndyfil-entisBimiii. 

S. A4}ectiTea wboae stem enda in a vowd prefix to the potitwe 
mSgis, mors, for the eomparatioe, and maximfi, most, fat tiia 

Pkwi , pma, mSgIs i^iifl, mazimfi ^CQa. 

Y 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 4. NUMEBALS. 



(63^) NVMBKALS WB diTided into tke foOowiflg 
flnt three «re a^ectives, die firarth adverbf. 



diMti, of wbtch tho 



CARDINAL. 


ORDINAL. 


DISTRIBOTIVI. 


▲DYSRBLAL. 




One, two, 4«. 


Pirx. second, 4c 


Onehfoiu,^ 


OnceiWiee.^ 




1 


Un&s. 


Primfta. 


^T^ 


S«m«L 




2 


Dud. 




Bto. 






Tr6a. 


Tertifta. 


Tina, 


T«r. 






QMttoSr. 


Quartos. 


QnAtfimL 


Quftt«r. 






QoinquA. 


QnintOs. 


OolDL 


Qolnqalta 






SexT 


Sext&8. 


S«id. 


S6xj»a. 






Sept&n. 


Septlm&a. 


SeptenX. 


Siptttfl. 






Octa. 


OctftTlto. 


Oct6nL 


Octite. 




9 


NdT&n. 


NtoOs. 


NoT«nL 


NftyKa. 




10 


D»e«m. 


D«clmfta. 


MM. 


D«e»k 




11 


Und«cim. 


UnddcIm&iL 


fhid«iil 


Ondteiia. 




12 


Duddddm. 


DuddScfmtU. 


DllMtol. 


D&&d6cle8. 




13 


Tr«dteim. [im. 


Tertias. 




Tftml- 1 




Tr6dfiffi[«s. 




14 


Quattuordte* 


Quart&8- 




QufttSmX- 








15 


Quinddciin. 


Quint&s- 




QuIIl^ 




Qtdndficids. 




18 


Sexdeclm. 


SexMfl- 


'dBdbxAB. 


seni- 


dtoL 


SSdfidfla. 




17 


Septeodficiiit. 


Septiinftfl* 




Septtef. 




DMIte&aSptlea. 




18 


Octodficim. 


Octavfta. 




Octfioi- 




DUddbnOiB. 




19 


Ndveraddam. 


N6n&B- 




N6V&1I. . 




TTndevTdr«8. 




ao 


VTgintt. 


Vicfislmtta. 


VIcfint 


Vldfes. 




30 


SJlS^ti 


Ttlctelmua. 


Tricfiid. 


Triclgs. 




40 


QuAdrigMtmfii. 




Quidr&gi«i. 




50 


Quinqu&gintL 




QuXnqn&gifinL 


Qulnqu&«^ 




60 


SexAginttL 


Sez&gftsimas. 


SdzAgiid. 


S6xftgI68. 




70 


Septu&gintL 






S6pt(i&gf6fl. 




80 


Octdgintt 


Octdg68im&8. 


Oct6g6iiL 


Oct6gI68. 




90 


NtoAgmta. 


NOnftgfisImas. 


Ndo&g«iiL 


NdnfigiSs. 




100 


Centum. 


CentMmOs. 


CfinteiiL 


C«nti68. 




200 


D&centL 




D&centfinL 


D&c«nti[68. 




300 


Trtksentt. 


Tr6cent68lm&a. 


TrficfinttoL 


Trftctotiga. 




400 


QuAdringentl 










500 


QuingentL 


QumgentteimOa. 


QuIng6nt«nL 


Quingtoties. 




600 


Sexcentf. 




S6zctat«nL 


S6zc6nti68. 




700 


SepDngentL 




SeptingftnttaL 






800 


Octingentf. 






Octingeziate. 




900 


Noningentt. 




N(mg6iit«iiL 


NOngfinties. 




1000 


Mm«. 


Milldslmas. 


MmenL 


Mimes. 





For tlie dedenaion of anai, dao, and trea, aee 194. 

Dacenti, and all tlie compoiiiids of centi, are declined like the plural 
ofbonaa. 

Mil Ha, thousands, the plural of mille, is declined like a neater noon 
of the tliird dedenaion. 

Ordinal numbers are declined like bonus. 

DistrUnUiv4s, like the plural c^ bonua. 

All the reat are undeclinable. 

In the combination of cardinal numbers, fiom twenty to one hundred, 
tibe smaller with et, or the larger without et, precedes ; as quattuor et 
Tiginti, or viginti quattuor. Above one hundred tke larger number 
precedes, with or without et; as centum et unus, or centum uaui. 



Digitized 



^y Google 



§ 6. PRONOUN. 



(634.) The pronoun, is a nWtitate fiv the noun ; e.f^ke, tke^ it, may 
be labstitatefl for man, woman, book, 

(635.) (a) Subitaniive Personal, to called becatme tmed as MubatantiTeB, 
not as adyecthrcs. 



8WGOT.AB. 


"~ 


FLUKAL. 1 




N. 


o. 


D. 


Ace., AW. 




v., A. 


Gen. 


Dat.. AbL 


/. 


6g6. 


m6i 


mihL 


md. 


m. 


BM. 


notitrJiBSt M* 
DOBtrL 


n«bfs. 


Thau. 


to. 


tfiL 


tift)L 


td. 


You, 


TdC 


ve8tri&in,or 


v6bui. 


Him, I 


— 


siil. 


sibi 


8& 


Them, 


veitrL 1 II 
(came a« giag;) 



{b) Adjective Personal, or Possessive (derived from the above). 



Mifie. 
Thine. 
His, hers, its, 



m6fiB, S, tun (yog., xm). 
auus, i, Urn, 



Ours. 

Yours. 

Theirs. 



nost^r, BOfltrS, noBtrOm.. 
vestdr, veBtttt, vefltrOm. 
saas, siii» sJltefk 



2. DIMONflTRATIYS PRONOUNS. 

^36.) 1%e dmiofw^rafRfe jMviumns are so called because they serve to 
point emtua efafjeot ; e. ^., this, Aat, these, those, &c 

(1.) fs, (Sa, ltd, this, that (he, she, it), often antecedent of qaL 



Sing. 
Phnr. 



Nom. 

is, an, id. 

fi, 6k, 6& 



Oea. 
djds. 
66riim, CarOm, ftprttm. 



iis, or 6is. 



6am, dim, id. 
66s, 6as, 6&. 



AbL 

65, Sfl, 66. 
Ss, (>r 6Is. 



(Jl.) id0a, 6&d6m» td6m»^ very<af?te^componBdiBdof Is and d6ni. 
Declined like is with dem added; thos, €jasdem, eid6m» 
eunddm {pat eumdem), &c 

(3.) Hie, hflBC, hde, Mtf, points oat an object present to the speaker, 
and is caUed the demonstratioe of thBjirsi penoiir (It ia dso used 
for he, she, it.) 



Sin^ltte, hne, 
h6c. 
hi, hsB, 

hflBC. 



Phn*. 



biius. 

h6rdm, hardm, h6- 



Bat. 

Iniic 

his. 



baDByfaoc^ 



Ace 

hdc 
hos, h&s, 
hcBO. 



AbL 

hfic, 
hoe. 
his. 



(4.) Ist6^ istS, ist&d, this, that, points out an otideet preaant to the 
person spoken to, and is called the demonstrative of saoaml peiBon. 



Digitized by 



Google 



256 PKONOUN8, KELATIYE AND INTERROGATIVE. 



Horn. 


0^ 


Dat. 


▲cc 


AM. i 


Sing. vt6, vU, iftiiii. 


iiti. 


iituxn, iitiin. 


i»t6, uti.g 




iitdd. 


s. 




iitfid. 


iitA. n 


PlQr. 


u^iMtm, 


iftdrum, iitlrfim, if- 


iitis. 


ist68, iitSa, 


i8tte,i8tis, 




ut&. 


tOrftm. 




iiti. 


istis. H 



^^Iflte ii often used to expreu oontempt 
(5.) II 16, illi, illiid, point! oat an object remote from the tpeaker 
{that, the former, opposed to hie), and if called demomtraiwe of 
third i>eraoiL (It ia often naed ibr he, the, it,) 

^^ Declined UuDogboat lik« istfi, iitS, istild. 
(6.) Ipad, ipaSf ipi&m, te^, ia added to other pronoona, m€, t6, b9, 

&C., and expreaaea mytelf, thyself, himseif, &c^ aceocdinglj. 
^^ Declined like iatd, except that neater ia ipaiim (not ipadd). 

3. HXLATIYX PBOiroVHa. 

(637.) The rdtUioe pronoun {who, which, what) ia lo called becanae it 
commonly refera to lome other word called the antecedent. 
(1.) da!, qasB, qattd, who, whidi, what. 



Phur. 



qai,qo8B, 
qadd. 

qoi, qae, 
qasB. 



cojua. 

Qaftrum* qaflrum, 
qa6rum. 



coi. 
qoIbOa. 



qadm, qaim, 

qadd. 
qada, qaAa, 

qa». 



qa6, qaa, 

qad. 
qaibua. 



(2.) doicanqae, qaacanqad, qoodcanqad {whoever, whichever, 
whatever), declined like qai, qasB, qa5d, with canqae added. 

(3.) daia qaia {whoever, whatever), aaed without a aabatantiTe. The 
following caaes only occar, and of these only qaiaqaia and qaio- 
q a i d commonly. 



Plor. 



qaia<}oia (nL, £), 

cfoicqaid jn.). 
qfliqui (m., t). 



q<:dbuaqi^- 

b(!i8. 



qaemqadm (m.,£), 
qaidqold (n.). 



qadqad, qaft- 
qat, qa6qa&. 



4. INTBBROOATIYX PROHOUNa. 

f (638.) The interrogoitwe pronouns {who f which 7 what f) are oaed in 

aaking qoestiona. 

(1.) daia, qae, qaXd {whol whieh7 whati), ia declined predaety 
Uke the relative qal, except #at in nom. aing. maac it haa qali, 
and in nom. and ace. aing. neat, qald. [dai, qasB, qa5d, ia alao 
oaed interrogatiTely, aa an adjective (172).] 

(9.) daianftm, qaen&m, qaidnftm, ia more emphatic than qaii. 
(Pray, wh(xt are yoa doing T qaidnftm igis ?) It ia declined Uke 
qnla, qa», qald. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PRONOUNS, INDEFINITE AND CORRELATIVE. 257 
5. INDEFINITE PKONOUNS. 

(639.) The indefinite pronouns denote an object in a general way, witb- 
cmt reference to a particular individual {any one, tome one, &c.). 

. , ^ . , „ , ^ ( qnoddfim, used as an adjecHve, ) 

(1.) a».d»m, qu«d«m, \ q„id j^ „ed M a nZ, i" '^ 

tain (one) ; plnr., some. Declined like qui ; but takes n generally 
before d instead of m ; e. ff., 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 6. VERBS. 

(641.) Thi mtI 4mskr9B fooMtiifag of A penon or dung: tb6 ea^ 
Himi tht fOMQ idMi Imt daaghttr. 

1. CLUIKI or TXRB8. 

(642.) Yerbt tre oe^n^e^ poMtve^ or deponent, 
(1.) Active verbf expreii adion : (a) ei&er trantUiotLy, retjalring an 
object ; e. g., the qaeen ^ovet {whom 7) her daxighter ; or (^) intrai^ 
ntivdyt ^^ reqairiag an object ; the eagle ./Ke*. 
(S.) Pa$9fve rerbf express tiie fvoemn^ or tmffering ef an iustion ; 
lamloted; T W€U pumthed. 
Obviously vdnnuiHve veibs have no passive inrm. We cannot 
say, / am danced, I am slepi. 
(3.) Deponent verbs have the passive fbrm, bat an a s ft 'ae itg^iicatiop. 

2. PARTS OF THE VERB. 

(643.) The verb Is divided into^ 
{a) The ind^niU verb^ including certain parts which do not refer to 

a defimte person or time. 
{b) The finite verb^ inclnding the parts which always do so refer. 

Indefinite Verb. 
(644.) (tf) l%e iiul^mfe rerb indodeS) 
(1.) The infiimtkfe, which expresses the aetien of tiie veA wifiioat 

relation to a defimte person, and partakes also of the nature of a 

noon ; e, g,, to lemm ; to love m pleasant. 
(2.) The parHcipU, which expresses the action of the verb nnder the 

fimn of an a4jective ; loving, blooming. 
(3.) The gerund, which expresses the action of the verb under the 

fimn of the nonn, in all cases bat the nominative, and supplies ob- 
lique cases to the infinitive. 
(4.) The gerundive, which ex pi ^e ss es tlM aotioB of the yerb as neces- 

Sfory or eoN^HMM^ undef the form of an a^^eetive^ in aft oaaes and 

gttidenk 
(5.) The supine, which also expresses the action of the vtA in tha 

finrm of two cases (ace. and abl.) of the noun. 

Fimte Verb. 
(645.) (6) Hhe finite verb includes those parts' wHch express the 
(1.) Different varieties of affirmation, viz., the mooits. 
(2.) Different times at which the action of the rerb takes pTace^ viv., 

tiie tenses. 
(3.) Different relations of the verb to persons <3ft things, tli., the nuM" 
hers and persons. 



Digitized by 



Google 



fA&TS or TBS rilflTB VllB. %5Q 

(1.) Th§ Mooi9. 

(046.) Tbe¥eib«spraBi6i4^lrfMrtM>fft; tbeMOMiief fli*ir«A aMmed 
to Ttrjr file character of &e alBrmatlon. 

(1.) By the indicative, affirmatioii of Kfaet is expreaatd ; «. g^ IwrOe, 

I did not write. 
(3.) By tb« <i«^fi£<iM^ affiimatkm ia expreaaed donA^mOf, cemtii^ 
gently, or ind^nitely; €,$.,! may write, UlBh^mld write, periu^ 
aome {may) think. 
(3.) By die imperative, afflnnation ia ezpieaaed aa an ir^netion or 
fTi^Met^ ; e> |^-> tmte:. 

(2.) The Tenses. 

(047.) Time may be paat» preaent, or fdtnre, az^ the verb haa tiierelbre 
three texuies to expreaa theae. But action may be repreaented aa going 
tm or SM completed, eWier in paat, preaeot^ or fiitiire time, and therefore 
two forma are required for each, making ns in alL 



/ lot^, or am 

loving. 
Ihavelovet 

(Perffect.) 



/ shall love, or be loving. 

(Future.) 
I shall have loved. {Wu- 

tore Perfect) 



Action going on, 
or imperfect. 

iction completed, 
at perfect. 



I was loving. 

(Xmpeiiect.) 

/ Juia loved. 

(Pluperfect.) 



Eem. 1. The Latin usea its perfect form in two ways : (1) like the 
English perfect^ to express action complete in present time ; e. g., 
imftvl, I have loved: (2) like the English imperfect, to express ac> 
tion indeinitely in past time ; e. g., taoHn, I loved. This is called 
the perfect aorist. [The latter use is by far the most common. 
This distinction should be thoroughly miderstood.] 

8. The siU^jv/netive mood haa no futore (it «ses the peripfarastio 
fonn 661). 

3. The preaent, perfSect^ and fixture are called primary teases, refer- 
jmg, aa they do, eititer to p r ea ent or fiiture time ; the is:q>erfect, 
perfect aorist, and pluperfect are called historical tenses, referring, 
aa they do, to past time. 

(3.) Numbers and Persons, 

(648.) As there may be more than one person engaged hi an action, the 
rerb haa two numbers, singular and pluraL These persons must be either 
T, thou, we, ye, or some other person or thing ; therefore the verb haa 
three persons, Itit, Sd, and 3d, which are denoted in Latin by different 
endings.. 

3. CONJUOATION. 

(S49.) CoBiiugatiien is the in^flediim (21, &.) of a yezb tiiraogh all ite 
parts. There are in LnJtnafour coi^agaticms of yeibs, distin g uished by the 
ending eft^m&utiTe; ttoat 

u % 9. ^ 

-tr*. 4r«. -*r«. 4r«. 



Digitized by 



Google 



260 



FAMLADlfiU OF E S 8 E, TO BE. 



4. TBS AWOLUXT OK IVBfTijrTrrX TXBB xssI, to be. 

(650.) [B«&re moeeding to the ccM gu gBtiooB, we mnst gire the fixms 
of eifld, to he, called an auxiliary, because it is used in fimning^ some oC 
tbe parts of the verb ; and tubUantive, because it is the verb expressing^ 
simple eadstence.] 



1. IKDICATITE. 



▲CnON UfCOWfXMXK. 



8ingal«r. 



Present 
Imperil 
Future. 



sfinit 
lam, 

IW€U. 

6rd, 
I shall be. 



68, 

tkouari, 

tiumwasL 
6riM, 



heu. 
«nt, 

he vat. 

grit, 

he,^c. 



sihniis, 
wecare. 

Srfmus, 
vte toere* 

Siimas, 



estib, 

ye art. 
irtHs, 

SrMs, 



sunt, 

they are. 
eran^ 

Srun^ 



▲CnON COBKPLXTKD. 



Siiyular. 



Pexfect. 
PlaperC 
PutPerf. 



m, 

I have 

been. 
fuSrfim, 

/ had 

been. 
fu6rd, 

/ thaU 

have been. 



foisti, 
thouhast 
been. 
ftiSras, 
thou 
had8t,SfC. 
fhSrls, 
thou 



hehat 
been. 
ftiSrlt, 
hehad 
been. 
fuerit» 
IheshaO, 



shaltt 4*g'l 4'g' 



fu&nus, Ifms^, 
foehiwe I vehave 
been. been. 

fuSiAmiis, nuSratls, 
toe A^Mi I ye had 
been. t been. 

fuSrimus, IfliMtib, 
we shall, ye shall, 
4'C. 1 4*g- 



f&Snmt, 

theyhave 

been. 
itieran^ 

theyhad 

been. 
fderinty 
theyshaU, 



2. SUBJUNCTIYS. 



XNCOMPI.KTS. 



Sioculftr. 



Present. 
Imper£ 



sii% 

I may be. 
essem, 

J might 

be. 



81S, 

^A^, 4*g* 

essds, 
1kou,Sfe. 



sit, 

essSt, 
A€^4-c. 



simus, 
gssdmus. 



sitib, 

ye.Sre. 
essetis, 

Sf«, 4-g- 



sint, 

iheytSf'C. 
esBcnt, 

ihey,Sre. 



couplStxd. 



Siiyihrr' 



Perfect. 
Plnperf. 



fuSiim, 
I may 
have been. 

fuissfim, 
/ might 
have been. 



meris, 
tihou,S^e. 

ftiisses, 
thoUtSrc. 



mAt, 

he,^e. 

fuissSt, 
hi,8re. 



fuSilmus, 
we, iS^e. 

fuissSmus, 
we, 4*c- 



fuSritis, 
ye, Src. 

fuissdtifs, 
ye, Src. 



ftiSrint, 
ih4iy, 8^0. 

ftiissent, 
they,^t. 



3. UfPEBATIVS. 



Singular. 



2. Ss, estd, be ihou. 

3. estd, let him be. 



2. estS, estOtS, be ye. 

3. Bontd, lest them be. 



4. INFINITIVE. 



BssS, to be. fbissS, to have been, futfiriis, X, um, esse, to be about to be. 



5. PARTICIPLE. 



^ Present 

Onhr in compoonds ; absens, absent 
(from absom) ; pnesens, present 
(fromprcBPm). 



FutorOs, ft, Qm, one who will be. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PARADIGMS OF REGULAR VERBS. 261 

5. PARADIGMS or RXOULAR VERBS. 

(651.) (1.) Verlhstem.— The stem of any verb is found by striking off 
Hie infinitive-endiDg ; e. g., of ftm-firS, xn6n-«rS, rSg-SrS, and aud-irS the 
Btema are ftm-, m5n-, rSg-, and-, respectively.* 

(2.) Tense-8te7n,—Baxih tense has its own tense-stem, consisting of the 
Terb-stezn with or withont some additions. Thns, in the first coxgngation : 
Pres, tense-stem = verb-stem = am-. 
iTvperf, tense-stem = veii>-stem +ab = amab-. 
Perf. tense-stem = verb-stem +av == amav*. 

[In the annexed paradigms the tense-stems are shown npon the left- 
band side. Observe that the perfect tense-stem serves also tor the stem 
of 'tiie plaperfect and fhtore perfect tenses.] 

(3.) Tense^ndmg. — ^Bach tense has its own endings, which, added to 
the tense-stem, give the person-forms. Thns : 

Imperfect-stem im&b- -Hm= amab am, 1st person. 

amab- +&s = am abas, 2d person,t &c. 
(4.) The perfect, pluperfect, and fatnre perfect of the passive voice are 
fonned by means of the past participle and forms of es sS ; thns : 
ftm&tuB snm, ftmattLs eram, &matus Sro. 

[No fartber explanation of the paradigm is necessary. The student 
should learn the modes of formation, and the tense-endings for each tense, 
apart from the stems am-, mon-, &c., and unite them afterward wiA those 
or any other stems.] 

* In resdity, tiie crade-forms are ama-, mone-, andi- (the three pure 
conjugations), and rSg- (the consonant conjugation). But the changes df 
die mide-form in inflection fonn too great a difficulty for beginners ; we 
therefore present the stem as the language affi)rds it to us, without going 
into a nicer analysis. 

t Farther, the person-ending forms part of the tense-ending. From the 
paradigm (active), it will be seen that in every tense except the i>erfect 
the endings are 

o, or m, s, t, mus, tis, nt. 

These endings are added to the tense-stem, either durectly, as am-o, or by 
means of a connecting-vowel, as reg-i-s, or of a fleuon syllable and con- 
necting-vowel, as amav-er-a-s. 



Digitized by 



Google 



363 PAEADIOlfB FOm THB FOUK OOHJUOATIONS. 
FA&ADiem FOK 



ACTIVE. 



(658.) 



IVDICATIYS MOOD. 



PaBtBR, Ilgmmr mm ImriH^, tk^m mt hndi^ ^ 



mdn- 



6. 



U, 



it 

ft. 
It 



imOf. 



imi&s. 



fttib. 

iHi. 
Itif. 



ast. 
ent. 
unt. 
itmt 



Ikpxbfxot, Jwa§ loving, o^ivuiii^, nfj«>v, hearing, i/c 



ftm-&b- 
mdn-^b- 

aad-idb- 



»«m. 



it 



fttib. 



FTmB, JaUtt mr taiU lov$, adn$$, ruU, k&ar, i/c 



ftm4b- 
mdn-^b- 
r6g- 
aod-l. 



hfim. 






It 
St 



bnflB. 
emiSa. 



Ttb. 



«nt 
ent 



PBBVBGTf/iWNMfovMi. (PsanBCT AomxiT, 1 2oM^) 



rex- 
and-iv- 



iifi. 



Imili. 



iatiEa. 



€nint or 
art. 



PLtnramFxoT, Ihad loved, tfc 



ftm-ftv- 
moD-tt- 
rex- 
aad-lT- 



» Mbn. 



arftt 



«rit. 



irfeiAi. 



iittib. 



im-av- 
mdn-ii- 
rex- 
and-iY- 



FuTUma Pxarxcr, IthM haoe loved, ^ 



M. 



«xli. 



Mt 



^AoAb. 



«lftX8. 



drint 



(653.) 



IMPERATIVB MOOD. 



9d Brnpilar. 



8d 8in(pilar« 



3d PlanL 



r«g- 
aod- 



a,fttd. 
6, ltd. 



§td. 


ate, atdte. 


«tA. 


etd, etfttd. 


It«. 


itfi, itfite. 


itfl. 


ftfi, It6t6. 



antd. 
entd. 
untd. 
iimtd. 



Digitized by 



Google 



FAitAAiqH^ FOR THQ FOUR CONJUOATIONQ. S68 



THE TOVK COirJITGATIONS. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



PiasgNT, lam lottd, ifc 



aud- 



6r. 
Sdr. 
dr. 
i6r. 



jftris. 
>§r6. 

►6r«. 
[Ms. 



atur. 


amur. 


etur. 


dmur. 


ftur. 


Im&r. 


itur. 


imOr. 



flmtnT- 
ft mifnT- 

imsni. 



ftntur. 
entnr. 
nntCbr. 
iimtiir. 



Ikpkbfxct, Iwa§ loved, 4c. 



mdn-db- 

r6g-fib- 

aad-ieb- 



(aiiB. 



itOr. 



>.mifnf. 



antOr. 



FuTumx, Ishdttbehved, ifC 



ain-§b- 
mdn-db- 

aad-^ 



► or. 

!ar. 



firia. 
«rg. 



itfir. 
etiir. 



imtir. 
dmiir. 



Xmlid. 
6wSxiSL 



nBliir. 
entnr. 



Pektxct, JAom (ms loved; 4«. 



Smattls.* 
mdnitas* 
recttts.* 
andituB. 



or 
ioiatL 



fmt 



aumds, 

<>r 
folmiia. 



estiCa, 

or 

fiiiatib. 



annt^ 



PLXTPXsncT, JAod freen fovoi, ^e. 



ftmatOs. 
xndnittta.* 
rectSa.* 
aaditfis.* 



<■ SrSziLt 



Srfia. 



Sr&t 



fir&mtUi. 



eratite. 



erant 



FvTwa PsBTSCT, i tkatt have been loved, 4c 



ttmattts. 
mdnitda.* 
reetda.* 
andittta.^ 



«r04 



«llB. 



firlt 



Srimiia. 



diiOa. 



IMPXRATITB MOOD. 



ennit* 



8d Singular. 



3d Singalar. | 



3d PlaraL 



ftm- 
mttn- 

and- 



&rd, atdr. 
6r6, etdr. 
6rfi,a:6r. 
ir6, itdr. 



at6r. 
etdr. 
itdr. 
it6r. 



finubl, imXndr. 
dmin^ dm&idr. 

rniYp f , unindr. 



antor. 
entdr. 
UDtdr. 
iimtdr. 



* The participle mnat be inflected in gender and munber to a^pfee with 
tbe anbject 
t Somatjaaeg fneraBL^fqeraa, Ico. 
t Som^twmea faero, f&ena, ftc 



Digitized by 



Google 



864 rAKADiom for ths fouk conjdoationb. 



(654.) 



8UBJUNCTIYX MOOD. 



P>«8Kirr, I may love, ifC 



m5n-e> 
aod-i- 



^Im. 



it 



€mOf. 



etls. 
itii. 



fint. 
•nt. 



iMPKmracT, I might looe, t/e. 



&m-ir- 
mdn-dr- 

aad-ir- 



» Sm. 



«t 



ftnif. 



etifl. 



ent 



Pkefkct, Jmay A<w>e toge<i, ^^^ 



Sm-lT- 
mon-ii- 
rdz- 
and-hr- 



* %Aoi, 



«iif. 



drit 



Siimfti. 



«ritita. 



firint 



pLtrPMtFacT, J»t^*< JUww toge<i, ^ 



ftmlT- 

rex- 
and-Ir- 



' Iu£m. 



ISSfiB. 



18f«t 



isa€tito. 



iMent 



(655.) 



INFINITITE. 



Pb«8«wt [to tope or >e fewwy, ^c-]' 



im-lrS, 



m5ii-6r6, 



3. 



and-irS. 



PgRFgcT [to A<w>e toped; ^]. 



Smtv-iud, 



m5nu-lM6, 



8. 

rez-iisS, 



4. 

aodiV-Ii8& 



FuTUBX [CO he about to love, 4c]. 



1. 8. 3. 4. 

SmitdrOB essS, mfioItArfis ess6, rectOrik essd, andlMriifl essfi. 



(656.) 



PARTICIPLES. 



PMi8«NT [top<»y, a<feifwy, nttey, AeaH^^]. 



Sm-Anfl, 



s. 
mon-ens, 



s. 
rSg-Sns, 



4. 

aad-26iui. 



Pkbtkct [Aaoiny toge<i, advieed, ruled, heard]. 



Wanting ; iropplied by abL abgoL, or by qnpm with sabj. 



FuTUBg [about to love, adviee, rule, hear]. 



imatdrtti. 



s. 
xnSnXtflrfis, 



reotttrfis, 



4. 

anditOrSs. 



(g57.) 



OBRUITD AND 



QERUWDfl ; faalindi, manendi, 



3. 4. 

regendl, audiendl. 



(658.) 



SvPiNiinvm: im&tum, 
*' n: imattl» 



monltdnif 
moitftu, 



8.^ 

rectunif 
recto, 



andftfim. 
anditO. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PARADIGMS FOK THB FOUS CONJUGATIONS. 265 



PASSIVE. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



PBBSgNT, I may be loved, Sfc 



mon-e- 



6r. 



j eris. 
j firis. 



etur. 
fttur. 



6mdr. 
Amor. 



6minL 
flTniinT. 



SntJir. 
flnttir. 



iMPEBFgCT, Imiglu he Iffoedf fye. 



fim-ftr- 
mdn-er- 
r6g-6r. 
audlr- 



'6r. 



jerifs. 
t6r6. 



€tfir. 



6mixri 



emini. 



totiir. 



PgRFKOT, Imojf have been laved, ifc 



Sm&tiis. 
monitns. 
rectos, 
audltiia. 



aim.* 



81S. 



Bit. 



lizxnu. 



Bitls. 



•int. 



PLUPaaygcT, Imig'ht have been loved, JfC 



<m§tus. 
mdnltds. 
recttls. 
auditQs. 



> essdixLt 



essds. 



es86t 



essemus. 



efsGtlB. 



eisent. 



INFINITIVE. 



Pbbsbnt [to be (J>emg) loved, ifc]. 



Sm-iri, 



8. 



P6g-i, 



aad-iri. 



Perfeot [to have been loved, ^]. 



fimfltds ,ess6^ xndnltiia essfi, rectus ess8, andit^ essS. 



FuTPBB [to fee aftottf to &g toped, ^]. 



Smftfciimiii, 



mfinltOm fri, 



3. 

rectilmiri, 



aadltOmlri. 



participles. 



Pbbsent and PBBygQT [tope<^ beingr loved, hcaing been loved, ^]. 

1. 9. 3. 4. 

Smatfig, mOnftfts, rectflg, andMs. 



GERUNDIVE. 



!• 8- *• «^ a^ 

qERUNDiVEt imandils, mOnendilg, rCgendttg, anfflCndttg. 



* Sometimei fiierixn. 



f Sometimes ftiissem. 



Digitized by 



Google 



206 



VEKB8 IN lO AND DEPONENTS. 



6. YXRBS IN id or THE THIRD CONJUOATIOIT. 

(659.) Some verbf of the third coiyiigation assume ! before the person- 
ending in some of the tenses, as shown in the following paradigm of c&p* 



INDICATIVE. 



Pres. 

Imperf 

Put. 



cip- 

c«p-Mb- 

cap-i- 



16. 

ftm. 
Sm. 



imds. 
amds. 
dmils. 



itis. 
fttis. 

etis. 



i-Ant. 

ant. 

ent 



SUBJUNCnVI. 



Pres. I cap-I- 1 im. 



I ftt I ftrnQs. I atis. I ant. 



INDICATIVE. 



Pres. 
Imperf 


c4p- 

c«p-!-€b- 

c«p-i- 


i^r. 

It. 

«r. 


«ris. 
Sris. 
eris. 


itOr. 
fitdr. 
etar. 


Imiir. 
amiir. 
Smflr. 


AmTni. 

gmini. 


I-nntor. 

ftntur. 

entor. 



aUB/UNCTIVE. 



Pres. I cap-I- I ftr. | aria. | &tur. \ amur. j amini. | antOr. 



IXPEBATIVE. 



3d Plar. Active, cftp-T-nntJ^. 



3d Pltir. Pass., cftp-I-antCr. 



PAETICIFLES. 



Pres. Active, cftp-i-ens. 



Fat. Pass., cip-i-endas. 



QlRUND, c&p-i-€nd-i, 6, &c. 



7. DEPONENT VERBS. 

(660.) (1.) Deponent verbs have the passive form with active significa- 
tion. Am the endings are the same as those of the passives (Paradigm, 
p. 263, 5S65), we need not repeat them. 

(3.) Bat deponents have three active participles, while other verbs have 
hut two: thus, 

Pres., exkortingf Perf., having exhorted, Fut, about to exhort, 
hort-ans. * hort-ftt&s. hortftt-firus. 

(3.) Also, all transitive deponents have the verbal a4jective in d a s ; 
e* g; hortandus, one that should be exhorted: intransitive deponents 
have it only in the neuter; e. g., morienddm est, one must die. 

8. PERIPHRASTIC CONJUGATION. 

(661.) Bj means of the tenses of ess S, combined with the future parti- 
ciple in r u s, and the verbal in du s, the periphrastic c(»^ugation is form- 
ed; e.g.f imatArds sum, lam abottt to love, I intend to love j ftman- 
dtts stLm,Jamto be loved, I must be loved, one must love me ; and so 
through all the tenses and persons. The deponent verbs employ diis per- 
iphrastic ootgugation also. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Formation of peefect-stem. 



267 



1. WITH PARTICIPLE IN rilg. 



INDICATIVE. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



im&tards, 



fstm, 6b, est, &xi. 

6rim, Srfts, &c. 

fai, faisti, &c. 

faer&m, fiiSrAs, &c. 
\^6t6, 6ris, &c. 



fBun, sis, sit, &c. 
Smatdrds, J essdm, essds, &c 

i^foissSm. 



INFINITIVE. 



Pres., imatdras essd, to be about (or intending^) to love, 
Fext, ftmAtariis fiiissS, to have been about to love. 
Tut, imaturns f6r6, to intend to love kerw^Jer, 



2. WITH VERBAL IN dill. 



INDICATTVB. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



(Slim. 
Srftm. 
fai 
fadrftm. 
6rd. 



&mandils, «, urn, if^l^^ 
l^foissdm. 



iNriNmvs. 



Pres., Smandtls, ft, tLm, ess6, ought to be loved. 
Perf., imandtis, H, am, imss6, ought to htwe been loved. 
Fnt, imandiis, &, ttm, forC, ought to be loved hereafter. 



9. ON THE FORMATION OF THE PERFECT-STEM. 

(662.) In the paradigms, the perfect-stems are formed by adding to the 
verb-stem in the 1st conj. &y- (Sm-av-); in the Sd, ii (m5n-ii-) ; in the 3d, 
• (reg-s); in the 4th, It- (and-iv-). Bat, altboagfa most Latin verbs 
fbnn die per£-stem thas, many use different endings, which are exhibited 
in the following classification: 

I. FIRST CONJUGATION. 

(663.) Foot ways of forming the perfect-stem : 

L By adding &v to the verb-stem : ftm-§r6— fim-tv-L 

n. " ft " cr6p-ar6— cr6p-ft-L 

in. By redaplicating the first consonant : d-ttr6 — dSd-L 
rV. By lengthening the stem-vowel: jftv-firS— jflv-L 



n. SECOND CONJUGATION. 



Five ways : 
L By adding u to the verb-stem : 
n. " 6v 

m. ^ " s 

rV. By reduplication : 
V. By lengtiiening the stem-vowel : 



m6n-dr6 — ^ni5n-ft-I« 
dSl-er«— del-6v-i. 
alg-€»— al(g).s-L 

morderd — ^md-mord-L 
cSv-6rd — C4V-L 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



rOEMATIOV OF PBftPBCTHITBl^ 

IIL THIBD COHJUOATIOir. 

Biz wayi: 

L By addBngitotfaeTeiiHrtem: ■crib- Btg Milp ■ I . 
n. " XI «• 81-ei«— il-tt-L 

UL " vori7 " c^rn-*!*— «*v-L 

IV. By reiopUsatioD : cnrr-^rt— ctt-corr-I. 

y. Sy leogtlieidag the stem-^ewel : ftm-^ rH i imi 

▼L By ivesentiDg the simple veib-ftem : ica-Crft— ieu-i. 

ly. rOURTB COHJVOATIOir. 

Wt6 wtyi: 

L By adding iv to tlie jfxb-ftem : aad-ir6, and-ir-L 

IL " « " ip^'OH, l^r-ft-t 

m. *♦ a " falclrt, fU(c)-fl-L 

rV. By lengUiening tiie atem-vowel : vfin-lrd, ven-L 

V. By presenting the simple Teiinitem t oomi>dr-ur6, oamp&r-h, 

[In the foDowing lists, the verbs are arranged aooording to the abore 
dassifcyatiwi, and the sapines also eiTen. When any peoiliarity exists 
fn the ecwqMBBds, it is stated. Of Class L (which embraces most of the 
roles in the language), ODtv one example is giyen in each oonjueation, as 
the student is famiuar with its form ; Dat under ^ remaining beads a^ 
^e verbs in wwnmnn «se are mentioiied.] 

10. LIST OF VEBSa 

(664.) yiRST CONJUGATIOH. 

L Petfectstem adds trtothe Verlhttem, 
Toiptf^ im-4r |bn-are, &n-&v-^ |£mrA-tJiiEu 

n. /W/baNtoii addi ttotke Verb-tkm. 
Screak, cr6p-e, erSp-arS, crSp-^ cr6p-l*tiiB. 

Lie down, cftb-o, cfib-ar6, ettb-il-I, ctb-I44m. 

go the compoonds; ^ ^., accdbtf, accCLbarS, aodibai, acciiblt&n. 
Some compoonds, however, which take m before b, follow tlie 3d 
oo^j. ; e, g., accombd, aoooinbCiiB, acottbol, accttlnftfim. 
TotamCt ddm-o, d6m-ard, ddm-fi-i; d5m-T-tflm. 

Torvi. ftfc* &Mn, m^.% \^^^^ 

To gutter, nic-o, m!c-lr6, m!c-tt-L 

Toguthforih, tadc-o, 6mlc-ar8, fimic-ti-v findo-ft-tdin. 

Tofdd, pHc-o, plic-flr6, plic-fi-I, pUc-I-tOm. 

PBc-d is osed only in composition: sopplibd, dnj^feft, molttplXc^ have 
ftvl, itfim; exi^d, to explain, ivl, atum; to ui^old, i&, ftdm. 

To cut, s6c-o, s6c-ftre, s6c-fi-I, sec-t-Uxn. 

To sounds son-o^ s5n-ar6, sdn-o-I, 85n-I-tfim. 

To thunder, tdn^, ton-Ar6, t6n-fi-i, tdn-i-tOm. 

Tofarbid, vfitH), v6t-«r8, vfit-fi-i, vfit-T^iim. 

Digitized by dOOQ IC 



LIdt of Vt:ftfia» ftCOOIID OOKIUQATIOlf • 



UL Petfectsteni yedvplicates thejint Contonant with e. 
To give, d-o, d-ftrd, ddd-I, dS-tiim. 

So, also, tbofe oompoandi o£ whicli the first part is a word of two iji* 
labki ; e.ff^ circomdd, circ!imdir6> droomd^di, eirciimditam, to tui^ 
round ; but the ootaponnda with monoeyllablet follow the 3d ooq|. } 
e. g,, addd> adddrd, ad^idi, additOm, to add. 
To stoMd, Bto, st-&r6, stdt-i, st-ft-tiim. 

The tiompoimda have in the perfect ■ td ti when tfae first part is « 
dwtyUabU; e» g., circomstd, circomstdtl ; hat stiti when it if a 
monosyUaUe ; e. g., adstd, adstili. 



TooMiiti, 
To wash, 

(665.) 



rv. Perfece-ttem lengthens the Stem^owel. 
j4v-o, jiit-ar6, j4v-i, ju-tOm. 

i ISri-tiinL 
Iftv-o, lftt-te«, Iftv-i, . < Un-tttxn. 

(lA-tiSm. 



ilteONI) COVJUGATtOV. 

L Petfeot-stem adds iSitothe Verb-stem. 
To admonish, mte-eo^ In5n-€r6, mSn-ii-i, mOn-T-tSm. 

IL Perfeet-sUm. adds %rtoihe Verlhstem, 



To blot out, 


m-eo. 


d§l-gr6, 


d6l-€T-I. 


dSl-d-tiim. 


To weep, 


fi-eo, 


fi-€r6, 


fi-ev-i, 


fi^-tftm. 


To spin, 


n-eo, 


n-€r6, 


n-€v-i. 


n-S-tiUn. 


TofUup, 


compl-eov 


oompl-§rd» 


oompl-€y-i, 


compl-^tiim. 


ToaboUsh, 


&b51-eo, 


4b61-€r6, 


ftbdl-Svi, 


&bdl-i-t&n. 



The primitiTes 51eo and pleo are obsolete: like compI^O vxt con- 
jugated impleo, expleo ; like aboleo, addeo, and eexdi^o, 

UL Perfed-stem adds Bio the Vet^steth, 

Euphonic RuUs. 

1. At^ioiOkdbeforesif dfOpped; e.^^ar(d)-8iaB an-L 
3. AeHNniiid4-a = x; t.g., aiig*aia= anx-i. 
3. Bat a c-soond after 1 er r, befinre u, if droppedf e*gu fal{g)'tla 
fala^i 



To 



skiver \ , ,. 



«%•«», 



to hMt, afd-do» 


U^t4ft%, 


To increase, aag-eo, 


aag-erfi, 


Tobebright, ta^-to, 


ib]g.er«, 




Z2 



5 al-i-i 

I (alg-s-i). 

iar-si 
(ard-s-i). 
< aux-I 
I <augw^!). 
€ fol-s-i 
X (ftOg-s-i). 



>aac-tjiin. 



Digitized by 



Google 



270 



LIST OF VERB8| SECOND CONJUGATION. 



To sHck, hsr-eo, 

To indulge, indvUg-to, 

To command, jub-eo, 

To remaint mXn-eo, 



Toiutuage, 

TomWc, 
To laugh, 
Toadvite, 

Tounpe, 

To nodi, 

Totwitt, 

To press, 
To shine, 
Tomou/m, 



mnlc-eo, 

nralg-eo, 

ifd-eo, 

snftd-eo, 

terg-eo^ 

torg-eo, 

tor<]xi-60| 

urg-eo, 
lac-eo, 
teg-eo, 



indnlg-drfi, 

m&n-drfi, 
mnlc-drd, 

xiiQlg>4r6f 

rid-dre, 

saad-6r6. 



\ (hacr-s-i). 



iindol-s-I > 
(indulg-g-i), 5 



indol-tSm. 



indol-s-I 
(indalg-s-i] 
jiifl-ff-i(jalHi-I), jas-Biim. 
man-ff-i, man-siim. 

mol-fl-I 
(mnlc-B-i), 
inal-8-i 
(mulg-€.i), 
rl-fl-i (rid-8-i), zf-Bnm. 



inol-siiin. 



taig-6r6, 

iirg-€r6, 
lac-dr6, 
lag-ei«, 



\ (soad-ff-i), 
< ter-s-I 
I (terg-a-1), 
( tar-s-i 
I (targ-a-i). 

tor-s-i 

(torqa-fl-l), 

ur-«-i (urg-s-i). 

lux-i (Iflc-B-!). 

hix-i (Ing-B-i). 



>sii&-iilin. 



ter-siiiiL 



\ tor-s-i 7 

I (torqa-B-l), 5 



tor-tOm. 



rV. FerfedrtUim, reduplicates fint ComonarU and Vowel, 

To bite, mord-eo, mard-&6, mtoiord-i, znoMriim. 

To hang, peiM-fio, pend-€r3, p6pend-I, pen-stun. 

To betroth, spond-edv spond-€r6, sp5pond-l, spon-snm. 

To shear, tond-eo, tond-Srd, tdtond-i, ton-s&n. 

The compounds of these verbs drop the reduplication ; e. g-, re-spondl 
(not re-spopondl). 

V. Perfect-stem lengthens the 8temrVov>eL 

cfty-«r6, 

far.€r6, 

fbT-€r6, 

m6v-€r6, 

pftv-er6, 

sM-«r6, 

In the same manner are conjugated the compounds with dissyllables ; 
e. g., circumsfideo, circumsfidfirfi, circums6di» drcumsessdm, to sit 
around ; but those with monosyllables change 6 of the stem into I; 
e. g., assideo, assiderS, assSdi, assessiim, to sit b^. 

To see, Tid-eo, Tid-fir6, vid-I, Ti-sfim. 

To vow, vOy-eo^ y^Y-it^, v6v-i, yO-tfim. 



To take care. 


c5y-eo, 


Tofavour, 


fftv-eo. 


To cherish. 


ftv-eo, 


To move, 


m6v-eo, 


To dread. 


pfty-eo, 


To sit. 


sSd-eo, 



c&v-i, 


cau-tiim* 


fty-I, 


fau-tiSm. 


foy-i. 


{5-tdm. 


m6y-i, 


mo-tfim. 


p§v-i. 




sed-I, 


ses-s&n. 



Digitized by 



Google 



LIST OF VEEBS, THIBD CONJUGATION. 



271 



566.) THIRD CONJUGATION. 

L Perfeet-Uem adds a to ike Verb-stem, 
Euphonic Rules, 
t, h before s = p ; eg., icrib-sl = scrip-ffu 

2. (WKxmd +8=x ; e. ^^ ciQg-€i=ciiix^L 

[c» g, h, qn, are regarded as c-soonds.] 

3. t-soond (d or t) before s is dropped ; e. g., claad-s-i=: claos-I. 

«. m bf^ore s is either changed into b» or p is interposed (prem-s-is: 
•pre^^t; oom-8-i=:comp-s-I). 



Towritt, 

To bind, 
To carry ^ 
To cook, 

To shut. 



BCiib-o, 

cing-o, 
v€h-o, 
c6qu-o, 



sciib-€re, 

cing-drd, 
v6h-6r6, 
c5qa-6r6, 



C scrip-s-i 



dand-o^ cland-SrS, 



(scrib-s-i), 5»«^P-««»- 
cinzl (cing-s-I), cinc-tum. 
vexl (vch-s-i), vec-tflm. 
ooxl (coqa-s-I), coc-tum. 

w 1 J -\ Jclau-siSm. 
( (claad-s-i), 5 



An in the compounds is changed into A ; e.g., inclAdo, inclOddrS, in- 
dflsl, indusiim, to shut in. 
To give way, cSd-o, cdd-drd, cessi (ced-s-f), ces-s&n. 

To scatter, sparg-o^ sparg-drS, J par-"- Sspar-siSm. 

In the compounds a is changed into e; eg., aspergo, aspergdrb, 
asper-s-i, aspersom, to besprinkle. 
To adorn, cdm-o, cdm-drS, com-ps-i, com-p-tOm. 

To press, pr6m-o^ prSm-Sre, 



l^"^"' ., Jpres-sto. 
i (prem-s-i), > *^ 



In the componnds 6 is changed into i ; eg., comprimo, compximfiri^ 
compress^ compressOm, to press together. 
To carry, g6r-o, g6r-6r6, gess-I (g6r-s-I), ges-ttlm. 

n. Petfeet-stem adAs u to the Verb-stem, 
(a) Withoat change of Verb-stem. 



Tonowrith, 


ffl^ 


11^, 


ti-n-f, 


ii-r-tiim. 


Totm, 


c61a 


c6l^r«, 


cOl-u-i, 


cfll-tiim. 


To ask advice, oonsiU-o^ 


consm-6r6, 


consfil-n-i, 


consul-tiim. 


To knead. 


depso. 


deps-€re, 


deps-n-I, 


deps-tfim. 


To murmur. 


frSm-o, 


fr6m-€re, 


. fir6m-n-^ 


frem-I-tum. 


To groan. 


gem-o^ 


g6m-«r6. 


g6m-n-I, 


gSm-i-tfim. 


To grind, 


m6l-o^ 


m6l-€r€, 


mdl-u-I, 


mdl-I-ttlm. 


To conceal, 


ocdil-o, 


oocdl-SrS, 


occfil-n-i. 


occul-tiim. 


To grind. 


pins-Oi 


pin8-«r«. 


pins-a-I, 


pins-i-tum. 


To snatch, 


rtlp-io, 


rt^-firi, 


rtp-u-I, 


rap-ttUn* 


To join to- 
getker, 


1 sfir-o, 


•fSr-Bt^, 


i«Ml.!, 


ser-tfim. 



Digitized by 



Google 



273 udT OF TKiBs, TBntu eonsvGATSon. 



To weave. 


tex-o, 


UfX-fM, tex-^-J, 


tez-t&n. 


TotrembU, 


trfmo, 


trtm^rS, trim^-L 




To vomit, 


vdm-o^ 


(»> wail dupq;e of TertKrtera. 


▼6m-X-tJiin. 


To beget. 


gigiw), 


gign-«if , g«ii-n-i. 


gfo-I^&ti. 


To reap. 


vato. 


Bi6t«ri, mess-m-I, 


mes-fftm. 


To place. 


p*n-o. 


pto-€r6, pAi-u i. 


pdft-i-tdm. 



[For ooiqxyuids of cnmbSrt, lee 664, IL] 

•nL Perfeet-ttem adds r or Iy to the Verh-stem. 
(c) Adds T, aad leagtiieBt Sfiem-Towel if ahort 

^*"^P?^^ J cenwv ceni-€r6, crft-v-I, crft-tum. 

perceive, j 

The perfect and rapine of cemo are fofond ooly in the compoandB 

e. g^ dftcemo, dteemSrS, decrSvT, dScretfim, to decree. 

To grow, creic-o, cresc-SrC, cr6-T-i, crS-tfim. 

To smear, lin-o, Iln-€r&, Id-y-i, or U-v-i, H-tiim. 

Toibunr, nosc-Or &06c-€r8, nft-v-I, n&-tmn. 

So, abo, the oomponndf inter, ig, per, pr»-no8oo, have 6tI, dtom ; hot 
cog, ag; praecog, reoog-nosco, have 6y!, ItOm f e. g., agndeco, agnoic- 
.firO, agn^yri, agnitfim, to perceive* 
To feed, paac-o^ pasc-SrS, pft-^-I, pas-tfink 

To rest, qoiesC-o, qatesc-^rS, quiS-v-i, qnid-ttim. 

To decide, scisc-o, scisc-erS, acl-y-l, sct-ittim. 

To sow, s6r-o, sSr-^rS, B6-y4, Bi-tam. 

The comfKnmds have the sapin* in itom -, e. g., oaoe^io, qoaaSiMt 
conadyl, consMm, to plant. 
To allow, tXxK), ^-^rS, if-v-I, Ikt^ftm. 

To despise, apem-c), I]>em-Sr6, 8][>r6-y-l^ lpr§4<i]l!i. 

To strew, ateniA ttem-ftr^ ltr*-T-i, strft-tim. 

To become f 
aceuetom- > raeic-o^ raesc-6r<(, sad-v-l, aaft-tdm. 

^ s 

(I) VmtocMtom addl It. 
To<tMr»mo», arcesf-o, aicewiSrS, axYsess-ir-S, arcess-i-tihb. 
In the fame manner, capesio, iSEu:esso, incesso, laceaso. 

To seek, i 
strive of- > p€t^ pSt-SrS, pSt-Iv-T, pSt-i-tttm. 



To seek, qomt-o, qiMBi^rS, qa«i-lT-^ quBS-I-tfinL 

The consponndfl change of the item into f ; e^g., oonqtinv cci^ 
qidriri, oonqniaiv^ oimqaisittev to eatan^ne. 

Digitized by dOOQ IC 



UST OF VEftBS, TOmD CXmilTOATIOir. 379 

IV. Peffitt^itetn reduptktOts ^^Jlrti Coitiomnt6, 

Some of these present Towel-changes, which most be carefolfy obseired. 
.(a) "Wlien the first vcrtrel is i, o^ «, the fiiM; t oaumuB b ii tedaplica^ with 
tiiat vowel ; (b) in other Terbs with e ; {c) the compoondfl of dSre, to give, 
withi 

(a) First V owd i, o^ or tu 
To runt corr-o, carr-cr6, cfi-cnrr-i, car-sii^ 

Most of lihe compounds hare the perfect both With and witihdat thd 
reduplication; eg., accorro, acdnrrSrS, aocnrri and accfictuii, ao- 
cursmn, \o run to. 

Toleafnt disc-o, . 4isc-6r6, dl-dic-L 

Tlie bcnfipoondfl iSso r«daplicate; e. ^^ perdisdi^ fmdl^cS, «» liMhl 

Toweighf pend-o, pend-^r^, p6-pend-t pen-^nm. 

The componnds do not redaplicate ; e. g., appendd, append&rd, ap- 
pencB, ftppensibn, to hang to. 

To demand, posc^ posb^im pb-poBc-i. 

The edJoe^oonds redoplldate ; e. g^, tftposcdrd, rAp^jpidsci, to StmutiM 
back again. 

Tojnickt pnng-Of pmig-fire^ pii-pfig-i, pnnc-tttm. 

Co mpo tindii have pert pmnxL 
To beat, tmid-o, timd-dr8, tfi-tftd-i, tui-siim. 

Compouids have supine tusnm; e. g., contondfird, oontOsiim, to 
crush. 

gi) Other Verbs redi^Bcate with e, 

TbftiO, e&d-o, c8d'6r&, cd-dd^, dft-diiin. 

To cut, C8Bd-o, 0Ad-«r#f eS-oId^, isa-iidm. 

The xotnpoands hav^ oidi, dstlnii e.g*, occldfo^ od^di; ooobijBik, IS^ 

Toting, dtai-o, cSn-Sr6» €d-cln-l, caitlfttiB. 

The compounds have oIdqI ; c^^ ilcitei&Srft, sucdhui, to ting to. 

To cheat, fall-o^ fall-&e, fg-fefl-i, fal-siliii. 

Tobdtgi^ pfing-o, p(tt%i«i«, . ptt-l«fe^ puBhiSfs^ 

The compoonA hihre pingft, pSgi, paotdtti ; eg., cottipin^firS, cttoqpflglr 
coxhpadtfim, to fatten togedt^. 

par-s^im. 
pftr-tOikL 



To tpare, pa«M), 


pa«>€r6, 


pS-perc-I, 


To bring fot0i,i^-io. 


p«r^, 


pS-pfir-i, 


To drifts, p^n^H 


peU*6r*, 


p».p«-i 


TotowX, ttag-o. 


■ ■■H fUVy 


te^-i, 



Digitized by 



Google 



d74 



UST OF VERBS, THIRD CONJUGATION. 



The oo mp o an di hmve tingo, trngfeS, t|gl, 
attigi, BXtmciAm, to reach. 



e. g,, al 





(<) OompcmadMetd*rs,Tpdv^ac^wmi, 




TolUde. 


ab^ 


abd-drt, 


ab^d-i. 


ab^dl-ttim. 


To add. 


ad^ 


■dd-drfi, 


ad-did-I, 


ad-^tAm. 


To lay up, 


oon-do, 


oon-d-«r« 


con-didi, 


con-di-tdiii. 


To believe. 


crd-do» 


crfid-«rfi. 


cr6-dld-l. 


cre-di-t&m. 


Toturrender, 


dd^o, 


dSd-«T«, 


de-dJdi, 


d«-dl-tiim. 


To publish. 


6-do, 


fid^rfi. 


6-dIdI, 


6-dt-tam. 


To put in, 


in-do. 


iiid-«r«. 


in^d-i. 


in-<H-tdm. 


To oppose. 


ob^ 


obd-ex«. 


obHiid-i, 


ob-di-tiim. 


To destroy. 


per-do, 


perd-firt, 


per-dld-i, 


per-^-tttm. 


To betray, 


prt^ 




pio-^d-i, 


pro-dl-tftm. 


To restore. 


red-do, 


redd-€i«, 


red-did-i. 


red-di-tdm. 


To deliver. 


trt-do. 


trad-6rfi, 


tra-didi, 


tra-dX-tiini« 


Tosdl, 


▼en-do, 


vend.€r6, 


ven-did-i, 


▼en-di-tiinL 



V. Perfect-item lengthens the Stem-vowd of the Verb. 
(c) Without Vowel-ehttigea. 



6m-i, 



eiiirtQin. 



<M-I, 


foi-siim. 


08% 


ffig-I-Wm. 


fod-1. 


fu-stim. 


Ug-i. 


lec-t&m. 



To take, Sm-o, Sm-dr§, 

CoD^xrandfl, oodmo, adXmA, eximd. 

To dig, fM-io, f&d-dr^ 

Tojly, fiig-io, ffig-firt. 

To pour, fond-o, fimd-dr^, 

To read, l6g-o, l6g-6rfi, 

The compounds with per, prae, re, and sab retain S ; e. g., peiidg6r6» 
peilSgi, perlectdm, to read through ; bat those with col, de, e, se, 
change 6 into i ; e.g., coUigdrS, collGgi, coUectfim, to coUect : three, 
diUgo, I love; intelligo, / understand; neglSgo, I neglect, have 
exi, ectdm ; e. g,, dUlgdrd, dilexi, dilectam. 

To leave, linqa-o, linqa-Sr^, Hqa-I, 

To burst, rom|>-o, ramp-Srfi, rdp-!. 

To conquer, vinc-o, vinc-€r6, vic-i, 

(p) With Vowetchange. 
To drive, ftg-o, fig-^S, 6g-i, 

Three of the compoonds retain ft, circomftgo, perigo, sfttttgo : two on- 
dergo contraction, cdgo (con + Sgo), dego (de + igo): compoonds 
with ab, amb, ad, ex, prod, sab, change & into i ; e. g., SbigftriS^ 
&b€gi, abacttim, to drive atoay. 

To take, c&p-io, cSp-drS, cSp-i, cap-tiim. 

All the compoands change S into T, and have sapine cept&n; & g^ 
mocSp'ISita, acc^pi, acceptiim, to receive. 



Uc-tiim. 

rap-tdm. 

▼lo-tfim. 

ac-ttim. 



Digitized by 



Google 



LIST OF VERBS, THIRD CONJUGATION. 



275 



To make, 
To do, 



f ac-io, 



fSc-«rfi, 



fec-^ 



fac-tiim. 



1. Compoands with Terbfl retain ft; e. ^., l&befic«r6, lib«f€<^ labe- 
factiiin, to fpeaken. 

2. Cknnpoimds with prepositioiiB change & into X; cg^ afficfird, aff edi; 
affectiim, to affect. 

To break, frang-o, frang-drd, frdg-i, firac-tdm. 

CompooncLi change a into i ; e. ^., refringSr6, refr^g^ refractibn, U 
break open. 
To cast, jSc-io, j8c-Sr6, jee-!^ jao-tdm. 

Compoands ab, ad, de, e, in, ob, re, tftuu, all change ft into h e,gn 
ab|Ecftr6, abjed, abjectdm, to throw away. 

VL The Perfect-stem presents the simple Verb^tem. 
(a) Steins ending in tt or v. 



Torrfuse, 


abnn-o. 


abna-€r6. 


abna-L 




To sharpen. 


ftcao. 


aca-€r6. 


ficu-I, 


acfl-tfim. 


To show. 


arga-o. 


arga-fir6. 


arga-i, 




To agree. 


congra-o, 


congra-drd. 


congro-i. 




To put off, 


exa-o, 


exu-6r6. 


exu-i, 


extutiim. 


Toputon, 


indu-o. 


mda-erS, 


indu-i. 


indd-ttim. 


To imbue. 


imba-o. 


imba-erd. 


imba-i. 


imbd-ttLm. 


To pay, 


lu-o, 


lu-firg, 


lu-i. 


Ifl-tiim. 


To/ear, 


m6ta-o, 


meta^re. 


mfita-i. 




To lessen, 


mlna-o, 


jxunvL-iT^, 


mTna-i, 


minfl-tftm. 


Tomsk, 


ra-o. 


ra-dr6. 


ru-T, 


rtt-tinL 


To loose. 


soly-o. 


8olv.er6, 


soiv-i. 


solu-tvim. 


TospU, 


spa-o, 


spu-€r6, 


spuT, 


spatfim. 


To place, 


stfttao. 




stata-i, 


statd-tftm. 


To sneeze. 


stema-o» 


stema-di6. 


stema-i, 


stema-tftm. 


To sew. 


sa-o. 


sa-«rft. 


sn-T, 


su-tum. 


To give. 


ti:lba-o, 


trn>a-6T«, 


trlba-i. 


triba-tftm. 


To roll. 


Tolv-o, 


TOlT-*rg. 


Tolv-I, 


volii-tum. 






(Jb>) Consonant-stems. 




To weigh. 


append-o, 


append-$r6. 


append-i; 


appen-ffim. 


So, also, the other compounds of pendo. 




To attend. 


attend-o» 


attend-8r«, 


Attend-I, 


attenniibik 


So, also, the other compoands of tendo. 




To dHnk, 


brtw), 


blb^rft* 


bib-i. 


Mbl-tum. 


Toforge, 


cud-o. 


cAd-ftre, 


cdd-I, 


ofl-sflm. 


To eat. 


edo. 


«d-€rS, 


fid-i, 


«-sftm. 


To lick. 


lamb-o. 


lamb-ei«. 


lamb4. 




To chew. 


mand-o. 


mand-SrC, 


mand'i, 


man^flm. 


To spread. 


pandK), 


pand-6r6, 


pand-i. 


paswriim. 



Digitized by 



Google 



f 70 LIBT OF TBBB8, FOUIITH CONJlTGATIOlf. 

To take, pr^eDd-o^ prShend-Sii, prSbend-i, prSheiMrifan. 

ToMcraich, mOh-o, scib-^re, scib-i. 

Todmb, feand-Oy scand-^rS, icnd-L leaiMttin. 

Compoanda (a, e, do, oon, in) change ft into S ; ^. g^ aacendo. 
Tasinkdownf ald-o, BSd-«r§, tld-I. 

The oompoanda take the peril and aiq>ine from g(ide6 ; e. g,, oonal 
d€r«, eonaddi, contest^ to wU togntker, 
Tokiu, Btild^ atrld-M, 0liid-i .^ 

Totem, vert-o, Tert-«r6, veit-i, teivsim. 

DeYvrlo, prsrerto, and r^rerto art alR> naed in Hm paaaire ftina aa 
depoaeata) e. gn rtKecMr, Whrefli, reveraia, afim, Jtem iodfc. 
ToirttfA, verr-o, Terr-«r«, rerr-% ver-sttof. 

To pluck, yell-o, veU-Sre, vell-^ Yid-aOm. 

Compoanda of cendA and fendd belong here, viz., 
To hum, incend-o, incend-toO, incend-l, inoen-attm. 

To defend, dftfend-o, d«fend-«r«, defend-l, d«fen-flda. 

(667.) VOITETH COWJlJaATIOH. 

L Perfect-stem addsiv to ike Verb-Ueik, 
{Ohs.) Thia daaa oontaina moat of the veiba of the fourth cot^jnga^ott; 
tiie following alone haa a peculiar anpine : 
Tolmry, adp^l-io, a6pdl-ire, a6p6l-!y-!, aSpnl-tftm. 

n. Perfect'Stem adds u to the Verb-stem, 
Todothe, imic-io, intfc-ir6, indc-u-i, fimic-tttBo. 

Tooptt%, &pdr-io, ftp6r-xr^ ftpSr-a-i, Sper-ti&m.* 

To cover, 5pdr-io, 5pSr-ir6, 5p6r-a-i, 5per-tdm. 

To leap, afli-io, afl-trd, afil-u-i, aal-tOm. 

Caaopoiutda change i ioto I; e. ^., dAlIird, dSalltd, dtenltOtt^ ift? Hscip 
down. 

m. Perfkt-stem adds Bio the Verb^steth. 

To cram, farc-io^ faiO^rS, } ,!f " "* .» > farc-tum. 



¥h6 cdmpbnnds dian^ k into e ; e. g., confercire, oonfers!, eon^n&lb, 
to/Ulup, 



Toprifp, 


folc-io. 


tolc-ire, 


To draw. 


hanr-io^ 


hanr-ire, 


To decree, 


aanc-io, 


aanc-irfi. 



l^ii), jfol-t<^ 



hana-tttm. 



( han-B-i 

\ (hanr-8-i), 
kanx-i i^ 8anc-!-taih ^t^ 

(aanc-ff-i), ) Banc-tdm. 



* T^p^nanonnda of par-j^ which begin with a yoweihave \v^ artdnH, 
aa in ClfuiB ll. ; thoaa Begmning with a obnaonant li'ave i, ertfim, as m 
Claas V. 



Digitized by 



Google 



hmr OF IKiPONENT VEKBB, 277 

Topaick, laic-io^ iarc-Iri, > J*'**^.") J»«f-tfiin. 

To fed, sent-ia ■ent-irt, < , «*--\ Jien-ium. 

Instead cif ittsentid, agsenliJ^, deponent is lODre oommon. 
ToKSSgt:^ Ht^, l§p>1r«^ «ip-i^ M^Mttm 

To bind, yino-io, vinc-ir6, } /vi*ys*S> /vino-tttm. 

rV. Peifect-stem lengthens the SienHfowd. 
Contains bat kHingle simple l^rtk 
To come, vdn-io, vto-ire, vSn-i, Ten-tOm. 

V. Perfect'Uem takes the simple Verh-stim, 
Toaeeertcwi, coikp6r-io, compfir-Ir6, compdr-i, oomper^lffitt.*' 

(S68.) DBPdim^ VEEBfib 

vnuT c6ir.7iTeAttov. 
TVexAori, hort-6r, hort-ftii, bort-tt-tts. 

The deponents of the first ccn^jiigation are the inoft niuneioiA, "bt^ io^ 
Ibnned like hort$r, vrith it^ at&s. 

SECOND CONJUGATION. 

To acknowledge, Hkb-eSr, fS^eri, fas-siis. 

The 46dMfii%nds make ffMBit, tesstLs ; e.g,, toatlMfr, connten, og» 
tdms9L»,tovonfess: ^Mfiddthu no pfltrtielpfo. 



ToW, 


l!c^5r. 


liceri. 


Bc-it4s. 


To heal. 


mM-e6r, 


mdd-en. 




Todeservet 


mdr-edr, 


m6r-«r3. 


m6r-I^ns. 


TopUy, 


misdr-efir, 


vHafyt-m, 


; miser-Jt-ns, ©r 
1 miser-tiis. 


To think, 


r-efir. 


r^ri. 


rft-ttis. 


To look upon. 


ta^&V 


ttt-iH; 


; tu-it-fts, or 
[tfl-tus. 


Tofeair, 


▼dr-e<^y 


v«r-6ri. 


v6r-It-iii. 




tHIRl) CONJUOATlbN. 




To devise. 


comminisc-^r. 


oomminiso4, 


cammen-tfik 


lajtamHoae, 


to remem^/ has no 


perfect. 




Toobta^ 


«dipisc-6r, 


ttdipisc-i, 


idep^Mt. 


Tohe^mti, 


ddfetucfl^, 


ddfetisc^ 

- ■, , -h.-r. 






« lto« note, p. 276. 






A 


A 





Digitized by 



Google 



278 


LIST OF DEPONENT VERBBi 




Toawaie, 


expergiM-4r, 


experguc-I, 


expeirwMfii. 


Toen^oy, 


fra-te, 


fira-i, 


i frac-t&B aiu2 


To perform. 


fin»fir-«r, 


fimg-i, 


fanc-teLM. 


Toprvceed, 


grid-iftr, 


grld-l 


gres-iiSa. 




; e,g^ aggrtdi, aggrewdfl, <a auaU 


To he angry. 


inae^, 


frMO-L 




TofaO, 


Iftb^, 


ltf)-i. 


lap-tiis. 


Toipeak, 


Idqu^. 


Idqa-i, 


I6cil-ta«. 


To die. 


mte-iOr, 


m5ri. 


mor-tatis. 


To obtain. 


naxiciic-dr. 


nancisc-i. 


naC'tila. 


To be bom, 


Baflc-dr, 


naic-v 


n&tiu. 


To lean upon. 


''jm-t.«r. 


nit-I, 


< ni-sas, or 
^nix-iU. 


Toforget, 


ObUvuc-«r, 


oUiviic-i, 


(d>li-tas. 


To bargain. 


piciflc^r. 


piciac-I, 


pac-tOfl. 


Tofeed, 


PMO^, 


pMC-^ 


pas-toa. 



Thii yerb ia the paaaiye ctf paaofird, to give food. 
To mffer, pit-idr, piti, 

Perpdtiar, peipeaatta, to endure, changei i into 6. 



paa-sns. 



(From plectA* to Unne.) 



To embrace. 


•mplect^. 


amplecC-i, 


amplez-iia. 


compl0Ct-6r, 


oomplect-]« 


complex-iia. 


To $et out. 


pWfidac-dr, 


pr6ficisc-i. 


prdfec-tJia. 


To complain. 


qner-6T, 


qu6r-I. 


qaes-toa. 


TogHn, 


ring-«r, 


ring-L 




TofoUow, 


Bfiqu-or, 


Bfiqn-I. 


adcd-tOs. 


To revenge, 


nldac-te. 


nkiac-i, 


ol-toa. 


Touee, 


tU>r, 


uH 


u-sos. 




rOUKTH 


OOHJUOATIOK. 




Toauent, 


a88ent-i5r, 


auent-ui 


aaaen-siis. 


Toflatter, 


blandidr, 


Uandiri, 


bland-itriia. 


To try. 


exp8r-i6r, 


expSr-iri, 


experttia. 


To bestow money, 


larg-iftr, 


larg-M, 


larg'it-Oa. 


To lie. 


ment-iOr, 


mentiri, 


ment-it-tia. 


To measure. 


ToSt-ioT, 


mSt-iri, 


men-aaa. 


To move a mast. 


xn6l-i6r, 


mOl-M, 


m6l-i^a8. 


2'ou)aitforr ,. 


opp&r-idr. 


oppdr-M, 


opper-toa. , 


To begin. 


ordriSr, 


ord-iri. 


or-ada. 



Digitized by 



Google 



INCHOATIVE AND IRRE6ULAE VERBS. 



279 



TontCf 

To divide, 
To possess 

myself 
To cast lots, 



tess \ 



to-ifir, 


ftr-iri, 


ortilfl. 


part-idr, 


part-iri, 


part-it-tw. 


p5t-i5r, 


pot-iri, 


pdWt-tti. 


8ort-i5r, 


sortiri. 


lort-it-tLk 



(669.) INCHOATIVB VERBS. 

Inchoatiyes are Terbs derived from noons, acyectiyes, or other verbi, 
expressing a beginning or becoming of the act (H* state denoted by the 
primitive. Their stems always end in sc, and they all follow the form of 
the 3d coi^. ; e. g., 

From pner, boy, we have paerasc-dr6, to become a boy {again), 
** m&tor-ds, ripe, we have mfttdresc-fire, to become ripe, 
*' dorm-ir6, to sleep, we have obdormisc-dre, tofaU asleep, 

(1.) It is enoogh to observe on those derived from adjectives and wmnM 

that Ihey either haoe no perfect, or else'form it in uL 
(53.) As to those derived £rom verbs, 
(a) Most are from verbs in the second oo^jogation, and form their 
perfect-stem by adding n to the stem, rejecting sc ; or, in other 
words, their perfl-stem is the same as that of the simple verb firam 
which they are derived ; e. g., 

To become gray, canesc-^r6 (canSrd), cann-L 
To grow sour, acesc-drS (acdre), aca-L 

{b) Those derived from verbs of the other coi^ogations take the pei^ 
fects of the simple verbs from which they are derived. 

To grow old, invfiterasc-6r6 {inveterdrS), inveterftv-i, inveterft-tom. 
Tocometolife,r^rMv>^T(i{mvirS), rSvix-i, rdvic-tnuh 

To faU asleep, oh^ortojAC-^rli [dormxrS), obdomuv-i, obdomu-tam 

11. niRBGULAIl VEEBS.* 



(670.) 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 



Tenses for Incomplete Action, 

yr went t^id Imperfect. 

1. possfi, to be able. 

2. veils, to betoilline. 

3. noUS, to be unwilling, 

4. mall^, to be more toMing, 

5. 6d6r6, or essS, to eat, 

6. ferrg, to bear. 

7. fieri, to become. 

8. fern, to be borne. 



Tenses for Complete Action. 

Peifect and Plupertect 

potoissS, to have been able. 
volnissS, to have been willing. 
nOloissS, to have been unwiuing. 
m&IoissS, to have been more willing. 
ddissS, to have eaten. 
tulissfi, to have borne, or suffered. 
factum esse, to have been made, or 

done. 
Ifttdm essS, to have been borne. 



* See note, next page. 



Digitized by 



Google 



UtftSOITLAm TftAM. 



(671.) INDICATIVE MOOD. [ 


PmESiNT, lam able, ifc 


PKmrscT, /Aooe frem oUi^ 4c 


l.poirtm,* pdtds, pdtert, 


l.pdta-i, isti. It, 


possam^ pdtettif, possnnt. 


p6tu-imils, istfs, erontorerft. 


2. v6W, vis, volt, 


2.v61a-i, isti. it, 


volQmiif, vultito, volirnt 


volu-imfts, istis, enint<>r6rS. 


3. n6ld, nonvifl, nanvolt, 


3.B«la.i, isti, it. 


ndldmtis, nonvaltis, ndlunt 


ndlu-Imus, istis, erant<>rerd. 


A.mM, mftvii, mftvoH, 


4.inthi-i, is^ it. 


mAl^muBf mAvultiS) xnftlant. 


maln-Imnfl, istlDi, erontorere. 


5. Sdd, edis or 6s, «dlt or est, 


S.edi, isti. It, 


Sdimtta, «cfi[ti!s<>rettirs; ddont. 


ed-imtts, istis, eraiitor«i«. 


6. f €rd, fers, fert. 


6. tttl-i, isti, % 


fdrimiis, fertis, fSnmt. 


tal-imds, istis, emntorere. 

7. fkctos feibn, es, est. 


7.no,t fto, fit. 


funds, fMs, flout. 


factisomts, estis, sunt 


8. f 6r6r, ferris or ferre ; fertur, 


8. Ifttns sum, es, est. 


iirttoAr, f&imii^ ftrtttitilr. 


l&tisiimas, edtis, sttnt 




PLUFXtrsoT, IhadHmMt^iic 


l.pdt-firtm, «r§f, «rti|, 


1. potn-enun, eiwB, gnl^ 


p6t-dr&mds, drfttite, 6rant 


p6ta-6rftmiis, gr&tis, grant 


'^. vdl-ehftm, «bAs, ebftt, 


8. voiU-erun, eraB, grS^ 


▼61-gUmas, fibAtls, ebant 


vdla-gramns, grAtis» 6nuit 


3. n6l-6bam, Sbas, 6b&t, 


3. nola-grSm, grfls, grSt, 


ti6l-6b«iii«B, fibfttfe, ebant. 


Holn-erfimus, 6rfiti!B, grant 


4.iiiftl-«biii], dbfls, dbit, 


4.ini]a-eriiii» gifts, grtt. 


mftl-ebflmos, dbfttis, ebant 




5. gd-ebftm, fibfts, abftt. 


5. ed-gfjlm, eras, grtt 


6d-ebamu», Sbtttis, €baiife. 


ed-gramfii, er«&, grant 


6.f6r-ebftm, dbis, abii, 


6. tnl^rSm, graa, &&t 


fdrdbAmds, ebatis, ebant 


tolgrftnids, gratis, grant 


7.fi-«aMtai, «b§a, ebtt 


7. facttts gram, grfls, grilt. 


n-ebftmus, ebfttis, ebant 


fkctierftm&i,erAti», dralit 


8. f«r-6bfir, 6barisor6, eb§tur. 


8. Ifttns grfim, gras, grftt, 




latigrtmds, grafiii, eradt 


FUTUIOB, 




lBk4MoxtnUb9*bU,ifC 


lOuMotiomhavebtenable,^ 


i. pot-6r*, grfs, grit. 


1. pdtu-grd, gris, gritt. 


pot-drimtis, Sritis, Sront 


pdtn-grimiis, gritis/ 6rint 


2.T6l-am, es, «t. 


^.Vdhi-ertJ, . gris, grit. 


vdlemus, etis, ent 


vdla-grimiLs, gritis, grint 


3. n6l ftm, es, 6t, 


3. nolu-grfi, gris, grit, 


ndl-emas, etis, ent 


neln-grimtis, gritis, grint 


4.mal-am, es, 6t, 


4. m$la-grd, gris, grit, 


mal-emtis, etis, ent 


mahi-grimus, gritis, grint 


5.6d-ftm, es, et, 


5.ed-6rd, eris, . erit, 


ed-emfifl, Ids, ent 


ed-grimiis, gritis, drint. 


6.f6r-am, tfs, 6t, 


6. tfil-gr«, gris, erit, 


fer-emtts, etfs, ietit 


tfil-grimtui, gritis, Srint 


7. fi-am, 68, «t, 


7. factas grfi, gris. giit^ 
factigrimus, 6««8, grint 


fi-emus, etfs, ent 


8. fer-ftr, eris or erg, etfir, 


8.1atiisgr«, gris, grit, 


f6r-6mtlr, gminl, enttlr. 


lattgrimfis, gritis, grint 



*As maay of these verbs areneaify r elated to each other, it seems nn- 
Beeeasafy to -separate tiieirftnrms of inftection. TBie comsBpoildent awii^ 
oers will be sufficient direction kk tflusing tSftc several tenses of each verb, 
▼owto- S^'JiSr!!* •^^.fi^®'^"^ "^* (24, o), has i long throughoat, btfim 



Digitized by 



Google 



IftKBGULAE YIRBB. 



281 



(672.) IHPERATIYS MOOD. 


NoTK."PoMtim, volo, ituUo, hare no imperative mood. U 


3. ndli, or ndKtd, be thou unwUinff. 


7. f i, or fitd, become thou. H 


ndUtg, or noKtdtg, be ye, ^e. 


f itft, or f itotft : 3. f inntft. 


5. Add, 6ditd, or H, estd, ai< Mou. 


8. f errft, or fertftr, be thou borne. 


editd, ddftotSi 3. edtmtd. 


fftrioani, or fftrixnindr: 3. fftron- 


6. f 6r, <>r fertd, betxr thou. 


t6t. 


ferW, or fertdW : 3. f finmtd. 




(673.) StrBJUHCTITE MOOD. || 




PSBTBCT, I may have been able, ifO. 


1. poBS-Im, ig, it, 


l.pftta-£nm, ftria, ftrit, 


poss-imtii, itft, int. 


pdttL-ftr&ntbi, ftiitSi, ftrint 


2. v6l-im, !g, It, 


2.T6ln-6rim, ftria, ftrit, 
vftln-ftrimfia, ftrltlil, ftrint 


▼a-imfts, itii, int 


3. nOWm, is, it, 


3. nftln-ftrim, ftria. ftrit, 
ndliiftrimikr, ftritft, ftrint 


ndl-iiiiue, itite, int. 


4. mftl-fctt, i«, it, 


4. mfiln-ftrim, ftria, ftrit, 
mala-ftrimftt, ftriOb, ftrint 


mftl-fiEnofl, itifs, ittt 


5. dd.&m, fts, ftt, 
ed-flmihi, fttif, ant 


5. ftd-ftrim, ftria, ftrit. 


ftd-ftrimtbl, ftritlii, ftrint 


e.fSr-fim, fts, &t, 


6. tdl-ftrim, ftria, ftrit. 


f er-Am&i, ttk> ant 


tdl-ftrimiia, ftritia, ftrint 


7.fi-tai, «s, tt, 


7. factoa aim, aia, ait. 


fiamos, fttis, ant 


factiaimaa, ' aitia, aint 


8. f 6r-«r, ftris or flrB, fttfir, 


8. l&tda sim, aia, fiit, 


f6r-4mur, aminl, antttr. 


l&ti simua, aitib, sint 


IMPXBFXOT, Imight be able, ire. 


Plupsbf., Imight have been able, 4c 


l.P08S-«m, fie, 6t 


Lpftta-issftm, iaaea, iaaftt. 


pos8-€mili, etiOi, ent 


pdtaiaaftmoa, iaafttia, iaaent 


2.vdi.^m, «(r, ftt, 


2. T^UQ-iaaftm, iaaea, iasftt, 


vell-«mii8, «tls, ent 


vola-issftmiis, iaaetia, issent 


3. noll-«m, fts, ftt, 


3. nola-issftm, iasfta, issftt. 


noll-ftm&i, fttis, ent 


ndla-isaftmfla, iaaetiEa, iaaent. , 


4. mall-ftm, fta, ftt, 


4. mftlti-iaaftm, issfta, issftt. 


mall-ftmila, fttis, ent 




5. ftdftr-ftmor esaftm ; ftf , ftt. 


5. ftdiasftm, iasfta, issftt. 


ftdftr-ftmufl^ fttiDi, ent. 


ftd.iasemiis, issetiOi, issent 


6. ferr-ftm. fta, ftt. 


6. tol-issftm, issfts, issftt. 


ferr-ftmiia, etib, ent 


tOl-issftmiSs, isset^s, issent 


7.fi6r-ftm, fta, ftt. 


7. factcis essftm, esses, essftt, 


fiftr-ftm&h etite, ent. 


fact! essftmfls, essetifs, essent 


8. ferr-ftr, ftria or ftrft, fttfir. 


8. l&tns essftm, essfts, essftt. 


ferr-emdr, ftn^ou, entdr. 


Iftliessemds, eaae^ eaaent 


(674.) GXRUNDS. | 


2. Tftlendi, vDlendO, volendtUQ, of I 








4. milendl, malendd, malendttm. 


" " " moremlUng. 




inert i» eeOiing, to eat 


6. fftrendi, fftrendd, ft^enddm, qfbt 


taring, vn bearing, to bear. 


(675.) nxm 


tnta. 


Accusative. 5. ftanm, to eat. 1 


Ablative, ftsfl, to be eaten^ to eat, ; 


€,Uam,tobear, \ 


IfttA, to be borne. 



A a2 



Digitized by 



Google 



282 DEFECTIVE VERBS. 



(676.) PARTICIPLES. 



I 



Active. 1. potent, being abie. 

2. vdlens, " unUinf^. 

3. ndlenf, " unwiUinr. 

4. mtleiis, *' more willing. 

5. ddens, eating. 6sAnu, about to eoL 

6. f Srens, beanng. latdras, about to bear* 

7. fi&cieDdds, to be made or i<me. 

8. ferendOa, to be borne. 

Paeeive. 7. facttis, ^'«i<' or having been made or done. 
8. lAtOs, 6etn^ (»* having been borne or enffiered. 



(677.) Bo, I go. 



E6, 1 go, is coiyagated like otuiio, except in the following tenaes : 

8iugal«r. FhiraL 

Imp. Ind. Pre*, ed, is, It ImOs, itlM, eont 

Pott. Ib&m, Ibas, Xbftt ibftmos, ib§tiuB, ibanL 
Fut. ib6, iMs, ibit ibimfis, ihiGB, ibnnt 

Imperative. I, or itd. it6, or itdtd. 3. enntd. 

Imp. Pot. Pre*, eftm, eas, efit. e&miis, efttito, eant. 

Gerundt. eondi, evmdO, enndtbn. 

Particips. Pre*, iens (jg^^n. eontiCs), going. Fut. itOros, about to go. 

Supines. !tam, Itii. 

Bern. In Uke manner, the compounds of eo are formed: also, queo, to be 
able, and nSqneo, to he unable ; except that these two hare no baper- 
. atire mood or gemnds. 



J 



12. DEPBCnVE VBB3S 

(678.) Are those which have only some particular tenses and moods ; 
M, aio, / Bay ; anslm, / dare ; avd, hail ! &c 





(1.) Aio, I say. 


==: 


Ind. Pres. 
Imperfect. 
Imperative. 
Subj. Pres, 
Participle. 


Singolar. PlareL 

aio. &is, ftit 

ai-ebam, fib&s, dbU. fibamiis, Sb&tis, 

§t 

ftias, ftlSt 
•iens. 


§innt 
«bant 

iiant 


(2.) Axiaim,! dare. || 


Ind. Pres. 


auslm, ausls, aoslt 


ansint || 


{3.)Av6,haa/ II 


Imperative. 
Infinitive. 


ftvS, or ftveto. ivitd, or tvdtotS. 
&vdr«. 




(4.) SalY6, Ood save you 1 \ 


Imperative. 
Infinitive. 
Ind. Fut. 


salve, or salvetd. salvetS, or 
salvfire. 

■alvebls. 


salvetdte. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IMPERSONAL VERBS. 



283 



(5.) C&do, give me. 


Imperative. 


Singular. 
C6d6. 


Plural 

cd^te. 




(6.) Faxo, or faxim {{or faciam), I wiU or 


may doit. 




Ind. Pres. 


fax-o, or fax-Im, is, It. imds, 


itis. 


int. 


(7.) axuBs6,Ipray. || 


Ind. Pres. 
Infinitive. 
Particijde. 


qV8Bs-d, is, rt ilmiis. 

qaaes6r6. 

quaesens. 






(8.) Inqufim, iTT Inquid, / «ay. { 


Imjjf.Ind,Pre8,vaq^A6tOrimt !s, it fains. 
Past. inqniebat. 
Put. mqavU, inqaidt 
Perf. Ind. Pres. ioquisti. 

I Imperative, inqad, inqmtd. 

II Participle. inqoions. 


inqi^td. 


innt 
inmiie- 
[bant. 



(9.) These verbs, 

N6v-i, I know; 

MSmin-i, I remember ; 

Coep-i, / begin ; 

Od-I, I hate, 
have file forma of flie perfect tenses combined with the meanings of the 
imperfect Nosco, the present of nOvi, is in nse, and denotes to learnt 
whence ndvl expresses the actual knowledge which is the result of 
past learning. 






f^' 


isti, &c. {Pres.) 


N6v- 


6r«m, 


firfts, kc. {Past.) 


Memih- 


6rfl, 


6ris, &c. {Fut.) 

6rls. &:c. Sul^. Pres.) 


CcBp- 


firim, 


Od- 


issdm, 
issd, 


issds, 6cc. {Sulfj. Past.) 
{Infinitive.) 


Mementd, mement6tg. 


{Imperative.) 





13. IMPERSONAL VBitBS 
(679.) Are those which have no subject, and take the pnmonn it before 
tiiem in English ; e. ^., plait, a^ rains. 
1. Lnpersonals never used personally. 



Vbkt, Ubalt, it pleases. 
llcfit, licuit, or > one nu ^ . 
Ucltom est, litis lawful. 



*ntfs6r6t, one pities. 

*plg6t, it grieves {one). 



*pcBnIt6t poenTtnit it repents. 
rfifert, it concerns. 



* Those marked * take aec. of person and gen. of the thing (or object of 
tbefeeUng). 



Digitized by 



Google 



284 



IMPBESONAL YB&BS. 



f . Impexionali lo me tim es uted personally m tiiird penon iiingqliir or 
plnraL 



'^^ 1*%*^- 



] 



gnmdinit, 
loceftclt. 



U kails, 

ii grows lifflU, 



ningTt, U snows. 

plnit, U rains. 

tdkiAt, it thunders. 

▼etpgrticft^ U grows dark. 



3. Penonal Terbf med 
golar. 



ii imperaoiiili in Uuid penon sui> 



acctdit, it happens. 


fit. 


it happens, 
it concerns. 


accddlt,*^ U is added. 


interest. 


appirtt, it amaeats. 
attibet, it belongs iih 


jivit, 

istst, 


it is pleasant, 
i U is uniHumn, eoH- 
} cealed. 




consttt. i^^*!f!!3' 

^^ ^ •/ M agreed upon. 


HquftlV 


it is clear. 


P«et, 


it is plain, open. 


oontingit, it kaj^ens. 


pifiodt, 


it pleases {Tft$okf^, 


oonvenit, ii suits, agrees. 
d^ectit» Uisddti^upid. 


prwstat, 
rett», 


it abetter, 
it remains. 


dSc^t, it is becoming. 
deddcSt,. it is unbecoming. 


■diet. 

iiM>UM^ 




evSidt, it turns out. 


sttt, 


it is resolved. 


expddit, it is expedient. 


siiffictt. 


it suffices. 
(Dhaveleisurt. 


ezc!dit,t it has escaped m/e. 


v«c«t, 



Rem. Theie may be nied in the different temei of in^o. Mid iol^ 



4. The tfaiid |>enon lingalar bf nnny intraiiii^ft verbi il oied iii*^ 
personally in the passive; e. g., onrrlttlr, they run (it il ran bf 
tliem); png^nfttttm est. they fought fjt was ftmght by them). 
Those which govern the dative, govern it alio in the in^rsonal 
form; e.^.. /am ertrtedy ml hi invIdetQr. 

*AccedIt <{Uo6. {or ^t)^=i moreover. 

ft. e.. dd mSmdrii e:t.cldilt=iit has slipped from my memory— 4$ 
fbrgoUen, 



Digitized by 



Google 



§7, ADVERB. 



Thu Mdyexk gvaMes a verb, ^joctive, or another adverb. 

'^ I. Derivaiiv$ Aiocrhs, 

(680.) Derwativ^ ad^oerba [a] 9x9 nearly all forqaed ftom adjectipM or 
parUcipUf, by adding 6 or 1 1 fi r to their stems : 

1. Add d to stem of adjectives in 4 s, i, tl m ; e. g.^ 

clar-tls, t2ZtM^runM. cltr-^tiUiLstriously. 

Rem. BdntLs makes b 41 ntt,«0s2l; andmfiltls (6a<Z) ; 'm ft 1 6, hadXy. 
AH others end in d {}ong), 

8. Add It 4 r to the stem of adjectives of 2d or 3d class ; e. g., 

hv^Y 'In, brief. hr^Y-it^T, briejly, 

f 6 r o X (feroc-s), JU^. f d r 5 c - ! 1 6 r, fiercdy. 

Mem. 1. Qibose which end in ns do not take the connecting vowel I; 
a.r'» 

prtidens, ^^ruiml. ^^rtden-t (ir, prudently. 

2. Anda^, bold, makes aTjidac-tdr, boldly, 

{b) A few are fonned fiom nomis, by adding tus or tim to the stem 
by means of a connectmg vowel ; e. g,, 

«0|l-4m, Aeoven. oafl-l-ttB,flnom heaven. 

fund- 1§, bottom, {und-l-tts,from the bottom, totally. 

gre9L(greg-0),^f^. gr$g-&-tln]» (jr^^f. 

(c) Cases of adjectives, especially in the neuter, are often nsed as ad* 
verbs; e. g., dulc6, tweetly, ftilB 6, falsely, &c. 

II. Primitive Adverbe, 

(681.) Primitioe adverbs are such as cannot conveniently be classed 
■niQOg the derivatives above mentioned. The most common are arranged 
io tbe following lists : 



Digitized by 



Google 



286 



ADVEKB8. 

1. ADTSRBS OP PLACS (firofold). 



(1.) In a Place. 



Idblf 

hie, 

ilHc, 

lUtic, 

liht 

intdc, 



there, where you are, 

wiihin. 
wiihout. 



AbiqoS, 
nasqaiaa, 
lUciibt 
iUbi, 

Ablyif, 



everw9Met9» 
nowhere. 



somewhere. 
eUewhere. 
{anywhere {you 

tn the $ame ptaee. 



(8.) To a Placebo, ue). 



qnftf 
jhdc, 

ifltflc, 
intrO, 



whither? 

thitha-, 
{ thither, to where you 
\ are, 

to within. 



fteis, 

9X\6, 

allaod, 

eMSnUf 



towithouL 
to that place, 
to anot^placA 

to the same place. 



(3.) Towards a Place, 



qoonmxi, 
veraiii, 
soraiiin, 
deoriiim. 



whitherward T 
towards, 
upwaird, 
downward. 



rStroraiim, backward. 
dextroniini, to the right hand, 
sunsteanijan, to the Igl hand. 



(4.) From a Place— (ne, nde). 



hinc, 
illic, 

istinc, 

indS, 



whence? 

hence. 

thence. 
[ thence, from where 
\ you are, 

thence. 



aliondS, 

iUcondS, 

sIcoDdd, 

supemS, 
imemS, 



from dsewhere, 
from some place, 
^from any place, 
on both sides, 
from above, 
frombdow. 



(5.) Through or by a Place. 



qut? 
hac, 



which way t 
this way, 
that way. 



istfto, 



that way, by you, 
another way. 



Digitized by 



Google 



"V 



ADVERBS. 

2. ADVERBS OF TIME (thr^ 









(1.) Being in time, either. 



■ J ■ \ *>i 



nimc, 
hddid, 



time, 

turn, 

hfirf, 

dddum, 

pnddm, 

pridie, 

nupdr, 



jamjam, 

mox, 

statim, 



1. Present, 
now. 
to-day. 

9. Pa««. 
Ithen. 



> heretofore. 

the day before, 
lately. 

3. Future, 

{Very Near.) 

*> j^resently, 

> tmmeddatcly. 
J by-and-by. 



protinos, 
mico, 



cr&s, 

postridie, 
perendie, 
nondrun, 

qaando 7 

fdiquandd, 

nonnaiiquSiD 

interdom, 

sempdr, 

nnnqaSm, 

intSrim, 

intSreft, 

qaotidid. 



instantly, 
straightway. 

(Remote.) 
UMnorrow. 
the day after, 
two days hence, 
not yet. 

Indefinite, 
when? 






> sometimes. 

always, 
never. 

\ in the mean time. 

daily. 



lamdiA? 



qaai 
dill, 
tamdid, 



how long? 
long. 
so long. 



(2.) Continuance of Time. 



jamdin, ^ 

jamddddm, > long ago. 
jampridSm, } 



(3.) Vicissitude, or Rqoetition of Time. 



qadtiSs 7 

■aepd, 

t6tids, 

a]i<p5tids, 

vicuslm, 

itdrfim, 



1. Ind^nite, 
how often? 
often, 
so of ten. 

for several times, 
oy turns, 
again, 
a second time. 



snbindd, immediately after. 

identiddm, several times. 

2. Definite, or in Number, 
8?m£I, once, 
bis, twice, 
t6r, thrice. 
qaatSr, four times. 



3. ADTERBS OF ORDER. 



indS, tfien. deinceps, successively, primo,* -iiin,t first. 

deindS, thereafter. d§imd, anew, secandd,t secondly.) 

dehinc, henc^orth. denlquS, finally, &c. 

porr6, moreover. (poetr6m6,t lastly. 





4. ADVERBS OF QUALITY, MANNER, &C. 


Xded, 


SO, and therefore. 


nempS, truly. 


adrnddiim, very, greatly. 


nimitm, too much. 


in. 


whether? or else? 


n6n, not. 


CAT, 


"^tnf^ 


niim ? whether ? 


dSmdniy 


omnm5, at all, in general 


6tiam, 


Itkewtse, yes. 




fere. 


almost. 


aitiuB, enough. 
8lc, so, thus. 


haad, 


not. 


immd. 


yes, truly, 
so, thus. 


BcilicSt, namely. 
TldeKdtt, namely. 
vix, scarcay. 


mftgls. 


more. 


»*' . 


not. 


\ 



• Prime = at first', primiim ^ first, t« the first place. 
t These faU uider (680, c). 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 8. PREPOSITION. 



(€82.) 1. pBXPQfiTiOHf gorerning tlie ooeuMtftpe** 

Ants, ftpftd, &4, adreniii, 
CiFcfiiBy ciici, atrft, oil, 
Brgt» contra, intfir, extri, 
Infrt, intrS, jaxU, 6b, 
P6n&B, pdnfi, pott, and pnstdiv 
PrdpS, propter, p6r, sScandfim, 
SAprft, veniis, oltrl, tram. 

[V eriiia is placed txfiter the noon whiish it gorcms.] 

8. QoTernlog the ablative: 

Absqad, i, 8b, aba, and de. 
06rtiii» dim, cQm, ex, and A. 
Tjlteiilff, ibie, pr6, and pre. 

3. GoTerning bodi aceutatioe and qhUOwet 
Id, flftb, adpSr, fiibtfir 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 9. CONJUNCTION. 



(683.) Conjunctions connect words and sentences. They may be di- 
vided into tiie following classes : 
L Copttlative, which simply unite sentences together (and) : they ar« 
dt, atqnd or ac, qa6, neqad or njlc, necnon, dtiftm, qa5- 
qu6, with the adverbials itfim and Itidfim. 

II. Ditjuncttve, which connect unlike propositions (or) : they are aat» 
vSl, the suffix vS, and si vd or seu; (either — or): aut — aut^vdl— 
v61; (whether — or): siv6 — siv6. 

III. Comparative (as, like, as if, Sec): they are fit, sicfit, vfilfit, 
profit, cen, quftm, tamqudm, quftst utsi, acsi, together 
with &c and atqu^, when they mean as. 

JV, Adversative, expressing opposition of thought (but) : they are sSd, 
autSm, vdrd, &t and its compounds, tftmSn (and its compounds 
with at sed and verum), and ceterum. 

V. Concessive, expr^siug something granted (although, even if) : they 
are etsi, etiamsi, t&metsi, quamqu&m, quamvis, quan- 
tumvis, quamlibSt, iTc^t, with fit and quum, when they 
mean although. 

VT. Conditional, expressing a condition (if, if only, if but) : they are 
si, sin, ni or nisi, simdd5, dummodo, mddone, and some 
times d u m and m 6 d 5 used alone. 

Vn. Conclusive, expressing a concltision or inference (therefore) : they 
are ergo, igitfir, Itftque, e6, ided, idcircG, proindS, prop- 
tSrefl, and the relatives (wherefore) quaproptSr, quar€, qua- 
mobrSm, quocircft, unde. 

Vin. Causal, expressing a cause or reason (for, became): nftm» 
namqud, Snlm, dtSnim, quift, qu6d, qu5niftm, quippi, 
quum, quandd, quanddquidSm, siquiddm. 

IX. Final, expressing a purpose or aim (in order that, in order that 
not): fit or fiti, quo, ng, utne, ngv6, neu, quin, quftml- 
nfis. 

X. Temporal, expressing a relation of time (when, as soon as, after 
that, just as): quum, fit, fib!, postquftm, antfiqufim, pri* 
usquim, quandd, simfil, simfiUc, dfim, usqufi dfinv'^d- 
n6c, quoftd. 

XL Jnterrogaiive, used in asking questions: nfim, utrttm, ftn. nS 
(MiffisO. 

Bb 



Digitized by 



Google 



§ 10. INTERJECTION. 



(684.) Ihterjxctiors are timply signi of emotion. 



1 •»- 


oA/ 


YOm, 


hem! howl 


OMMMf/ 


6h, 


huzza 1 
ohl dUul 


eocAm, 


teekimf 


pip«, 


O strange 1 good 1 


eO, 


lof 


pro^ 


abul 


hei,hefl. 


alatl 


v», 


woe! 






tA. 


Orare! 



Digitized by 



Google 



PART IV. 



SUMMARY OF SYNTAX. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



SYNTAX. 



INTRODUCTION. 

(685.) A proposition u a thouglit expressed in words i eg., the rose 
hlooms ; the rose is beautiful, 

(686.) A simple sentence consists of a single pn>posit4on ; e. g., the mes- 
tenger was sent ; the svnfl messenger arrived. 

(687.) A compound sentence is one made up of two or more propositions ; 
e. gt tihe messenger, wJio had been sent, arrived. 

(688.) Stntax treats of the use of words in the formation of sentences, 
and of the relation of sentences to each other. We speak first, 

PART I. 
OF SIMPLE SENTENCES. 
I. SUBJECT AND PREDICATE. 

^ 1. Definition of Subject and Predicate. 

(689.) Every sentence (c g., the eagle JUes) consists of two parts, the 
eubject (e. g., eagle) and the predicate {e. g.,JUes). 

(a) The subject is that of which anything is declared, and is generally (1) 
a noun, or (2) some word nsed instead of a noon. 

1. The eagle flies. Here the nonn eagle is tiie subject. 

2. To err \m human. Here the infinitive to err is used as a noon, 
and fiarms the subject. 

(b) The predicate is that which is declared of the subject, and is gener- 
ally either (1) a verb, (2) an adjective or participle, or (3) a noun, con- 
nected with the subject by some form of the verb to be. 

1. The eagle ^tes. Here the verb^iies is the predicate. 

Si. To err is human. Here the adjective human is the predicate. 

3. John is a man. Here the noun man is the predicate. 

^ 2. Agreement. 
(690.) Rule I. The verb of the predicate agrees with the 
subject in number and person. 

The trees are green. I Arbores virent. 

Art thou happy ? I Esne tubeatus? 

Rem. 1. If the snbj. consists of two or more singular nouns denoting 
persons, the verb is generally in the plural 

Bb3 



Digitized by 



Google 



294 SUBJECT AND PREDICATE. 

8. A eoBsetwe noon fometimet baf a plonl rerb. 

The crowd ru$ket, \ Torba rannt. 

[This coDitmctkHi ii not xued by Cicero, and seldoiii, if at all, by 
Cmar.] 

3. A phiral verb is sometimQa iwed with uterqae and qniaqne. 
Eatk cf tkem leads his army oat i Uterqoe eonim ex castris exercitom 

of the camp. I edmoniit. 

4. The verb agrees with the first person rather than the second ; the 
second rather than the third. 

If yoK and Tollia arv im22, Cicero I Si ta et ToIUa raletis, ego et 
•ndlarevfdL I Cicero Tale mas. 

(691.) An adjective may stand eidier 
(1.) As predicate ; e./^.» the man is happy; 
(2.) As modifying the subject ; e, g., the good man is happy; 
(3.) As modifying the predicate ; e. g., the good n^an is a hippy man. 

In either cMe we have 

Rule II. Adjectiyes agree with the nouns to which they 
refer in gender, number, and case. 

[This role api^ies to all adjectives, pronoans, and participles.] 
Rtm, If there be two or more noons denoting person$t the most wor- 
thy* gender prevails ; \lthingSt the neater is osed. 

My father and mother are dead, I Pater mihi et mater mo rtai sont. 
Labour and enjoyment are united, I Labor volaptasqae jancta sont. 

(692.) Rule III. If the predicate be a noun, it takes the 
case of the subject. 
ffwma woe muM king. | Noma rex oreabator. 

^ 3. Apposition. 
(693.) A noon may stand 

(a) In the sal:^ect» denoting (ih« same person or thiiig with the snb- 
ject-noun ; e. g.t the general, a brave man, led the army. 

[b) In the predicate, denoting the same person or thing with 'a noon 
in the predicate ; e. g,, we have sent the consol, a brave m/in. 

Noons thos expressing the same person or thing, whether in the sob- 
ject or predicate, are said to be in apposition with each other ; and in 
either case we have 

Rule IV. Nouns in apposition with iMich other agree in 
case. 

. * The moBcuUne is said to be more wordiy than the fminine; the/an- 
tntne than the nacter. ^ ./ j 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



GENITIVE CASE. 205 



The commander, a brave man, led 

the army. 
We sent the consult a brave man. 



Imp era tor, vir fortif, exerci- 

tam dnxit. 
Consalem, Tiram fortem, mifli- 
mus. 
Rem. 1. A ooiin in appoiition with two or more Domn if oooamonly 
pot in the pluraL 
M. Antony and C. Crauoi, tr^ I tL Antomu, C. Cnuuns, tribnni 
unes of the people. | plebis. 

2. A noun in apposition with the name of a town may be pat in the 
ablative, with or without the preposition in. 
At Rome, the chief rt^y of Italy. | RomsB, (in) prima urbe Italisa. 

II. USE OF CASKS. ^ 

^ 4. Nominative. 
(694.) SubjectmomincUive. — ^The subject of a proposition takes the nom- 
inative case, and is called the subject-nominative. 

(2.) Predicate-nominative. — The predicate-nominative (692) is always 
connected with the subject by esse, to be, or Ktrnta verb expressing aa 
incomplete idea. 

Item. Of this class of verbs are to appear^ ap par ere, videri; to 

become, fieri, evadere, existere; to be named, dici, ap- 

pellari,nominari; to be esteemed, existimari, haberi,&c. 

Ariovistus was called king by the Ariovistus a lenata rex appel- 

eenate, \ latus est. 

^ 5. Genitive. 
(695.) Rule V. The genitive answers the questions %oh4>8e 7 
of whom? of what? e.g.,, the love of glory ^ amor glorie; 
Cicero'' 8 orations^ Ciceronis orationes. 

Rem. The genitive is subjective when it denotes that which does 
something, or to which a thing belongs ; e. g., Ciceronis oratio- 
nes. It is olgective when it denotes that which is affected by the 
action or feeling spoken of; e. g., amor glorias : ihe taking of the 
town, expugnatio urbis. 

(696.) Rule VI. Oenitive of Quality, — The genitive (with 
an adjective, or pronoun of quality, number, &c.) is used to ex- 
press the quality of a thing. 

A man of great bravery. I Vir magnsB virtutis. 

A ditch of fifteen feet. I Fossa quindecim pedum. 

Rem. 1. The ablative is also used in the same way (724). 
2. If the two nouns are connected, not immediately, but by another 
part of speech, the accusative must be used: fi>ssi^ quindecim 
pedes lata. 



Digitized by 



Google 



296 GENITIVE GA8E. 

(697.) Rule VII. Partitive-genitive, — The geoitive is used 
to express the whole of which anything is a part. Hence, 

(a) With oompurativef and snperlatiTei : 
The more learned of the two broth- 
ers* 
The most learned of the Romans. 



Doctiorfratram dnorum. 



DoctiMimiu Romanorum. 

(b) With all words expressing number or quantity, whether adjectives, 
pronouns, numerals, or adverhs ; e. g., many cf the soldiers, m a 1 1 i 
militam; which of you 1 quis TestrnmT the last of the Romans, 
altimas B/Omanornm; enough eloquence, satis eloquentis; 
where ^^ny^hiX^Kct) of the world 1 nbinam gentium? 

Rem. This role includes the neuters tantum, quantum, ali- 
quantum, quid, aliquid, &c. 

(698.) Rule VIII. Genitive of Menial Affeed&m The 

genitive is used with verbs and adjectives expressing certain 
operations of the mind or feelings, to denote the object thereof. 

(a) Operations of the mind. 
1. Adjectives of knowledge and ignorance, remembering and/oyv 
getting, certainty and doubt. 



Beneficii memcn*. 

B ventus befUi non erat ignanis. 



Mindful of a kindness. 
He was not ignorant of the re- 
sult of the war. 

2. Verbs of remembering and forgetting (recordor, memini, reminis* 
cor, obliviscor). 



Tb remember past events. 
He exhorts the ^duans to for- 
get their disputes. 



Meminisse proeteritorum. 
Cohortatur ^duos ut controver- 
si arum obUviscantur. 



[The thing remembered is often put in the accusative.] 
{b) Operations of the feelings, 

1. Adjectives expressing desire or averston, patience or impeUienee^ 
appetite or passion. Participles used as adjectives fall under this 
rule. 

Desirous of praise. I Avidus 1 a u d i s. 

A lover of {^one loving) virtue, I Amans virtutis. 

2. Verbs. 

(a) Those expressing pity, viz., miseresco, misereor. 

I pity the unfortunate. \ Miseresco infeliciuoa. 

{b) The impersonals pudet, piget, pcdnitet, tttdet, miseret (shmmi^ 
August, repentance, loathing, pity). 



Digitized by 



Google 



GENITIVE pASE. 297. 



J am not only sorry for my fol- 
ly , but ashamed of it. 
1 am toeary of my life. 



Me non Boltim posnitet f tnlti- 

t i 83 mese, led etiam p n d e t. 
Me tasdet vitas. 
Rem, 1. Observe that the person feeling is expressed by the accusa- 
tive. 
2. The cause of feeling may be a verb, or part of a sentence, instead 
of a noon in the genitive. 
/ am not sorry (= it does not re- 1 Non posnitet me vixisse* 
pent me) that I have lived. \ 

(699.) Rule IX. Genitive of Participation. — The genitive 
is used with adjectives and participles expressing (1) plenty or 
wantj (2) power or weaknessj (3) sharing or its opposite, (4) 
likeness or unlikeness* 



(1.) Full of wrath. 
(2.) Master of on^s faculties. 
(3 ) He is like his brother. 
(4.) Man is a sharer of reason. 



Plenos ircB. 
Compos mentis. 
Similis est fr atria. 
Homo particeps est rationis. 
Hem. 1. Those o£ plenty and want take also ablative (716, B. 4). 
^ 2. Those of likeness and unlikeness take also the dative (704, 4). 

(700.) Rule X. Genitive of Value, — The genitive of cer- 
tain adjectives is used with verbs of valuing, esteeming, buying, 
selling, &c., to denote the price or value. 

TTie poor man estimates riches at I Pauper divitias magni asstimat. 
a great value. I 

Rem. 1. Snch genitives are magni, permagni, plaris, maximi, 

minoris, and others. 
2. If the price be a noxm, tiie ablative is used (719). Also, the 

ablatives magno, permagno, plnrimo, parvo, minimo, nihi< 

lo, are often used. 

(701.) Rule XI. Genitive of Crime, — The genitive is used 
with verbs of accusing, condemning, acquitting, 6cc., to denote 
the crime or offence charged. 



Proditionis accosare. 
Praetor reun criminis absolvit 



To accrue of treachery. 
The judge acquitted the prisoner 
of the crime. 

(702.) Rule XII. Genitive of Property, — The genitive is 
used widi esse to denote (1) that to which something belongs ; 
(2) that to which sometiiing is peculiar. 

(1.) This book belongs to my father. 1 Hie liber est mei patris. 
(2.) It is peculiar to the brave to I Fortium est dolorem fbrtiter pati. 
endure pain ipOh fortitude. \ 



Digitized by 



Google 



2M 



OATIVB CA0S* 



» Che fefltfiraig ooostractiMif t 



Iti 



cf a wiie man ^ eit lapientifl. 



Btm. 1. UBdartiiislaathMd< 

tlie property 
peealiarity 
doty 
marii 
ofaancterietio 

i. Obeerre earefiiUy, tiiat iDStead of the gen^ye of the penonal pro- 
noanf (mei, toi. &c.), the neuter poMewiTef (mennv tanm, 
■mum, not tram, Teitrnm) are used; €.g^it i* my duty, &c.; 
eit menm. Sec 

(703.) Rdle XIII. The gemtive is used with the impersonal 
interest {it concerns), to express the person concerned. 

It concern* my brother. I Mei fratrii interest 

It concerns the ttate. \ Reipnblicas interest 

Rem. Bnt imtead of the genitiTes of the personal pronouns (mei, 

tni, Jtc.), the posfessive forms m e a, to a, &c., are always used ; 

and with them the impersonal refert has the same force as in- 

terest 



It concerns you. 

It is of great importance to me to 
seeyou. 



Tna interest (not tni interest). 
Magni me a refert nt te videam. 



^ 6. Dative. 

(704.) Rule XIV. The dative case is used to expnM the 
person or thing to or far whom (or which), to or fir whose advan^ 
tage or disadvantage anything is done or tends. 

^^ Abnost evezy instance in which the dative occurs may be ex- 
plained by a proper application of this role. For the sake of foller 
illustration, however, we add the following heads : 
(1.) Dative of Remote Object. — ^The dative is used to express the remote 
object, 

(a) With tran»iJbine verbs governing also a iireet object. 
I send you a book, Mitto tibi Ubrum. 
Fisistratus conquered the Mega- Pisistratns sibi Megarensei Ticit 

rensesfor himsdf. 

Rem, The aoeusative if often omitted, and the dative alone appears 
with the verb ; e. g,, I persuade you, tibi suadeo ; he told the gen- 
eral, nuntiavit imperatorU 

(b) With intransitive verbs expressing an aiction done to or for aome 
person or thing. 

I have leisure for philosophy. | Yaco philoiop&iff- 



Digitized by 



Google 



DATIVE CASE. 299 

(2.) On the same principle {advantage or disadMiniage), the dtdve ii 
used with verba of the following^ meanings, vis. : 
Envy, profit, please, displease, obey, 
Help, hurt, resist, excel, or disobey. 
Command, indulge, be angry, spare, upbraid. 
Marry, heal, favour, meet, trust, and persuade. 
Rem. 1. Javo, laedo, delecto, offendo, rego, gubernov govern die aoca- 

sative. 
2. Impero, credo, minor, comminor, are also used transitively, widi 
accusative and dative. 
(9.) Dative with Compound Verbs. — ^The dative is used with mvst verbs 
compounded with ad, con, in, inter, ob, pros, sab; and with many of 
those compounded with ab, ante, de, e, post, pre, re, super. 

Rem. These verbs govern the dative when tiiey acquire a meaning 
from the prepositkm which calls for the dative ; e. g„ to join, j u n g e r e, 
takes accusative; but to join to, adjungere, takes dative also. 
When they are transitive, they take both accusative and dative ; 
but when intransitive, the dative only. 
To prefer unknown m^n to known. \lgnotoB notis anteferre. 
Vices creep upon us. I Vitia nobis obrepunt 

(4.) So, also, the dative is used with adjectives expressing advantage, 
likeness, usefulness, Jitness, facility, nearness to, and flieir opposite*. 



Be kind to alL 
Hurtful to the body, 
A piaoefUfor ambush. 
They are neighbours to the Ger- 
mans. 



Cunctis esto benignos. 
Corpori pemiciosum. 
Locus insidiis aptus. 
Proximi sunt Germ an is. 



Rem. 1. Adjectives ^f likeness or unlikeness may take the genitive 

(699, 3). 
3. Those oifUness and unfitness often take the accusative with ad ; 

e, g., locus ad insidias aptus. 

(705.) Rule XV. Dative of Possession, — The dative is used 
with esse to express the person who has or possesses some- 
thing. 

/ have a book. | Est mihi liber (= habeo librum). 

Rem, 1. I have a name = est mihi nomen ; but if the name be ex- 
pressed, it may be put either in nominative or dative ; e. g., my 
name is LaUus = mihi est nomen L nlius (or L selio). 

2. The possessor is expressed by the dative when the mind refers 
chiefly to the possession (e. g., I have a book = est mihi liber) ; 
but by the genitive when the mind refers chiefly to the possessor 
{e. g., this ^ook is my father's = liic liber est mei patris). 



Digitized by 



Google 



300 ACCUSATIVE CASE. 

(706.) Rule XVI. Dative of the End {Double Dative).— Two 
datives are used with esse, and with verbs of giving , coming, 
sending, imptUing ; one to express the person, the other the 
object or end* 



The Boians were (for) a protection 

to ike rear, 
PatLtanias ccane to aid (for an aid 

to) the Atheniaru. 



Boii novistimit prsesidio enuat. 



Pansaniafl venit Atheniensibas 
auxilio. 

Rem, The verbs used with doable dative are esse, dare, dacere, 
tribaere, vertere, accipere, relinquere, deiigere, mit- 
tere, venire, habere. 

[The dative is used with gerundives, for which see 737, b.] 
^ 7. Accusative. 
(707.) The accusative is the case of the direct object, and 
answers the questions whom 7 what 7 to whai place ? 

^^ Under this general statement we make three heads : (1) the ao- 
cosative with verbs ; (S) the accasative with prepositions ; (3) the 
aocosative according to the usage of the language. 

I. Accusative with Verbi. 
(708.) Rule XVIL Accusative of the Direct ObjecL— The 
accusative is used with -transitive verbs, to express the dired 
object. 
Casar recaUs the lieutenant. | Caesar legatnm revocat 

Rem. 1. Some verbs are rued both transitively and intransitively; 

the use of these most be learned by practice. 
S. Some intransitive* (especially those of niotion), compoonded with 
prepositions, acquire a transitive force easily recognised from their 
meaning; thus : to go, ire ; to go across, transire, whidi takes 
tiie accusative. 
3. Some intransitives take an accasative of a noun from the same 
root with themselves ; e. g., to live a life, viverevitam. 
(709.) Rule XVIII. Accusative with Impersonals. — The 
accusative of the person affected is used with the impersonals 
pudet, piget, taedet, miseret, poenitet. 
I am tired of life. | Tffldet me vita. 

Rem. Decet and its compounds (which admit a personal sut^ject), tho 
juvat and delectat, take the accusative. 
Anger becomes wild beasts. \ Decet ira feras. - 

(710.) Rule XIX. DoubU Accusative, 
{a) Two accusatives, one of the person, the other of Iha 



Digitized by 



Google 



ACCUSATIVE CASE. 3Q1 

tlnng, are used with verbs of teaching, concealing, asking, or 
entreating, and also with those verbs whose passives have a 
double DomiDative (694, 2, R.). 



dais mnsicam docnit Bpami- 

nondam. 
Nihil te celo. 
Hoc te vehementer rogo. 
Avaritia homines coscos reddit. 



(1.) Who taught Epaminondas 

music 7 
(2.) I conceal nothing from jfou. 
(3.) I axk this of you earnestly. 
(4.) Avarice renders men blind. 
Rem. 1. With verbs of asking, demanding, the ablative with a prep- 
08iti(xi is used instead of one of the accosatives. 
• jH^ ambcKsadors were asking \Lega,ti pacem a Cabs are posce- 
peace of CcBsar. I bant. 

2. Petere and postnlare always take the ablative with ab; and 
quaerere, the ablative with ab, de, or ex. 

(6) Two accusatives are used also with verbs compounded 
with trans. 

CcBsar led Ike army acrost M« I CaBsar exercitum Bhennm 
Rhine. \ transdoxit 

** The trans is often repeated; e.g., Caesar exercitom trans Rhennm 
transdnxit 

Rem. 1. In the passive constmction of verbs which take a double ac- 
cusative, the person takes the nominative, bat the thing generally 
remains in the accusative. 
I t04zs 4zsked my opinion. 
The muUitude is led across the 
Rhine. 

2. But with verbs of demanding the ablative with a preposition is 
generally used. 
Money is demanded of me, | Pecunia a me poscitur. 

n. Accusative with Prepositions. 
(711.) Rule XX. The accusative is used with the preposi- 
tioiis ad, apud, ante, adversus, cis, citra, circa, circum, 
circiter, contra, erga, extra, infra, inter, intra, juxta, 
ob, penes, per, pone, post, prseter, prope, propter, se- 
cundum, supra, trans, versus, ultra. Also, with in and 
Bub, when motion is expressed ; with super, when it means 
over, and with subter nearly always. 

HL Accusative according to the Usage ojthe Language. 
(712.) Rule XXI. Accusative of Measure. — The accusative 
is used in answer to the questions how far? how de^f how 

Cc 



Egorogatus sum sententiam. 
Multitude Rhenum transducitur. 



Digitized by 



Google 



802 ABLATIVB CASE. 

ti^ick? how hroad? h&w old? how long? (whether of time or 
distance). 



The city w imo miles qff. 

The ditch is ten feet wide {deep, or 

longr). 
Only one hour, 
T^oenty years old. 



Urbf duo millia abest. 

Fossa decern pedes lata (alta, 

longa). 
U n a m modo h o r a Qu 
Vig^inti annos natos. 

Rem. 1. How far T is sometimes answered by the ablative. 

Six miles from desat's Camp, I Millibas passumn sex a Cesaria 
I castris. 
S. For time how long, the accusative with per is sometimes ased, and 
sometimes the ablative alone. 
Through the whole night, I P e r totam noctem. 

Ek was absent six months. | Sex mens ibns abfnit 

(713.) RuLB XXII. Accusative of Direction^ Whither? — 
The accusative is used with Dsmes of toions and small islands^ 
in answer to the question, whither ? 

To set ovifor Athens. \ Athenas proficisci. 

Rem. 1. With names of countries or large islands the preposit^opfi 
in, ad, most be used. 
He crossed into Europe, | In finropam tn^edt. 

2. Domos and ms fi}Uow tiiis role. 
To go Jiome, I Ire domam. 

/ will go into ^ country. I Rus ibo. 

(714.) Greek Accusative, — ^The accusatiTe is used to express a special 
limitation. 
Naked as to his limbs. i Nados membra. 

For the most part {men) say so, \ Maximam partem ita dicnnt 

Rem. This is a Greek usage, common in Latin poetry, bat not in 
prose. 

(715.) Exclamatioju.-'The accusative is used in exclamations, either 
with or without an inteijection. 
Miserable me I I Me miierum. 

Behold, four altars ! | En quattuor aras. 

[For tiie accusative with the infinitive, see 751.] 

^ 8. Ablative. 
(716.) Rule XXIJI. General Rulc-^The ablative is used 
to mtpress the (1) cause ; (2) manner i (3) m^ns, PHttenal, or 
iHstrum^nt ; (4) supply. 



Digitized by 



Google 



ABLATIVE CAS9. 308 

1. Cause. — ^The ablative of caaie is used with passive verbs, and with 
the participles n a tas, genitns, ortus, contentns. 



The world, is illumhuited by the 

sun. 
X am eonteni vnth my lot, 
O thou, bam of a goddess ! 



Sole mondns illostrator. 



Sorte mea conteotos som. 
Kate Deal 

O^ If the caase be a person (or a thing personified) ^ a or ab must be 
used with passive verbs. 
The world was built by Ood. | A Deo miiDdas fedificatns est. 
8. Mawner.^ia) This ablative generally ocoors in noons denoting man- 
ner; e. g., mos, modus, ratio, Arc. 

In this way I wrote. | Hoc mo do scripsL 

{b) With other noons, com is generally used, onless w adjective ii 
joined with the noun. 

He hears with pieasure. I Cum voluptate audit. 

He bears the injury with firmness. jJEquo animo fert injuriam. 
3. Means, Material, Instrument. — Ablative without a preposition. 



To travel by horse* carriage, ships. 
Bulls defend themselves with their 
horns. 



Equo, curru, navibus, vehi. 
Cornibus tauri se tutantur. 



GP* If the instrument or means be a person, per or propter u 
used, with ^e i^»asatiTe^ 
I was freed by you, \ Per te liberatos sum. 

4. Supply.-<--As supply may be'either abundant or defective, t^e abla- 
tive is used with verbs and adjectives of abounding, wanting, filling, 
emptyiTig, 3x. ; e. g., abundare, egere, carere, inops, refertus, 
prsBditus, &c. 



Germania fluminibus a bund at. 
Mens est prssdita motu sempi- 
temo. 



Germany abounds in rivers. 
The mind it endowed with per- 
petual activity. 

(717.) Rule XXIV . The aUative of the thing needed^ and 
the dative of the person^ are used with opus est {(here is 
need). 

We have need of a leader, | Due e nobis opus est 

Rem, If opus est be used personally, the thing needed is put in tiM 
nominative as subject. 

Leaders are nectary for us, | Duces nobis opus sunt 

(718.) Rule XXV. The ablative is used with the depo- 
nents utor, Iruof » fungor, potior, vescor. 

To make UH of advice. I Consillo uti. 



They were enjoying peace. ] P ac e fruebantur. 

Digitized by dOOQ IC 



304 ABLATITE CASE. 

Bxm. Potior i« used also witli die geiutire 
To obtain possession of aU GauL \ Totiai Galliae potiri. 

(719.) Rule XXVI. Ablative of Price. — The abkitiTe is 
used with Yorbs of buying, selling, valuing, 6cc. ; also with 
the adjectives dignus and indignus, to express the price or 
value. 

He sold his country for goid. Patriam auro vendidit. 

Worthy of hatred. O di o dignoa. 

That hattU cost the Hood of Maltomm sanguine ea victefia 
many. atetit 

^p* If the price or vahie be an adjective, it is generally pat in the 
genitive (700). 
(720.) Rule XXVII. Ablative of Limitatim.—The abk- 
tive is used to denote the limitation generally expressed in 
£nglish by cls to, in respect of, in regard to. 

Older (i e., greater in age). Majqr n atn. 

Skilled in the law. Jure peritos. 

In ejection a son. J Pietate filioa. 

(721.) Rule XXVIII. Ablative of S^araOon.— The aUa- 
tive is used with verbs of removing, freeing, depriving, and tiie 
like. 

Casar removed his camp from the 

spot. 
The trees are stripped of leaves. 



CflBsarcaatra loco movit 



Arbores foil i a nodantor. 



Rem. Many of these verbs also take the prepositions a, a b, d e, e x. 

(722.) Rule XXIX. Ablative of Q^aUty.— The ablative is 
used (with an adjective of quality) to express that one thing is 
a quality or property of another. 

Casartoas a man of consummate CaBsar snmmo fait ingenio. 

talent, 
AgesHaus was a man of low stat- Agesilaas statara fait humili 

tire. 

Rem, The genitive is also thas osed (696). 

(723.) Rule XXX. Ablative of Comparison, — The ablative 
is used with the comparative degree (quam being omitted) to 
express the object witii which anotiier is compared. 

Cicero was more doquent <^n I Cicero fait eloqaentior Horf-#B- 
Hortensius. I sio. 



Digitized by 



Google 



ABLATIVE. 305 

(724.) Rui^E XXXI. Ablative of Measure.—The aWativie of 
measure is used, 

(a) With comparatives and superlatives, to express the meas- 
ure of excess or defect. 

(h) To express the measure of time before or after any 
event. 

Much greater. M a 1 1 o major. 

ThemUtocUa lived many year* be- Tbemistocles permnltis annit 
fore Demosthenes. ante fait qaam Demosthenes. 

. (725.) Rule XXXII. Ablative of Time When.— The abla- 
tive is used to express the point of time at which anything 
occurs. 

On the sixth day. | Sexto die. 

Rem. The time toitJ^in which anything occors is expressed by the ab- 
lative with or without in or d e. 
T^^thin ten years. iDecemannis. 

Within those days. |ln his diebus. 

(726.) Rule XXXIII. Ablative of Place. 
(a) The place whence is expressed by the ablative. 
He departed from Corinth. \ Corintho profectus est 

(fc) The place where is expressed by the ablative, if the noun 
be of the third declension or plural number. 

Alexander died at Babylon. I Alexander B abylone mortaus est. 

At Athens. { A t h en i s. 

Sem. If the nomi be of the 1st or 2d declension singular, the genitive 
is used. 
At Rome. At Corinth. jUomaD. CorinthL 

(Domi follows this rale.) 

(727.) The ablative is used with the following prepositions, 
▼iz. : 

Absque, a, ab, abs, and de. 
Coram, clam, cum, ex, and e, 
Tenus, sine, pro, and pra. 
Also with i n and sub (implying rest, not motion), and super, when it 
means upon. S u b t e r is sometimes, also, used with ablative. 

(728.) Rule XXXIV. Ablative with Compound Verhs.^ 
The ablative b used with some verbs compounded with a (ab, 
a b s), d e, e (e x), and super. 

Cc2 



Digitized by 



Google 



806 



INFINITIVE. 



To be absent from the city, U r b e abeue. 

Caesar resolved to desist from btU- Caesar praolio sapenedero flap 
tie. tait. 

Rem. The preposition is sometimes repeated. 
To depart from life (= to die). | Exire de vita. 

[For the Ablative Absohite, see 750.] 
(729.) Verbs followed by genitive, dative, or ablative, where toe use no 
preposition, and should therefore be likely to pat the accusative. (Those 
with asterisks take also an accusative cX the thing, tfaoogfa some of them 
only when die accusative is a neuter pronoun.)* 



obtain, 

forget, 

rememhcT, 
recollect, 

require, 
need, 



potior {abl.). 
( misereor. 
\ miseresco. 

oblivisoor [aec.). 

memini [aec). 

recordor {ace). 

remioiscor (acc^. 



abuse, 

revUe, 

advise, 

answer, 

believe, 

command, 

commission, 

charge, 

congratulate, 

displease, 

direct, 

envy. 

favour, 

fUdter, 

give, 

helv, 

aia, 

assist, 

succour, 

heal, 
cure. 



>maledico. 

*suadeo. 
^respondeo. 
credo. 
*impero. 

V *mando. 

*^fratulor. 

displiceo. 

•praecipio. 

•mvideo. 

faveo. 

adulor (ace.). 

*do. 

? auxilior. 
i opitulor. 

< subvenio. 
/succurro. 

> medeor. 



hurt, 

indulge, 

marry, 

obey, 

pardon, 

permit, 

persuade, 

please, 

resist, 

oppose, 

rival, 

satisfy, 

spare, 

suit, 

threaten, 
trust. 



nocea 

*indulgeo. 

nnbo. 
rpareo. 
< obedio. 
(.obtemp^o. 

*igno8ca 

*permitto. 

'persuadeo. 

placeo. 
7 resisto, 
{repuffno. 

flBmoIor (ace.). 

satisfodo. 

parco. ^ 

convenio. 
J "minor. 
/ *minitor. 



abuse, 

discharge, 

perform, 

enjoy, 

obtain, 

require, 

need, 

want, 

use, 

want, 

am without. 



abutor. 
Vfang<»^. 

fnior. 
potior {gen^. 



Ul. USE OF THE INDEFINITE VERB. 

^ 9. Infinitive. 

(730.) Rule XXXV. Infinitive as SvJ)ject.^The infinidve 
b used as the subject of a verb, and is then regarded as a UBWr 
ter noun. 

To love (= loving) is pleasant, \ Jucundum est a m ar e. 



Digitized by 



Google 



?A|lTIC|P|iC. 807 

(731.) Rule XXXVI. Infinitive as Complementary Object. 
— The infinitive is used (exactly as in English) to complete the 
imperfect ideas expressed by certain words. 

J toi$h Uf learn, | Capio discere. 

Worthy to be loved. \ Digznis am ar i 

Rem. 1. The complementary InfinitiTe occurs after verb» denoting to 
wukt to be able, to be accuitomed, ought (debere), to haeteUf &c ; 
after the adjectives dignus, indignus, attdax, &c. 

2. Observe IhuX this oonstruction. which occurs after aU verbs in 
English, can only stand in Latin after tiiose expressing imperfect 
ideas, as above stated. A purpose cannot be expressed in Latin, 
as in English, by the simple infinitive ; e. g.,he comes to ham == 
venit ut disca^ m^^venit discere. 

(732.) Historical Infinitive. — In animated narrative the in- 
finitive is sometimes used for the indicative. 

77te Romans hastened,madef^ady, I Bomani festinare, parare, &o. 

(This constmction is quite common in Sallust.) 

[For Accusative with Infinitive, see 751.] 

^ 10. Participle. 

(733.) Rule XXXVII. The participle agrees with its nomi 
in gender, case, and number, and the active participle govern* 
the same case as its verb. 



The honoured man. 
The blooming rose. 
I saw him reading a book. 



Vir laudatus. 
Rosa florens. 
Enm legentem librum vidL 



(734.) The participle future active is used to express a jpwr- 
pose (where in English we should use to, in order to, with the 
infinitive). 
Alexander goes to Jupiter Amman, 
in order to inquire concerning 
his descent. 

(735.) The passive participle is often used to supply the 
place of a noun. 
After Tarentum taken (= after 
the taking of Tarentom). 



Alexander ad Jovem Ammonem 
pergit, consul turns de origine 
sua. 



Post Tarentom captum. 
Aburbe condita. 



Prom the city buHt (=:from the, 
building of the city). 

[For Participle in Subordinate Sentences, see 749.] 



Digitized by 



Google 



808 GERUND AND GERUNDIVE. 

^11. Gerund. 

(736.) Rule XXXVIII. As the infinitive is used as a nomi 
in the nomiDative or accusative, so the gerund is used in the 
remaining cases, and governs the same case as its verb. 



Nom. Writing is useful. 
Gen. The art cf writing is osefiil. 
Dat Paper is asefal/&r writing. 
. CI learn writing. 

' \ I learn during writing. 



Scribere est utile. 

Ars scribendi estotiHs. 

Charta scribendo estntilis. 

Scribere disco. 

Inter scribendam disco. 

Scribendo discimos. 



AbL "We learn by writing. 

Rem. 1. With a preposition the gerond in the accasative most be 
used, not the infinitive: ad (inter, ob) scribendam, not ad 
(inter, ob) scribere. 

a. The general rules for the ose of cases of nonns (695-728) apply to 
the cases of the infinitive and gerond, as above given. 

Spocial Remark, The gerond is not osed in the dtttive or accutative 
with an active government ; e. g., we can say scribendi episto- 
las, cf writing letters, or scribendo epistolas, by writing letters, 
bot not charta otilis est scribendo (dat.) epistolas^ nor charta 
otilis est ad scribendom literas. In these la«t cases ^e ge- 
rundive must be osed (738). 

^ 12. The Gerundive^ or Verbal in dus, da, dom. 

(737.) Rule XXXIX. (a) The gerundive in the nomina- 
tive neuter (dum) is used with the tenses of esse, to denote 
that an action should or must be done ; and these may govern 
the case of the verb. 

{One) must write, \ Scribendam est 

(&) The person hj whom the action should or must be done 
is put in the dative. 

/ must write. I Scribendam est m i h i. 

Caius must write, Scribendam est C ai o. 

One must use reason, I Ratione atendom est. 

(738.) Rule XL. (a) The gerundive is used with esse, in 
all cases and genders, as a verbal adjective, agreeing with the 
noun, to express necessity or worthiness. 

I am to be loved; she is to be , Amandas som; amanda est, 
loved^ SfC. I &c 

(6) When the person is specified, it must be put in the da- 
tive. 



Digitized by 



Google 



SUPINE. 309 



/ must love TuUia. 
AU thingt were to be done by C<t- 
sar at one time. 



Tallia mihi amanda est 
Cssari omnia imo tempore 
erant agenda. 



Rem. a or ab wHh ablative is sometimes used instead of the dative. 
My eau$e must be managed by the \ A, consnlibus mea causa sas- 
constUs. (cipienda est. 

(739.) Rule XLI. The gerundiTe is used (to express cou" 
tinned action) as a verbal adjective, in all genders and cases 
(but the nominative) agreeing with the noun, instead of the 
gerund governing the noun ; c. g.. 

Gen. Of writing a letter, 

ScribendsB epistolsBi ipsteadof ■cribendi epistdam. 
Datr-lTo or for writing letters. 

Scribendis epistolis, instead of scribendo epistolas. 
Ace. 7\f write a letter. 

Ad Bcribendam epistolam, instead of ad acribendam epis* 
tolam. 
AbL By, 4rc.f writing a letter. 

Scribe'nda e pis tola, instead of scribendo epistolam. 

Rem. As observed in (736), the genmdive must be used for the dative 
or accusative of tlie genmd when it has an active government It 
may be used for it in any other case, nliiess the object of the ge- 
nmd is a neuter adjective or pronoun ; e. g., of learning the true = 
vera discendi, not veromm discendorom; t^ hearing t^ = 
hoc audiendi, not hujus audiendi. 

^13. Supines. 

(740.) Rule XLII. (1.) The supine in um is used with 
verbs of motion, to express the design of the motion, and gov- 
ems the same case as its verb. 

/ come to ask you. | Venio te rogatum. 

(2.) The supine in u is used, 

(a) With adjectives, to show in what reject they are 
used; e.g., 

Pleasant as to taste. | Dulce gustatu. 

(b) With the nouns fas, nefas, opus, in the same sense : 
fas est dictu. 



PART II. 

OF COMPOUND SENTENCES. 
(741.) A compound sentence is one made up of two or more sipiple sen- 
tences. The sentences thus combined are either oo^irdinate or subordinate. 

Digitized by dOOQ IC 



810 SENTENCES. 

I. CO-ORl>IllATI SINTXHCXl. 

^ 14. Classes of Co-wdinaU Sentences. 
(742.) Co-ordinate senteocei are united together, bat yet iiuUpendent 
of each other :* co-ordination is either, 
(a) Copulative ; e, g., Hitf father has abindoiidd hittk, and hli foenda 

have deserted him, and the son remains. 
{h) Di^neiifi>ei e. g^ Bitfier hia fktfaer has abaBdoned, or his ftittids 

have deserted hinL 
(^ Mversative; e. g^ His father has abandoned him, hU his friends 

have not 
{d) Ctmsal; e^g^Ws friends will abandon him, for his Either has 

done so. 
(e) CoHdtttwe; e, g., His fkther has abandMed him, Aettfdtt his 

friends will desert him. 

n. SVBORDlHATk SkNTtNCKS. 

^16. Classes of Subordinate Sentences, 

(743.) Subordinate sentences are so onited to otfieni (called fr ind pat 
sentences) as to be dependent upon them. 

The messenger, who was eetd, an- I Nontinsy qui missns est» nmi> 
nounced. I tiavit 

Here the messenger announced is the principal Senteacet whewm sent, 
the sabor£nate sentence.* 

(744.) Subordinate sentences lure of five classes t 

A. Participial ientences. 

B. Accueatioe with iK/initioe. 

C. Conjunctive sentences^ i. e., such as are iatrodnced by a co^juoo- 

tion or adverb of time. 
t). Relative sentences, ». &» such iui 1^6 Uittodueft^ by a ftlitttb 

word. 
B. Interrogativs sentences, i, &, such as are tntrodoc^ by an iBtte«> 
rogative word. 
We shall treat these in order, prennsing a few remarks upe» the use d 
ike mdods and tenses, which must be thoroughly understood. 

^ 16. The Moods. 

(745.) The verb expresses aiBrmation. The moods of the verb are used 
to vary the character of the affihnation. 

* It must be obvious that aU co-ordinate sentences are, for gravmiatical 
purines, i^nc^M/ sentences. Moreovel', l&e doctrines and rales applied 
to simple sentences (Part I.) are applicable to all principal sentences : it is 
only in subordinate sentekides that diffictilty ti likely to occur. The pupil 
should, therefore, obtain as accurate a knowledge as possible of the vari- 
ous kinds of subordinate sentences, and the di£ret-ettt modes of alBrtnlitkn 
wMeh th«y eft^fess» as it is upen these Aat theif lyntMk depends. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PARtlCIPIAL BENTlSNCES. ftll 

1. B^ thft inditeafve, ridfin&fttkHi df d fad ill Expressed i eg., I finite, 

I did not write* 
^, dy tbe i'Aljvinttvoe, adlrm&tton is e&prestod doubifuUp, contingently, 

or indefinitely ; e. g., / ina^ fori^e, tf / should write, pethaps some 

(may) think. 
3. By the imperative, aiBrmation is expressed as an injunction or r^- 

quisst ; e. g., toHte. 
(746.) It most be obvioos diat in principal sentences the iiidicatava 
mood chiefly occurs, and in subordinate sentences the snbjunctire, as af- 
firmations of fact are made more freqaftitly iA the former than in the lat- 
ter. But, 

(a) The subjunctive is used (of course), even in principal sentenceSy 

when the affirmation is doubtful, contingent, or indefinj^ (745, 3). 
(fi) The indicative is used, even in subordinate sentences, when the af- 
firmation is positive. 
True firiendships are everlasting, I Vers amicitis ■enqotems sunt^ 

became nature cannot be changA quia naturamutarioon potest. 

ed, I 

^ 17. The Tenses. 

(a) DZVISION. 

(747.) The tenses are either primary or historical ^647, R. 3), 

PreMot. Fntnre. Pre*. PerC 



. . p . 5 <^ii^<^^ amabit; amavit, 

W armory, ^j^j^^ j^^^^j^^ kghaslovid. 

Imp«rf«et 



Imp«rf«et Pluperftot. PerCAoriit. 

amtiverat, amavit» 

he had lOved. he loved. 



Qi) snocKSSioN of txnsxs. 
(748.) Rule XL III. If there be a primary tense in the 
{principal sentence, there must be a primary tense in the sub- 
ordinate ; if an historical tense in the principal, an hittnrical in 
the subordinaM. 



8abordiiiat& 

/ know irhAi ybtl €trt doing. 

I foeu knowing what you were doing, 

I have learned what you are doing. 

I tiartad ^hftt you were doing. 



PriviptL 

Bcid, quid agas. 

Soiebam, quid ageres. 

Cognovi, quid agas. 



Cognovi, quid ageres 

(A.) ^ 1,8. Participial Sentences. 
[The participle is used to abridge discourse, instead of a relative, ad« 
verb, or coi^unctidh vrith a verb. Thus (1), Tarquin, when he was expeUed 

* Of cotmid thd eution m&y be eitbdi* positive or nega^ve, without a^ 
fecting the affirmation. 



Digitized by 



Google 



812 



ACCU8ATIVB WITH INFINITIVE. 



frtm Romf es Tanioiii, expdhd from Eom^ (9) Cmv, when ^ work 
woijinisked, departed = Cm—r, the work having been ^nieked, depwted 
These are abridged ■obordinate aenteDcea, (1) being called the eom^ 
juneUve participial oooatraction, and (2) the ablative abaolate.] 

(749.) Conjunctive Participial Construction. — The participle 
in a subordinate sentence wfdch has for its subject the subject or 
object of the principal sentence, agrees with this last in gender, 
number, and case. 



Ariatidei, lehen he was expdled 
from his counirp, fled to Lace- 



Aristides, p atria pulsus, Lace- 
dsmonem fugit. 



SP* Observe, in this example, that Aristides is the subject of 
bodi the principal and the sabordinate sentence, and pulsus 
agrees with Aristides in gender, number, and case. In Eng- 
lish sudi sentences are generally expressed by an adverb or 
conjunction with a verb. 

(750.) Rule XLIV. Ablative Absolute. — ^If the subordinate 
sentence contains a noun and participle independent of the sub' 
ject of the leading sentence, both noun and participle are placed 
in the ablative. (This construction is called the ablative ahso' 
luU.) 



When Tarquin was reigning, 
Pydiagoras came into Italy. 

AH things having been provided, 
they appoint a day. 



Pythagoras, Tarquinio regnan- 

te, in Italiam venit 
Omnibus rebus comparatia, 

diem dicunt 



Hem. Nouns, adjectives, and pronouns are often used in the ablative 
absolute widiout a participle. 

Under the guidance of Nature Natura duce. 

(= Nature being guide). 
In the consulship of Manlius, J MiiuHo consule. 

(B.) ^19. Accusative toith Infinitive. 

(751.) Rule XLV. Many subordinate sentences, which in 
English are introduced hj the conjunction that (especiallj after 
verbs of thinking, saying, "knowing, &:c.), are expressed in 
Latin by the accusaJtive with the infinitive. 

They said that they did not fear Dicebant non se hostem vererL 

the enemy. 
"Be koawM that Cicero is eloquent. Scit Ciceronem esse eloqoeii- 



Digitized by 



Google 



8UBJUK0TXVS WITH UT, NE, QJJlNf QUO, aUOMimiS. 813 

Rem. 1. Observe that the tuhject of the sentexice tirai raboidinaied 
if pat in the accofative, and the predicaU in the infinittve. If ttio 
predicate contain an adjective, it most agree with the sabjeok 

I percehre ^uxi ike vktter is cold. \ Sentio aqaam f r i gi d am esse. 
6. The accnsative with infinitive occurs chieily, 

(a) After yerba sentiendi et dicendi {tkifiking', feding, 
perceiving, knowing, saying, announcing, wiUing, forbidding, 
&c.). 
ip) Ahat sKKh. expressions as apparet {it is evident), constat 
{it is known), opus est, oportet, necesse est^ jnstnm 
e s t (i^ w necessary, right, jttst, &c.}. In this ca«e the accasatxvo 
with infinitive becomes the subject of the entire sentence. 

It i» 'known to b31 that the Romans (Constat inter omnes Ho man oi 
were very bratve. \ faiase fortissimos. 

|gP*Opt>rtet and neeesse est may tak^ liie snbjxmctive, in- 
stead (tf the accusative widi infinitive. 

'We ought ( = it behooves us) to I O portet nos virtuti studere ; oiF 
practice virtue. \ Virtuti studeamua oportet 

(.0.) ^ 20. Cowjunetive Sentenees. 

Relation of Conjunctions to the Moods. 

(752.) From what has been said (745, 746), it is obvious, that as the 
moods express ^e varieties of affirmation, and as the conjunctions are 
used to indicate different relations of Ui^oght (as positive, conditional, 
causal, Sec), there must be a close connexion between the use of the con- 
junctions and that of t^e moods. It must be borne in mind, however, that 
the nature of the afimuxtion (except, perhaps, in purely idiomatic ex- 
pressions) decides both the mood and the oonjnnctkm that shi^ be wed. 
It cannot properly be said, therefore, that the conjunctions govern the 
moods ; but, for convenience' sake, we treat them together.^ 

GENERAL RULE. 

(75^3.) The subjunctive is used in all subordinate sentences 
in y^<^ affinoatioQ is expressed as dependent upon son^ pre- 
vious affirmation, either 9» pwrp^ae^ aim, consequenee, eoTuHtian, 
or imagvnar^ eomparis$9k. 

SPECIAL RULES. 

1. Final Conjunctions, u^ ne, quin, quo, quominus. 
(754.) RuiiE XL VI. The subjunctive* is used in sentencea 
expressing a pwpose or a coiuequence, introduced by tb^ fai»!k 
conjunctions ut, ne, quin, quo, quominas* 

Dd 



Digitized by 



Google 



314 BUBJUNOTIVB IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 



1. Ut, ne, expressing jnifpote. 
I did not write tiiat in order to 

inttruetyou. 
I beseech yoa not to do this, 

S. Vt, expressing comequenee. 
The soldiers went with ticdk vio- 

lence that the enemy betook 

themselves to flight. 

(3.) duo is osed to express a purpose, instead of nt, especially when 
a comparative enters into the sentence. 



Ea non at te institnerem 

scripsL 
Te obsecro ne hoc facias. 

Eo impeta miEtes iemnt, at bostes 
se fioige mandarent. 



Cesar erects fints. that he may 
the more easily keep off the 
Helvetians. 



Caesar castella conmmnit, qao fa- 
cilias Helvetios prohibere pos- 
sit 



(4.) duin is ased in the sense of " bat that" {as not, &c.) after negtk- 
txoe sentences, and after non dubito, non dubiam es^ dec 



T\ere is no one but thinks. 
It is not doubtful but that the 
soldiers vnUJight bravely. 



Nemo est qain patet 
Non dabiom est qain milites Ibr- 
titer pagnatari sint 



(5.) daominas is ased (in preference to ne) after verbs of hinder- 
ing, preventing, standing in Ike way of, &c. (It can generally be 
rendered in English by "of" or "from" with a participle.) 

Nothing hinders Yarn from doing I Nihil impedit qaominas hoc fa- 
this. I ciat. 

Jk Conditional Conjunctions, si, nisi, dam, dommodo, moda 

(755.) Rule XLYII. ConditioDal coDJmictioiis take the in- 
dicative if the condition is expressed as real or certain ; the 
subjunctire, where it is not. 

If he has any money, he will give S i peconiam h ab e at, dabit. 
it (it is uncertain whether he 
has any). 

Rem. 1. If liie condition is represented as impossible or unreal, (1) die 
imperfect sabjanctive mast be ased for present or fbctare time ; 
(2) the pluperfect sabjanctive for past time. 

(1) Ifhe had any money, he wovld Si peconiam haberet, daret. 

give it (bat he has none). 
(9) If he had had any money, he 

woald have given it. 

Rem.2. As dam, dammodo, modo, in the sense of provided 
that, can never express a real, existing condition, they always 
take the sabjanctive. 



Si pecaniam habaissi^ dedis- 
set. 



Digitized by 



Google 



SUBJUNCTIVE WITH UUUM. 815 

3. Cimeestive Conjunctions (683, 5). 
(756.) The concessive conjunctions take the indicative when they intro- 
duce a definite statement of fact, hat the snhjnnctiTe when loiiietiiin; is 
expressed as possible, not actual. Etsi, qnamqaam, and tametsi 
are used principally in the former sense ; in the latter, etiamsi soore 
comnM^nly, and licet and q u a m v i s* nearly always. Hence, 

HuLE XL VIII. Licet and q u a m v i s {although) are al- 
ways followed by the subjunctive ; etiamsi, generally. 



Veritas licet nollam defens<H%m 

obtineat 
Sapiens dolorem patienter tolerat, 

qaamvis acerims sit 



Though truth should obtain no 

defender. 
The wise man ^ttdxires pain pa- 
tiently, even though it be griev- 
oos. 

Item. The comparative coi^jimctions, when osed concessively, velat^ 
quasi, acsi, tanquamsi, &c. (meaning as if,as though), al- 
ways take the subjunctive, for the reason given (756) for licet and 
quamvis. 



duid testibus utor, quasi res dn- 
bia sit? 



Why do I use witnesses, as 
though the matter were doubt- 
ful? 

4. Temporal Conjunctions. 
(757.) Temporal conjunctions (when, after that, a$ soon aSf 
just as, dec.) of course generally take the indicative. 



After Caesar drew up the line of 

battle. 
Every animal, as soon bm it is 

bom. 



Postquam Caesar aciem in- 

struxit. 
Omne animal, simulac ortum 

est 



SPECIAL REMABKS. 

(A.) Q n n m has two uses : temporal and cattsal. 

(a) TemfcrdL 

1. As a pure particle of time, q u u m takes the indicatiye. 

2. In historical narrative (especially where the jnincipal clause hat 
the indicative perfect) quum temporal is followed by the sub' 
junctive imperfect or pluperfect. 

"WhenCasar had conquered Pom- I CsBsar, quum Pompeium vicis« 
pey, he cnMSsed over into Italy. I s et, in Italiam tr aj eci t 

[In many such cases, the action introduced by when is in some sense 
tbe cause of the action in the principal sentence.] 

* dnunvis is used by the later writers in the sense of qnamquam, with 
the indicative. 



Digitized by 



Google 



819 R£LATIVB aSNTENCES. 

(b) damn causal, expnuing the relatkm of eause and ^eet {nnetk 
b^eaute^ aWumgk), obvionaly raqpiirea the ntif^ncUve. 
Sino« tkem tkingi art <o, | das cum ita aint 

Henc9, 

Rule XLIX* Qliuin catual is always followed by th^ 
sabluDctive ; and qnum Unyporal by the imperfect or pluper- 
fect subjunctive, when the aorist perfect indicative is used vx 
the principal sentence. 

(B.) Antequaiu a^d prlusquam are used, 

1. To ezpreaa aimple pHoritjf of one adion to another, and here the 
indicative ia obviooaly raqaired. 
AU these ihingt were done h^oreSHma omnia ante facta aunt 
Verree touched liaiy, I qvam Yerrea ItaHam attig^it. 

^. To express a con^ieanoA between one aptio^i and anotjier, a^d here 
the tubjunctive is obviously required. 



Before C^ar attempted anytidn^^ 
he orders Divitiacus to. be sum- 
moned. 



CflBsar; p r i a s qn a m qcdcUniism 
conaretur, Divitiacom ^ se 
vocari jnbet 

3. To introdoce a general or indefinite statement, requiring, of conne, 
the suljunctUfe. 

TJfe^ ti^rngtesf t^eafen^ ^^fini*. i^|7emp«ataa imnalw^ ^utei^uam 
rises. I f^or^. 

(C.J Pui^, (JloneCi qupad, in tiiie sens!^ of vmi^i t^e, the 
subjunctive when tl:^ a^p^nuation is expressed as pq$sihle or 
fotuia- 
He vas unwilling to leave Me I Dam Mib veniret^ locom relin- 
spot until Milo came, I quere noluit. 

[For uiterrogatiyes, see i,^-} 

(D.) i 21. Rel^Uive Sentences. 
(758.) Ja Ika oranpannd sentence, '^the messenger, wko^was sent, an- 
Bflnn o ed,**. the daiise " the messenger annoonced" is the prkKsipal sen* 
tonce; and the clause "who wtu senf'the relatiye sentence. The word 
** messenger'* is the antecedent of the relative "whoJ* 

1. Agreement. 

(759.) RuiiE L. The relative pronoun agrees with its 

antecedent in gender and number ; but its case depends upoa 

th^ constructlpn. of the relative sentence. 

2%^6rM^t<;AicArtmz4 a<G^e9i|0i;a|Ponteni, qui euat ad QeBevim, 
he ordera to be cot down. | jnbet rescindL 



\ 



Digitized by 



Google 



RfiLAtlTE BBNTBNOES. 317 



0%tatk bod Isr&t ptigniB!, ^u6 Gter- 
mam le exercaerant 



Tiiifl W&i ft kln^ of fighting i& 
which the Oermans had exer- 

Bmi TBd Verb tii tii€ r^lttiird sentence takes tlie person of tHe ibte- 
cedent 
We who write. | Nbsqmscribimitfl. 

2. The Moods in Relative Sentences, 

(760.) (a) The indicative mood occurs in the relative sen- 
tence only when it states a fact distinctly^ with reference to a 
partionlmr sutyect. 

The messetiffer who was sent. \ Nontitis qui inisstis 6st 
(i) But qui is used in Latin very conunonly (1) to avoid the 
use of a conjunction, and (^) to introduce indefinite statements, 
or the words or opinions of another ; and in such cases is al- 
ways followed by the subjunctive. 

(761.) Rule LI. The sidjunctive is used in rektive ftenten- 
ces expressing the purpose^ resulti or ground of the princitAd 
sentence. 

1. Pitrpose (qui = ut with deffionstratiye). 
TUtiy geikt sinbluHiadbifti to kuHfor I Misehmt le^kto^, ^ai ptcem pd^t- 
(r= who ihotdd sue for) peace. | e # e n t (?= at ii pasoem peieMt), 
2» Mentk ^ni == irt after is} tain^ ftalii^ dignnt, ita^ ^tc.). 



T am not the man to do thii (== 1 
am not anch who caa do). 

PoUio is worthy of our love (= 
wordiy, whom we maof love). 



Non is sum qui hoc faci&& 

Dignus est PoUio^ qud& diliga- 
muB. 



3. Ground or cause (qui =: cur or quod). 



Sfhis qui c^hoMemt^ 



Male fecit Hannibal qui Omfvm 
hiemarit. 



You err, who think ^ because pm 

think) — 
Hannibal did wrong in wintering 

(= because he wintered) at Ca- 

puar 

(762.) ilniiE LII. The subjunctive is used in relative ietb- 
tences containmg ind^niU statementif especially after the 
words (here arty there can befoundf there is no one, 6cc. 



Ther0 tarn Hhostlwho mfi 
I have nottiiBg ^a%ir^i» mecuse 
(=: no reooA t» bUnte) old •g«;r 



SiiBt <|ui di«'aat 
mtA hKbeo ^ttod iiidta«^itt Mi 
BecMteBh 

Rem. When ^ MMMO failMaced 1^^ AM i^MSrt^ bxprSmi^ 
Dd2 



Digitized by 



Google 



318 INTCEEOGATIVE SENTENCES. 

•entimeiito of another (rather tium of Ae writer), the lat^jancthre if 
used. 



Helvetii conBtitaenmt ea qua ad 
proficiacendnm pertinerent 
comparare. 



The Hehetians determined to get 
tog§ther those tkingt whUk 
(they thought) belonged to 
marching (were neceiiaxy for 
■ettiog out). 

^ 22. Interrogative Sentences. 
1. QvesiioTU. 
(763.) dneatioiui are often expfeiied in EngHah withoat any interrog- 
ative word ; e. g., Is Coins writing ? bat in the Latin, almost invaria- 
bly, an interrogative word is used. These are either (a) interrogative 
particles, {b) interrogative pronoons, or {c) interrogative adverbs or con- 
Junctions, 
(a) Interrogative Partidesr ue, uonne, uum, utrum, an. 

(1.) Ne simply asks for information. 
Is Caius writing ? | Scribitne Cains? 

(3.) Nonne expects ^e answer tes. 
Do you not think the wise man I Nonne putas sapientem beatum 
happy? I esse? 

(3.) Num expects the answer no. 
Do you think the fool happy ? | N um putas Btultum esse beatom f 

(4.) Utrum is used in double questions, with an {whether^-or). 
(Whether) is that your fault or I Utrum eavestra an nostra culpa 

ours? I est? 

{b) Interrogative Pronouns: quis, qui, qualis, quantus, ec- 

quis, &c 
Who taught Epaminondas tnu- | Cluis Epaminondam musicam do- 
ne? &o. I cuit? 
(c) Interrogettive Adverbs or Conjunctions: quare, cur, quando^ 

ubi, quomodo, &c. 
(764.) Qnestions are eitlier direct or indirect : direct^ when they are 
not dependent on any word or sentence going before ; e. g., Is Casus wri- 
ting ? Indirect, when they are so dependent ; e. g,, TeU me ^ Cenus is 
writing. 

S. Use of the Moods in Questions, 
(a) Direa, 
(765.) In direct questions the indieatioe is used wben the questioii ii pot 
positively, and the subjunctive when it is put doubtfully ; e. g,, 
(Positive.) What are you doing ? [ auid a g i s ? {Indie,) 
(XyoatiOoL) Whatoanwedot iOuidagamus? 



Digitized by 



Google 



OEATIO OBLiaUA. 319 

(6) IndxrecL 
(766.) Rule LIII. In indirect questions the suhjunctive is 
always used. 



I do not kxM>w what book yoa are 

reading. 
Tell me tohai yoa are doingf. 



Nescio quern libmm leg as. 

Die, quid agas. 
^ 23. Oratio Obliqua, 



"L Nature cf Oratio Obliqua, 

{767.) When any one relates the words or opinions of another, he may 
do it in two ways : 

(a) He may represent him as speaking in the Jir»t person, and give his 
words preciflely as (hey were uttered; e. g., Ariovistus said, "Iluwe 
crossed the Rhine^' — ^Aribvistos dixit, Rhenum transii. This is 
called oratio recta, direct discourse. 

{b) He may st€ae the substance of what the speaker said in narrative 
fiyrm ; e,g., Ariovistus said that he had crossed the Shine—AnoviBtaa 
dixit se Rhenum transisse. This is called oratio obliqua, 
indirect discourse, 

2. The Moods in the Oratio Obliqua, 
(768.) The sentences introduced in die oratio obliqua are either prtno- 
pal or subordinate ; e. g., Ariovistus said that he would not wage war on 
tiie JEduans if they paid the tribute yearly. Here the sentence ihat he 
would not wage war upon the JEduaru is a principal sentence, and if 
they paid the tribute yearly is a subordinate sentence. 

(769.) Rule LIV. {a) Principal sentences in the orcUio ohli" 
qua are expressed by the accusative with the infinitive ; e, g*^ 
Ariovistus dixit, se Mdma helium non esse illaturum. 
Sesn. If the principal sentence contains a command or wish, it is ex* 
pressed by the subjunctive j e, g., 
The leader said that the troops I Dux dixit, milites sus saluti con* 
should comuU their own safety, \ sulerent 

(h) Subordinate sentences in oratio obliqua always take the 
subjunctive ; e. g,,, Ariovistus dixit, se ^duis beUum non esse 
illaturum, si stipendium quotannis penderent (if 
iheypaid Oie tribute yearly). 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



APPENDICES 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



APPENDIX L 



OF PROSODY. 

^ 1. Quantity. 

[Thi rules of quantity in Lesson XLIL ihoold be reyiewed, and tb* 
following additional roles learned.] x 

1. Penults, 
(770.) DissTLLABic SUPINES lengthen the pennlt; e,g., viBum, 
Rem, The foUowing are short, viz. : 

D&tom, rfttom, s&tom, sti^om, Itom, 
Citom, Htam» sitnm, riitam, qnltnm. 
(771.) Ebduplicatkd perfects shorten botli pennlt and antepenalt, 
e,g,, cficidi, didici 

Ren^ Pemilt is long in cecidi (cedfire) and pfipddi (pddfire). 
(772.) In ADJEcrnrK penults observe the foUowing : 
1. Short Penults: -ftcns, -lens, -Idns, Imns ; & ^., JEgyptiScns, mo- 
dScos, cnpldus, legitiEmns. 

Exceptions, — ^Merftcns, opicns, amicus, afirlcas, anticos, posticus, 
mendicus, umbilicus, fidus, infidus, bimus, trimus (of two, three 
years, &c.), matrimus, opimus, patrimus, imus, primus. 

8. Long Penults: -alis, -anus, tldus, Atus, with all before -rus, 
-Tus, -sus ; e,g., dotalis, montflnus, percrfidus, astfltus, avarus, sin- 
cdms, delims, decdrus, octavus, sestiyus, famOsus. 
Eax^-Jjo&n, postfiri, barb8ms, opipfinu. 
3. Penults sometimes long, sometimes short: -ilis, -inus. 
{cij -ilis, finom verbs, is short ; fiom nouns, kmg; e. g,, fadlis {short) ; 

civilis (long), BxiUa, subtiUs, and the names of months (Aprilis, 

Ac), are long. 
{b) 4nu8, fiom noune denoting time or material, is short; finom 

other worda, long ; & g,, craatiDras, elephantbma (short) ; canihus, 

LatSnus (long), 

8. Compound Words. 
(773.) Compound words generally retain the quantity of the simple 
words; «.g., per-hU go = perl dgx>; per+Ugi = perUgi. 



Digitized by 



Google 



324 AFFBNDIX I. PEOSODY. 

Rewi. I. A chugs of TDweli doM not affect the rale ; o+lego = 

ellga 
S. DejiTOp pejCro (jAro) ; maledlcaf, &c. (dioo) ; cognltaiii, mgnlfcam 
(nOCom), are tbort^ thoagfa Ae aimple wordi are long. 
(774.) i. •, di, dl, pr<H Be,m OQuposilioii ate Ipog, bat r6 u abort 
Exc — Dirimo, diaertaa, rtfert. Pro if abort in Greek words, and in 
the oompoiinda of oaUor hmmm, tei fateor, festoi, fogio, fimdo^ 
nepoa, nepda, torma ; alao in prSficiaoor. In prftpago, prftpino^ it 
iadonbtfiiL* 
C775.) If thtlrit part of a conqioond word end in a» it ii generally kmg ; 
if in e^ i or v, generally abort ; e. gr.^ trBdnoo, trido (contracted from trans) ; 
tilMal^ ajjflwlaf ^vaMlpa^ 

^ 8. Rhythm^ Artis, Thesis, Verse, Feet. 

(776.) (a) By Rhythm we mean a regular alternation of eleratiana 
(■treaa) aad depreMioaa of t^ Toice. In poetry tills alternation feUowa 
certain fixed laws. 

(b) The effiMt of T«MbgFi*kW»8iraaB is laid «pe» one syllable is called 
letuit or rfaytfamical aooant. A.syHriri» to^ raised tgF the ictus stands in 
tiM Jrsis. The sjpUabb ar syllaUea: q» wMob t]M toia* nam or Mtka 
are said to be in the Thesis, 

(c) AfMisfinMd by the vioB^of arais apd tfaeaii. AeomUftatian 
of feet Conns a Ver$e. 

Thus, in the line vl sSrS m^ntfis, the ictos falls on the ^Uibles 
marked with the accent ; vis and mdn, therefore, are in the arsia, 
sfir6 and t6s in the thesis. The union of arsis and thesis in 
wlB9tB feima m* ftett i» «Am^ in mdntds. The oombinatioii of 
these t«M> fbet ibnw tiie ▼erse 

▼Ta«T« m«ttt6s. 
(d^ KDasftyl is a froft ooBpMed of mm king tylaU* (cnlii^ ud-two 
dKitt sgrttatte* ifkisms^i eugn tUMt^i a Sp mt iH ^d tisa kmg. (nflris and 
thesis) ; e. g,, mdat^it 

9 9.' 9ti0tntfig. 
(777.) ScAimiva is. the iiifteieiing of * yaM» ittter ik» ft^e wMdi eom- 
poae^iU Obsfrve the fiilk>wiag points jnsflanwing r 

1. SymaUepka caleeff a^^vovPEsdai'tiie- eed-efa w«d wfien flie next 
word begins with a Towel or h ; e.g,, insteadef^ re-glsc ad, we 
reader agin' atd) instead cf a(»%it<i hkm^s %Aqn* Inih^ 
& JScO^iw «i**^«« ^M^MiilMnMmelbeftia^ll ■! fte e^ 

* The following lines contain Hreiexoeplioas : 

At rape qun fnndo, ingio, neptiaque, neposqne, 

Bt cello, rari, fateor, fairamqixe, ferstamcrae ; 

Atqne pracusrpioikneeor, cumque prop^eta, piofotto. 



Digitized by 



Google 



APPENDIX I. ^PROSODY. 325 

when the next begini with a Towel; e. g., inftead of ignAtnm 
eit, weread igudf eat 

3. The lait lyllable of a word ending with a cooionant if always 
long if the next word hegina with fcconamnant; e.i^., manibua 
tremor; here bflfl (natnraOy ibort) it made long. 

4. Syiutresis contracts. two lyUaJblea into one; e. g., anriiS into 
anrea (prononnced auiya). 

& DuBTtsis divides one sjlkUe-iolo twoi e. gn picte, pictaii 
^ 4i Hexameter Verse, 
(pt.) {&) "BxXAXETZti verse is so cafldd because it^M eix meaeures, 
of a foot each. The first /o«r f^et may he eitlfer dactyls or spondees ; the 
Jiftk is regolariy a dactyl, the tixth a spondee. 

|s^ kgW futerS' IfOglt irrOpft- rm» t^pili.D 
^hftn* |dteB.».|^jtt'lMsvenft4vlb*d5.|l«f«iib|| 

Rem. 1. Sbmetifnes a spondee is fbond in the 5t}r plsce, especially 
when anything grave or sdtom is expressed. The line is then 
CBHed ipondaic. 

5. T}ie final syllable of a verse is always reckoned langt e.gift%m^ 
in dolorem. 

{h) C^uura is the separation^ by the end of a word, of syllables enter- 
ing into a fbot*^ If the feet of a verse be marlted off like bars in nrasic^ 
wrhenever a bar falls in the middle of a word. there is a casnra ; & g.^ the 
ibHowing hexameter has^ve ciesuras : 

lUe la- 1 tfls niv6- 1 flm mOl- 1 H fial- 1 tfis, hyi- 1 cinth6. 
(c) The casural pcnut^ in. hexameter verse is a pause or rest of the 
Toice on a ciesnral syllable, designed to give harmony to the entire verse. 
(1.) The' most, appiovedxasaral pause {ike heroic) falls on ihe arsis of 
the Mrdfoot^ as in the following eysmpjles : . 

Safilgiiti int6r«- I a R flie¥t i in«pft I riUld I tftnpfls. 
ZH»l£. |t«ai«T6|ib»Hm0l^| UiU |>taa.hjHI*| cBB&o. 

(9t) Ktet in excellence is the coBsnral pause in the thesis of th6 third 
foot, or in the arsis of tfae^foor^ Occorring in oAer placei» H 
mars the harmony nfl A»Tem. 



Digitized by 



Google 



APPENDIX 11. 



(779.) 6BSBK NOUN& 

Ui DeeLiJtiM^uM^ta, w^ »» te» «, & Yoa WNnetimM 4 and dL 

|,Pte«ldp-«, M, •» to, «, & 

(Del-df, i, o^ vm,or6n, e, a 
Orph-euf, ei eo, eiiin,pr6|, eu. eo. 
(or, N. eoA, G. eof, D. «i (ei), Aoc. M poeticd.) 
Atli-4«, 6, 6, Ao.orA, df, 6. (In Greek, Ci»f.) 
'Poea-is, in, H im> ^i<t i I es, edn OCbns mo^/wimQ. 
J 5 



U DteLi 



(eoi.)5 (in.)) 
Ner6-ii, 
G. Ner«id-ii, H em, 7 (Neifl), S. | ef, am, iboi, ei. > 



(«■.) 5 (i,) 5 (*i.) I 

Perid-ei, it, H em, > ^ .^e. 

i. J o«. 5 0, 5 

.Pid-A, fli, 0, fi, <^ I (alMf <^nui, Ac) 

06f. Kenten in a, gen. itii, hare dmt plor. In tUii ; thna : poemt, dat. 
plnr. poemitif, not poematfimi. 



(780.) EXAMPLES OF PATRONYMICS 

(or NAMXI FEOM ▲ FATHIR OR ANCXITOR). 

An«u, Ancfalaef, Tyndirog, Theaens, Adu(«ntii). 
Ma$e. jEneddei, Anekitiddei, Tyndmides, TkeOdes* AtlatUidet, 

AOaniiadm. 
ita. {jEnSii,) An^iiioi, Tynddrii, Tke$SU, AOarUU, 

AOaiUiai. 



(781.) EXAMPLES OF NAMES 

(dkritid from oni'i town or natitk covntrt). 
Mate, Pena» Cres, Troi, Thnx, Laoo (Laoon), Pbcsniz. 
Fern, PwU, Cretttt, Troat, Tknifo, Lacmna, Phcenma, 

Cretis, Tkre$${L 
Bomtnofl Clonniu Atbenienni Abderft«g (/«»., AbderUi$), 
{R&wum), {qfCliuktm), {anAiheman). (qfAbdera), 
Mileiiiu Arpinas 
(ofMUdus), (ofArjwmm), 

* For ThetHdet. Hence idet oomei from nom. in mu. 



Digitized by 



Google 



APPENDIX III. 



(788.) THS CALENDAR. 

(1.) Thx Boman months had the aame nimiber of dayf M cmn, but 
were differently divided. 

1. The KdUndt weace the Itt day of the month. 
U,TheNone$ " 5^ or 7^ day of the month. 

3. The/ief " 13/;& or 1»A day of the mmitfa. 

I^T We make in Marehf July, October, May, 

The Nones the tevenih, the Ides iSb^ffteenik day. 

In all the other months fihe 5th and 13th were nsed. 

(2.) The names of the mondis are used as adjectires agreeing wilb 
Kalenda, Nona, and Idas. 

The Ut 0f January, | Kalendis Jannariis. 

The l^ of June, I Nonis Jnniis. 

The nth of September, \ Idibns Septembribns. 

(3.) (a) Instead of beginning at the 1st of the month and nombering the 
days regularly 2d, Sd, ho,, as we do» the Romans counted them backward 
fiom the Kalends, Nones, and Ides. Thus, the 2d of January was called 
the Aik day before the Nonee of January, quarto (die ante) Nonas 
Jannftrias; the 3d, tertio Nonas; the 4th, pridie Nonas; the 
5tli, Nonis. 

{b) From the abore cases it will be seen that the day with which the 
reckoning commences is inchided (except pridie), t. e., the 2<i day befixre 
the Nones is tertio Nonas ; tiie 3d day before, quarto Nonas, &c. 



Thel^&ofOetdber, 
The 3d of June, 



Tertio (die ante) Idus Octo- 

bres. 
Tertio (die tfite) Nonas Jn- 

nias. 



(c) Special care most be taken, In designatmg any day between the 
Xdet of one montii and the Kaiende of another, to ensure oonrectness. 
Thus, nL (die ante) Kalend. Januar. wiU be December 30; but IIL KaL 
liiiass29th April, inasmooh as December has 31 days and April but 30. 
do m. KaL Martias = 97th Vebmary. 



Digitized by 



Google 



328 



APPENDIX III.— CALENDAR. 



(4.) The foDowing table, ezMbitm^ the ooiTespoiidence between tfaa 
Roman calendar and oars, can now be readily understood : 




(5.) !rAe5A<Zayi^orvt^£:afen<2(of4pra (for instance) may Be ex- 
pressed in three wayji t 

{a^Die q liin to «Btt«^ R^d^a^Wf' A^lf H I )ri^ 
{^ aiui[totK»U4rdi»# AfiPflnii. 

(e) Ante diem q-aintam-Kalendai Arpx41«i»} oty tUMfi- 
atdd,a.d.V:*:atApr. 



Digitized by 



Google 



APPENDIX IV. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 
(783.) Thi ibUowing abbreviatioiifl of words occur in Latin anthon t 

(a) HAMZ8. 



A. Anlxu. 
Ap. Appius. 

C. Cains. 
CL ClancUns. 
Cn. Gnsus. 

D. Decimns. 
D. Dechis. 
L. Lncins. 

^d. JEdilia. 

Ajig. Augustus. 

^fo' }Mend«. 

Cos. ConsuL 

Coss. Consules. 

B. Divus. 
Bes. Designatns. 
Bq. Bom. Eques Bo- 

manus. 
F. Filius. 



{c) 

A. Anno. 

A. C. Anno cnrrente. 

A. pr. Anno praeterito. 

A. M. Anno mundL 

A. Chr. Anno Christi. 

A. D. Anno Domini 

A. U. C. Anno urbis oondits. 

B. D. Bono dedit 

B. D. B. Bono dedit dicavit 

B. B. C. q. Bedit dicayit oonsecra- 

vitque. 
B. M. Biis Manibus. 

L. 8. Loco sigillL 

M. 8. Mannscriptus. 

P. 8. Postscriptum. 

Q^B.B.V. dnod Beus bene vertat 
B. V. B. E. E. V. 8i vales bene est 
egoTaleo. 

E 



M'. Manina. 

M. Marcus. 

Mam. Mamercus. 
M. T. C. Marcus Tulli- 

us Cicero. 
N. Numerius. 

P. Publius. 

U. duintus. 

PUBLIC EXPRXS8ION8. 

Id. Idus. 

Imp. Imperator. 

Impp. Imperatores. 

Non. NonsB. 

O. M. Optimus Maxi- 

mus. 
P. 0. Patres Con- 

scripti. 
PL Plebis. 
Pop. Populus. 
p. JGL Populus Bom. 

OTHXR ABBBKYIATIONS. 



Sept Septimiufl. 
Serr. Senrius. 

Sextus. 

Spurius. 

Titus. 



Bex. 

T. 
Ti. 



4*^1 Tiberius. 
TulL Tullius. 



Pr. Praetor. 
PrsBfl Pmfectus. 
Pont. Max. Pontifez 

Besp. Bespublica. 

S. Senatns. 

8. C. Senatus consul- 

tum. 
8. P. O. R. Senatus po- 

pulusque Bxmi. 
Tr. Tribunus. 



8. 

8. P. B. 

c 

c£ 

e. g. 

I. e. 

Lc 

pag. m. 

q. d. 

q.L 

sdL 
seq. 

V. 

▼..g. 
vu. 
vid. 

e2 



Salutem. 
Salutem didt pli 
caput, 
confer. 

exempli gratift. 
id est 
loco citato, 
pagina mea. 
quasi dicat 
quantum Hbet 
quantum sui&cit 
scilicet 
sequens. 



yerbi gratia. 

videUoet 

vide. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



WORD-BUILDING 
READING LESSONS. 



Digitized by 



Google i 



Digitized by 



Google 



WORD-BUILDING. 



(784.) 1. Thi generic meaning of a word i» contained in ilt r^ci ; die 
t/ptafie meaning' k gfenen^ given by its emd^img. Tbaa, in aU til* worda 
am-o (Jiave), am-ov {hve), am-fttor (a^ooarV am-iaaa (friend), we 
find the aavie generiO idea (^m?^) expressed by the root am -, while the 
Bpecifie meaningf, J love (y^h), love (noim), lover {voaii^, friend (adjective 
VOOnj, ^lpe gjivenjby tii^ endings o, or, 5 tor, lens, respectively. 

2. The meanings of words are farther modified by certain pr^fixee ; 
tf. ^f ir e {to go)f a,mb-iro {to go round). 

X Affam, wDids. may be compoondad with each other, and form new 
'Vfxodf ; e. g., with agr- (the stem of ager,/e2(2), and col- (the stem of 
colore, totiU), we form agricol-a, a tiller of the Jield = a farmer. 

Thus ther^i are threte mpdes of forming words : by ti^ffixeif ]»re/ixes, and 
eompo8ifiQ3n. We treat them in order. 

(l.) WORD-BUIL9I]f« BT 8l»FFIXS8« 

(A.) Noun9. 
(785.) First Declension. 
1. The ending -a, snffixed to verb-stems, expresses an agent or 
doer. 

s.crib-^^ writer, from scrib-dre, to write. 
perffig-a» deserter, from perfiig-6re, to desert. 
9. -ia, -itia, witliacyectiTa-stoamm tLdit^foesHoAmeeinditioj^ 

itg]itav^i%. cpwardice, fBom ignav-ns, coienrdly. 
prndent-ia, pnidence, from priiden(t)-% j^rikZen^. 
trist-itia, sadness, from trist-is, sacL. 

victor-ia, victory, from viot-or, vietorioiu 

9, -Htk, with supine-stems, the action or concUtion ef ih» verb. 
p i c t - n r a, painting ; pingSre (p i c t -), to paint. 

prnfect-nra, prefectship; pnsficSre (prsBfeot-), to. place over, 
(786.) Second Declension. 
1. ^ns, -ins, with verb-stems, foim nonna denoting tibe agent or ihe 
OOliPft of ti»e verb. 

secv-Lr% toaerefc 

fln(v)-6re, to;^. 
coqn-fire, to cook. 



■ erv^ms^ 

flav-ins* river 

ooqn-Uii, cook 



lud-ui, tpoHi lud.«re. ipfiay. 

Digitized by dOOQ IC 



334 WORD-BITILDING. 

S. -am, -ium, with Teib-steinf, gives a retttlt of tiie action of tlis 
V0xb. 

Jng-uni, yoAe, Jung-ere, tojom. 

vad-nm, fard; vad-6re, to go, 

incend-iam, ^ri0; inoend-Sre, to bum. 

3. -ium, with noun-stemfl, (a) an q^Eee^ or (5) an aM60i&2fl(^c of men 
ezarcif ing an office or fanctioD. 

(a) sacerdot'inm, ^^fioeof aacerdoa. 

minister-ium, ojice of miniBter. 

{b) colleg-iam, €U8emMage of ooU eg m, 

conviy-ium, iusembUigeof cony ir 9, 

4. -mentum, with yerb-fltema, the meant of doing what the veib 
expreaaea. 

teg-n-mentnm, coveringt teg-Sre, tocover* 
adju-mentnm, €tid; adjuy-tre, toauiML 

5. -ulam, -bulum, -cnlum, with yerb-atema, means or tna^m- 
ment, 

jac-nlnm, * javdin; jac-Sre. to hurl, 

▼enab-ulnm, hunting-spear; yen-ari, tohunt, 

yehi-culiim, earriage; yeh-dre, to carry. 

Bern, onlnm ailao Bome^/aei^--the place where ! «.^^ ccBna-culnm, 

cubi-cnlam. ^ 

6. -cru m, -atrum, with yerb-atema, |»Z0ce or thing prepared for any 
purpoae. 

laya-crnm, bathj lay-are, towash, 

clana-trnm, lock; eland-fire, to shut, 

(787.) Diminutives of First and Second Dedensions. 

In a, -la, -Inm, w^ nonn-atema, form diminntiye nonna, of maacift- 
line, feminine, and neater gendera. 

(a) Connecting yowela i, o, u, the latter aometimea with c. 

fili-o-lua, fili-o-la, little son, daughter — (filina); frater- 
cnlna (frater) ; opna-calnm (opna). 
{b) Sometimea 1 ia doubled: lap-iUna (lapia); codic-illaf 
(oodex, codicia) ; a a c - e lln m (aacrom). 

(768.) Third Dedension, 

1. -tfi a, -tua (with or without i aa connecting vowel), fimn, with ad> 
jectiye-atema, abatract nonna denoting quality, &c. 

bon-i-taa, goodness; bon-na, good. 



Digitized by 



Google 



WORD-BUILDINO. 335 

t. (a) -or, wi& yerb-atema, the ttction or condition of the veib. 
pav-or, fear} pav-«re, to/ear. 

am-or, love; am-&r6> tokwe. 

(b) -or, Willi lopine-stems, the agent or doer, 

doct-or, teacher f doc-dre (doct-)» to teach. 

monit-or, adviser; mon-«re (monrt-), to etdoite. 

3. -io» with tapme-Bt&aaa, the action dike yerb, eipecially tite doing 
of it. 

act-io, action; ag-dre (act-), to act, do.. 

cant-io, caution; cav-6re (eant-), to take care. 

4. -tddo, with a^jectiye-stems, the abstract quality. 

fort-i-tudo^ bravery; fort-ia, braive, 

(789.) Fourth Dedeneion, 
Moat noana of tiie 4th dedenaioii are abttracfai finmed fimn verb- 
atema or aupine-atema. 

na-ua, use; nfi (ua-), touse, 

mdt-na, motion; m6y-€re (mOt-), tovkove. 

(790.) Fifth Declension. 

1. -ea, -iea, -ities, with yeib or adjectiyeHitema, a propertyt oper^ 
ation, quality, dec. 

fid-ea (fid-dre) ; aer-iea (aer-Are) ; fae-iei (fac-ftre) ; dur- 
itiea (dnr-oa); mund-itiea (mnnd-iia). 

2. [Thoae in -itiea ooexiat with othera in -itia (784, 2) ; e. g,, 
manditia, daritia, &c.] 

(B.) Adjectives. 
(791.) First Class, oa, a, nm. 
1. 'U», quality in general (ooexiating with yerb and nonn atema). 

alb-na, white; alb-&re, iilb-iimen. 

onry-na, curved; cury-ftre, cnry-amen. 

dnr-na, hard; dnr-fire, dur-itiea, 

yiy-ua, alive; yiv-gre, yit-a. 

jL -Idaa and vlub, chiefly with atema of intranaittye yerba, the 
quality of the yerb, witboat addition, 
turg-idua, swelling; targ-«re, tosweU. 

cal-idna, warm; cal-Ore, to be warm, 

noc-nna, hurtful; noc-Sre, tohurt. 

3. -b n n d a a, with yerb-atema, force of preaent participle, intenaified. 

h.m%it9i-hxinATLn,full of hesitation; \mmitr%xe, to hesitate. 
1 a c r y m a - b n n d n a, «M(9»9i^ jiraf«#e2jr ; 1 a c r y m - i r e, to tcreqp. 



Digitized by 



Google 



3M WO&D-IUILDINO. 

4. •««ndiii»MaM at basdas, goMnllj with &• adiHtinnii idtt of 



ira-omAdni, jwt iww ffff ; ir«-sc-i, ta^ttomgiy. 
▼ ere-cnndui, baaJ^Ml, verd-ri, tofear, 

& -icuf, with DOQiHiteiiii, bdonging or rdating to a thiag. 
clasa-icua, Uhmgimg to ajleei i class-ii^ ,^bee. 
ciy-icQS, civie; civ-is, diizen, 

6. -ens, -aceus, -iciua, with noim-stemfl, material or origin, 

f^rr^ena, cfiron; ferr-um, tnm. 

cbart-aceus, of paper; chart-a, jn^mt. 

7. 4 BUS, with noim-atenii, nmUarityt quaUty, or materiaL 

as i n-in a 8, asinine, Zi^ an om; asin-ns, anau, 

mar-inns, marine} mar-e, iheiea. 

crystall-inns, crystalline; orystall-n»» ayttmL 
a. •«Bns» wilb MMM of t«wa» apdteg in a ot as, tkmatio^ot snch 
place. 

&om-anns, •i2o«um; B.oma« Some, 

•i ^sms, 4aMtm% with Boon-steai% fntnet; ab mmd tm m (like tlio 
English H)ns). 

fam-osii«» famous; fam-a, /ame. 

vino-lentns, c^runi^; yin-anoi, wine. 

i7t2.). iSStooMi CIaM» is, Mk «k 
1. 4s, quality in ganeiai ^w i ai s tl ii g ownmnriy wiA tteon and veib 
finms). 
lev-is, Zt^^; lev-Arc, lev-it%s. 

9. -His, -bilis, with verb-stems, the quality of the verb, or tiie 
capacity of it, in two senses, [a) izcHve and {b) passive. 

(a) terri-bilis, exciting terror ; terr-fire, toterr^ifL 
(d> dttc-ilis^ <io«29; dao-dre^ tottadL 

am&b-ilis, amdaMe; am-ftre^ to love. 

3. 4Us: (i Zpn^, with noon-stems, helongimg €ft relating^ ta a thing. 

civ -Hi 8, bdonging to a citizen, civil ; cir-is, citizen, 
ho s t-i li s, Ao«^i2e; hos-ti s, en«my. 

{O bwjn iii that iliw, wtA volHiteaBt is Aort; with Doai-st«ia% long,} 

4. -Ali B, -&r i 8, with noon-stems, of or bdbwging to. 

conviv-tlis, convivial; conviv-a. 

caplt-alis, capital; caput; head, 

consul-ftris, consular; consnL 

iw -enais, witfanamesoftowns— a«Kif(w«(^s«Ghtiyfm. 
Gann^encfai, an i n k abi iant of C annsa. 
Arittin-en4us, €m inkciMunt of Ariminvim, 



Digitized by 



Google 



WORD-BUILDING. 337 

(793.) Third Class, one ending. 

•ax, with verb-stems, the tendency of liie verb^ geBorally in a bad 

■ense. 

pngn-ax, pugnacious; pngn*re, toJigkL 

rap<ax, rapacious; rap-6re, to sdze, 

(C.) Verbs. 
(794.) First Conjugation, 

1. -are, generally a transitive ending, -vcith noon-stems. 

numer-are, to count; namer-as, number. 

nomin-are, tonatnc; nomen (nomin-is), name. 

2. PREquENTATivE verbs, expressing a repetition or increase of the 
action of the original verb, are formed by the endings -are and 
•itare; thos: 

(a) -are, added to snpine-stems. 
cnrs-Sre, to run to and fro; carr^re {cnr a -urn), torun, 
dormit-are, to be sleepy; dom^e (dormit-nm), to sleep, 

ip) -I tare, added to verb-stems, 
rog-itare, to ask often; rog-are, to ask. 

vol-Itare, to fly to and fro; vol-are» to fly. 

3. -ar^ deponent-ending, with nomi-stems, is much used for express- 
ing " to beihat which, or of the character that,** the noun indicates. 

/./^».vl■ «,; i to €Utend as com- I , ■ -^ • \ 

comit-ari, ^ natUon- > comes (com it-is), coinpanttwi. 

domin-ari, to rule as master ; diO-min-iLB, master. 

(795.) Second Conjugation. 

•€re, frequently an intransitive endings with noon and adjective stems, 
alb-ere, tobe white; alb-ns, white. ^ 

luc-ere, to shine; lax (Inc-is), light. 

(796.) Third Conjugation. 
Inchoative verbs express the beginning or increase of the action of 
the verb from which they are derived. They are formed by adding 
sc to the verb-stem, with the connecting-vowels a, e, or i. Most of 
them are formed on stems of verbs of second conjugation, 
pallesc-fire, to grow pale; pall-Sre, to be pale. 

labasc-dre, to totter; lab-are, to waver. 

(797.) Fourth Conjugation, 
Pesidxrative verbs express a desire of that which is implied in tiie 
primitive, and are formed by adding -nrlre to snpme-stems. 
e s - £i r Ire, to want to eat ; ed«re (es -urn), to eat. 

Fp 



Digitized 



by Google 



888 WORD-BUILDING. 

(ll.) WORD-BUILDINO BT PREFIXES. 

(T98.) Under thia head we place only tlie inseparable preposUions { 
▼iz., amb-, dis- (di-), re-, se. 

1. Amh- = about, around, on ho0i Hdef ; e. g.t amb>tre, to go 
round (amb+fare). 

^^ Before /> the 6 is dropped ; e. g., am-plector : before CHKKmdB 
amb is changed into an ; e. g., an-ceps, an-qnira 

2. D i s (d i) = asunder ; e. ^., di s - j a n g 6 r e, to dujoin (dis+jnng6re). 
^^ Di is nsed before d, g, l,m; e. g., digerere, &c Before/ the 

8 is assimilated; e.g., differre (dis+forre)> 

3. B, 6 = back, again, away, unr ; e. ^., r 6 p e ] 1 e r e, dnve-b<zck (re+ 
pellere) ; r€fic6re, r^ (rt+facere). 

^^ Before vowels, d is inserted ; e. ^., rS d-ir e (re+ire). 
[Re long occun only in rSfert] 

4. &6 = a8ide; e.g., gedncdre, lead cutrof, seduoe (od-fdncere) ; 
flfipondre, lay atide (sd-fponere). 

(ill.) WORD-BUILDIire BT COItPOBfriOF. 
I. PrepOBiHons in Composition ^toUh other Words. 
(799.) J^* Most prepositions are used to form compoond Words, and 
generally modify their meaning in a way easily understood; e. g., s tlir e, 
to standi pre stare, to stand before, to exod. We z»tice here only 
those which present some pecoliarities. 
1. a, ab, abs — away, from, {a) a is used before m and v; e. g., 
a-Bsittere, to send away, lose; a^yertere, turn away. (5) au \b 
used before ferre andfugdre: anferre, anfngdre. (c) a«, be- 
fore p or i|;7.' asperto, asi)ernor. 
8. ftd ox <o. («) Assimilated before consonants, esKcept d, j, 9, m ; e. g., 
arripSre, assurgftre, addncdre, 6co. (b) d dro|^>ed before 
gn; e.g., agnoscSre, agnatus. 

3. con (a variation of cum) = witk. (a) co before k and voweLi ; e. g., 
co-ortus, co-hibere. {b) com before b, p:* com-burttre, 
Com-pelldre. (c) Assimilated before 4 9n> r.* col -ligdre, com- 
morSre, cor-ripfire. 

4. e or ex = out of. (a) Assimilated before /; e. g., effero (ex-H 
fero). {b) e before liquids and b, d, g, v. 



Digitized by 



Google 



WORD-BUILDING. 339 

(h) Changed into Im before b, p; e.g., imbibdre (in+bibere); 
impont^re (inH-ponere). 

6. ob = against; e. g., obtrnddre (ob + tradere), thrust against, 
17* Assimilated befbre Cff,p; e. g^ oo-cidere (ob+cadere) ; 
of-ferre, op-ponSre. 

7. j^ro = forth, forroard ; e. g., projicfire (ppo+jacere), cast forth. 
EP* Before vowels, d is inserted ; e. ^., prod-ess e (pro+esse). 

8. prm^b^bre; e, g., precidSre (pne+cedenX ^ fff b^fort, to 
surpass, 

9. Buh = undert from under; e,g,, sabdacdre^ to draw from under, 
(a) Generally assinulated; e. g,t anm-moyOre, sup-ponerey Ac 
{b) Sometimes sns-; e, g^ sas-cip6re, sns-tinSre, &c. 

10. trans = across, over; e. g., transdacere, to lead across, 
B^ Trft, instead of trans, occurs in trtdere, tr&ducSre, tr&- 
jicdre. 

(800.) XL Adverbs in Composition vUh other Words. 

1. ne, Yd, have a privative force; e, g., nefas, wicked (ne+fai); 
y 6s anus, insane (vS+sftnos). 

2. benS, weU; malS, ill; satis, enough; e. g., beneficinm, a 
good deed; maleficiam, an evU deed; satisfacSre, to satisfy 
(ss to do enongfa). 

3. bis (and other numerals), ttoiee (tMce), icct bicorpor, two4>od- 
ied (bis-foorp^ns). 

(801.) m. Nouns and ABjeetives in ComposiHoH wt^ oAer Words. 
J^f^ When a noah or adjective is compounded with anoliher word, 
the oooaecting vowel is always short t. 

ttgrI-cola(agr-+ool-), ahmshaniman. 
arti-fex (artH-&o-^ an artificer. 

(802.) rV. Verbs in Composition with other Words, 

None occur, except In composition with facer e ; e.g., cftlefacero 
(calere+ftcere)) to make hot; patefaoete (pat«re*ffiiioere)> to 
lay open. 
{ py Observe that the vowel a in f acere remains vaohanged.] 
(803.) V. Comm^on Vowd-ckanges in Composition. 

1. a into t; e. g., arrlpgre (ad+rapere), conflcSre (con-f-fa- 

cere), constitaSre (con+>tataere), &c. 
3. a into e (more rarely) { e. g., asoeudSre (a,d+>candere). 

3. « into t (not always) ; e. g., collig«re (con+legere), absti- 
nfire (abs+tenere), &c 

4. « into i; e. g., occidfire («b+o»dere)^ riquir«r« (r«+ 
qusBrere). 



Digitized by 



Google 



READING LESSONS. 



Gallia est onmii dtnn^ in partes tres. — ^Belgss anam inco- 
lunt ;* Aqmtani alteram ; CeltsB tertiam. — ^Hi, ipsorum* finguft' 
Celts ^ appellantur ;* nostra* linguA, Galli.^ 

Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres ; q-u ar u m unam inco- 
lunt BelgsB, alteram Aquitani, tertiam qui^ ipsormn linguft 
Celtae, nostra Galli appeUantor. 



Hi omnes inter se differant.^ — Lingua, institiitis,^ le^bus dif- 
feront. — Garumna* flumeo Gallos ab Aquitanis dividit. — Ma- 
trdna flumen Gallos a Belgis dividit. — Horum omnimn^^ fortis- 
simi smit Belgse. — Ab humanitate^^ Provinciae longe absmit.^'— 
A cultu^' ProTinciaB longiBsime absimt. — Minime ad eos merca- 
tores^^ commeant. — Qusedam^ animos efieminant.^^^ — Qusedam 
ad effeminandos animos pertinent.^' 

Hi omnes lingua, institutis, legibus, inter se differunt. — Gallos 
ab Aquitanis Grarumna flumen, a Belgis Matr5na e t Sequ&na 
dividit. — Horum omnium fortissimi sunt Belgs, propterea 
quod a cultu at que humanitate Provinciae longissime ab- 
sunt, minime que ad eos mercatores saepe commeant, atque 
ea, q u as ad effeminandos animos pertinent,^^ important.^ 



Proximi sunt Germanis.^ — Germani trans BJienmn incohmt 
— ^Belgae cum Germanis continenter^^ bellum gerunt. 

I 435, c— a in-fcolere.— s 716.^* 694, 2, R.—^ ad-j-pellare f obsolete), 
799, 2, a.— « 167, d, 4.-7 799, ^•.—8 786, 2, institaere = in-fstataere, 
803, 1.— 9 225, a.— »o 697, a.—" 788, 1 (humanuB), homanitas = refinement. 
— 1« ab-j-sam, 799, 1. — ^ cultas (civilization), from colere (colt-), 789.— 
i< mercator, from mercari (mercat-), 788, 2, b. — 1«> Some things. — ^6 eff^minare 
(to make geminate), ex-|-i^minare, 799, 4, a : fdminare, from f^mina fw(m- 
an), 794, 1.— it tend to make minds geminate, 739.-^8 per-j-tenere, 803» 
3.— 19 in-f-portare, 799, 5, ft.— » 704, 4.— ai from oontineiui (oon-j-tenere), 
215, 2, b. 

* Ipsorum and nostra precede lingni, instead of following it^ because of. 
P9td to each olbtr, and therefore mfkatic. 



Digitized by 



Google 



READING LESSONS. S41 

Proximi sunt Germanis, qui trans Rhennm mcdiint, qui 
b u 8 c u m ^ contiiieDter bellum gemnt. 



II. 

Helvetii quoque^ reliquos* G^os virtute' prsecedunt.^ — Fere 
quotddianis praeliis cum Germams contendunt. — ^Aut^ suis finibus 
Germanos prohibent,^ aut ipsi in eorum finibus bellum gerunt. 

Qua^ de causa^ Helvetii quoque reliquos GaUos virtute 
praecedunt, q u o d » fere quotidianis praeliis cum Germanis con- 
tendunt, quum aut suis finibus eos prohibent, aut ipsi in eorum 
finibus bellum gerunt. 

Galli unam partem obtinent.*o — ^Unam partem Gallos" obti- 
nere dictum est.*^ — "EH pars initium capit a flumine Khdd&no. 
— Continetur Garumnft flumine,^ Oceano,^' finibus" Belgarum. 
— ^Attingit^* ab Sequ&nis flumen Khenum. — Vergit ad Septen- 
triones. — ^Belgse ab extremis^* Galliae finibus oriuntur. — Perti- 
nent^* ad inferiorem partem fiuminis Rheni. — Spectant* in 
Septentriones et orientem^^ solem. 

Eorum una pars, quam^^ Gallos obtinere dictum est, ini- 
tium capit a fiumine Rhodano; continetur^^ Gkirumna flumine, 
Oceano, finibus Belgarum; attingit etiam ab^ Sequanis et 
Helvetiis flumen Rhenum; vergit ad Septentriones. — Belgas 
ab extremis GaUiae finibus oriuntur; pertinent ad inferiorem 
partem fluminis Rheni ; spectant in Septentriones et orientem 
Bolem. 



Aquitania a Gbrunma flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes pertinet. 
— ^Una pars Oceani est ad^ Hispaniam. — Aquitania ad earn 

« 125, IL, b, 

1 duo que never begins a sentence. — ^ fix)m relinqaere (reliqii-)* 791, 1. 
—J 718, in valour.—^ 799, 8.— » 519, R. 4.-6 721.— » 89, II.— » aua de cau- 
sa =/<>r vhich reason,—^ becawe.-^^^ ob-f-tenere, 803, 3.— ii 751.— 1« 751, 
J2. 2^—13 716.— 14 ad-f-tangere, 799, 2, a, 803, 1.— !« 78, II., b.—^^ Pertinent 
zrsthey extendi per-ftenere.— " 438, a.— is 759.— 19 U bounded.— » on tha 
side off or near. 

* Spectant in Septentriones, &,t.x tkeylook huoihe north and ihs ri$iit^ m»i 
i. e^ vieif He in a N.E. direction. 

Fp2 



Digitized by 



Google 



342 EBADiNa LKsaoife. 

ptvtom OeMtti. qam Mt ad HispaaiRiKit pertmet— Speetak inter 
occasum*^ wAis et Septentriooea. 

Aquitania a Granmma flumine ad Pyrenaeos moDtes, et earn 
partem Oceam, quae est ad Hispaniam, pertinet; spectat* in- 
ter occasmn solis et Septentrioses. 



III. 

Orgetorix nobilis fait, — Apud Helvetioa nobilissimiia luit 
Orgetorix. — Apud Helvetios long6 ditissimas^ fuit Orgetorix. — 
Is regni cupiditate' inductus conjurationem^ nobiUtatis^ fecit. — 
Is civitati^ persuadet, ut de fiuibus auis exeant.^ — De finibus suis 
exeunt. — ^PerfacUe erat totius Gallias imperio' potiri — Perfacile 
esse^ (dixit), quum virtute omnibus prs^starent,^ totiua GaUiaa 
imperio potiri. 

Apud Helvetios longe nobiUssimus e t ditissim^s fiiit Oi^geU 
orix. — Is, Marco Messalft et Marco Pisone cona^l* 
ibu8,^<> regni cupiditate inductus, conjurationem nobilitatis fecit; 
et civitati persuasit, ut de finibus suis cum omnibua oopiia 
exirent:^^ perfiicile esae (dixit), quum virtute omnibus prs^- 
tarent, totius GaUisd imperio potirL 



Id &cUe eis pQrBiiadet.^*-^Id hoc facilius eis persuasit. — Un- 
dique aaturft loci^ Heketii coiitinentar.''«^Un& ex parte ccmti- 
nentur flumine Rheno latissimo atque akassimo. — Altera ex 
parte continentur monte Jur& altissimo; tertift ex parte laen 
Lemanno et flumine Rhodano. — Flumen Khenus agrum Hel- 
vetinm a Qermanis diyidit.^->Mon8 Jur& est inter Sequaaea et 
Hehetbs.-^^lnmeB Khodaima proi^inciam sestram ab Heke- 
ttis dividit. 

*L 78d, torn occidore, obrf^oi^dere. 

1 371, R. 1.— » fttim ciipdd-w, by 788, 1,--* 788, 3^ «?oM4wwfe^-* TO8, 1. 
— s 704, 2: he pertuadoB the. ftate ; i. e.^ the eUizetu.-'^ ut ejmwlb^tago 
Ota of: anb^ prea., 754 (ex+ire).— ? ibl., 7X8.-^ Tbe tenteom pen^odii 
use, iLc^ ifl ia orat, obliqua; 769, a, gppUeii.— » 798, 8-— "> 458, 6.-^1 Why 
ifl exirent in subj. imperf.? 748. — ^s saadere, to recommend} penpuaderf^ 
reconuaetid thonmgbly, L e., persuade,-^^ by the nature of tie country, 

* It looJu between the setting of the tun and the northf i. Ot i« 4 N^W^ d(ntGf90n» 



Digitized by 



Google 



mBAOlNO LBSBONS. 343 

Id hoc ftieitius eis perstiadet, quod undiqae loci naturft He]- 
votii Gontineatur ; una ex parte, flumine Kheno latissimo atque 
altissimo, qui agrum Helvetium a Germanis dividit ; alterft ex 
paito, moBite JurU attiasimo, qui est inter Sequanos et Helve- 
tio9; tertil^ lacu Lemanno et flumine Rhodano, qui provin- 
ciam Qostrwn ab Helvetiis dividit. 



Minus latd vagantur.-^His rebus 0t,^ ut mnva late vagen<!> 
tur."^ — ^Bellum inferunt.^* — ^BeHum jnferre" possunt.-*- Minus 
facile helium finitimis^ inferre pessunti — ^His rebus fit, ut minus 
facile bellum finitimis inferre possent. — Magno d(^re affieie- 
bantur.^^ — ^Bellandi*° erant cupidi.** 

His rebus fiebat, ut et minus late vagarentur, et minus 
facile finitimis bellum inferre possii^ — Quit de causa, homines 
beflandi cupidi oMigno dok»e afficiebantur. 



Pro^ muHittt^mo* hominum, angustoa habebant fines.^-Pro 
gloria^ belli atque fortitudinis,' angustos habebant fines. — An-* 
gustos se^ fines habere arbitrabantur.^^--Hi (i. «., fines) miUia 
passuum ducenta (CO.) patehant.^-— Hi in longitudinem' miBia' 
paasuum ducenta et quadra^nta (XL.) patebant. 

Pi'o multitudine autem* hominum, et pro glo)»ia b^ 
atque fortitudinis, angustos se fines habere arbitrablintur, qui 
in longitudinem miUia passuum CCXL., in latitudinent 
oen(uBi et ootD^ta (CLXXX.) patebant. 

Ducti sunt. — Adducti^ sunt* — Moti sunt. — ^Permoti*°' sunt. — 
Auctoritate^^ Orgetorigis adducti et permoti simt. — Quaedam ad 
proficiscendum^2 pertinent. — Constituerunt^ ea comparare.^'* — 
Constituerunt jumenta et carros emere.^'^-'-Constituerunt se- 

1* By these circumstances it is brought about.-^'^ 754, 2.-—*^ in+fei^©' — 
" 731.— 18 704, 3.— w nd+facer©, 7»d, 2; 803, 1,— » 736-— 3i oiipftroy 7»t, 2. 

1 For, or, in, view af.^~^ mvlt^oBt 788, 4.— » 7^futationfi>r toot and cour- 
H^e.— * 471.— » from «pbit-er, l^ 794, 3.-^ €xUnded.^f 712.— 8 522, ft.— 
» Ihwjti sunt= they tetre led : adducti iunts ihey were led to, i. e., «^y 
were induced.— -"^^ Moti sunt = they were moved : permoti Bxmt=iihey were 
thor(nighly mov^d, I e., prevailed upon.—^^ 788, \.-~^ 487.— 1» oon+ftata- 
ere, 803, 1.—" con+parare, 799, 3, 6.— i* 731. 



Digitized by 



Google 



344 EEADING LB880N8L 

mentet magnas facere,^ ut in itmere copia framenti snppet- 
eret.^^ — Cum prozimis ciritatibiis pacem et amicitiam^ co]> 
firmant. 

His rebus adducti, et auctoritate Orgetorigis permoti, 
constitaeraiit, ea, qu»^ ad proficisoendmn pertindreiit, com- 
parare; jamentoram et camSram quam maximum nu- 
merum^ coemere;^ sementes quam maximas^ facere, ut 
in itinere copia frumenti suppeteret ; cum proximis ciritatibus 
pacem et amicitiam confirmare. 

Biennium Helvetiia^ satis erat. — ^Biennium sibi*^ Helvetii satis 
esse duxerunt.'^ — Ad eas res conficiendas^ biennium satis erat. 
— Profectionem^ legeconfirmant.^ — In tertium annum profec- 
tionem lege confirmant. — Ad eas res conficiendaE^ Orgetorix 
deligitur.^ — Is sibi legationem^ suscepit.^^ — ^In eo itinere per- 
suadet Castico. — Casticus Catamantalddis erat filius, Sequ&nus. 
—Pater Castici regnum in Sequanis multos annas'^ obtinuerat. 
— Pater Castici a senatu popuM Romani amicus appellatus erat. 
— Orgetorix Castico persuadet, ut regnum in dvitate sua oceu- 
paret.^ 

Ad eas res confici^idas biennium sibi satis esse duxerunt; 
in tertium annum profectionem lege confirmant. Ad eas res 
conficiendas OrgetcMix deligitur. Is sibi legationem ad c i vi- 
ta t e s suscepit. In eo itinere persuadet Castico, Catamentale- 
dis filio, Sequano, cujus pater regnum in Sequanis multos 
annos obtinuerat, eta senatu populi Komani amieus appellatus 
erat, ut regnum in civitate sua occuparet, quod^ pater ante 
habuerat. 



V. 
Item Dumnori^ persuadet. — Dunmorix erat ^duus. — 
Dumnorix erat frater Divitiaci. — Bumnorix principatum^ in 

16 to make great towingt, i. e., to sow muck land. — ^f Sub+petere, 799, 
fl, €1, neuter; BVLppeteaeet=^ might be in store: nibjtmc. by 754, 1.— !« 785, 2. 
— ^9 759, Rem,--so j^ great a number as possible.— ^^ oon+emere, to buy 
together, to buy up, 799» 3.—^ Am great sowings as possible. — ^ 704." 
** reckoned.— » 496, J.— » 788, 3.-37 They Jut the departure by a law.^ 
« de+legere, 803, 3.—* 799, 9, *.— » 712,^M 754.—* 759. 

> chief power, from princeps. 



Digitized by 



Google 



READING LESSONS. 345 

civitate obtinebat. — Dumnorix plebi' acceptos' erat. — Dnm- 
norigi, ut idem conaretur persuadet,* eique filiam suam in 
matrimoniuin dat. 

Itemque Dumnorigi ^duo, fratri Divitiaci, qui eo tem- 
pore^ pnncipatum in civitate obtinebat, ac maxim3<^ plebi ac- 
ceptus erat, ut idem conaretur persuadet, eique filiam suam in 
matiimonium dat. 



PerfacOe &ctu^ erat conata perficere.^ — Ipse suae civitatis 
imperium obtenturus erat. — ^Totius^ Gallise plurimum Helvetii 
possunt. — ^Non est dubium quin plurimum Helvetii possint.^ — 
Ipse illis regnum conciliatnrus^o erat. — ^Ipse, suis copiis suoque 
exercitu, illis regnum conciliaturus erat^ 

{Oblique Narration, 769.) "Perfacile factu esse," illis 
pro bat, ** conata perficere, propterea quod ipse suas 
civitatis imperium obtenturus esset; non esse dubium, quin 
totius Gallia^ plurimum Helvetii possent;" ** Se, suis copiis 
suoque exercitu, illis regna conciliaturum," confirmat. 

Helvetii jam^^ se^ ad eam rem paratos esse arbitrantur. — 
Oppida sua omnia, numero ad duodecim,^ incendunt. — Vices 
sues ad quadringentos incendimt. — Reliqua^^ privata sedificia^^ 
incendunt. — FrumenWn secum portaturi erant. — Frumentum 
omne comburunt. — Domum^^ reditionis^^ spes sublata^^ est.— 
Paratiores ad omnia pericula subeunda^^ ^rant. 

U b i ^ jam se ad eam rem paratos esse arbitrati sunt, oppida 
sua omnia, numero ad duodecim, vices ad quadringentos, reliqua 
privata aedificia incendunt; frumentum omne, praeter quod 
secum portaturi erant, comburunt, u t, domum reditionis spe^^ 

sublata,'^ paratiores ad omnia pericula subeunda e 8i» e n t.^ 

— . ^^^ . 

3 702, was (Kceptable to the common people (a £ELVOiirite). — 3 ad+capere, 
803, 1. — ^ 725.-5 376. — c 380. It was a very easy thing to do. — "* to aC' 
complisk, per + facere, 803, 1. — b Qf the whole of Oaul, the Helvetians 
are the most powerftd.-^ 754, 4.— lo 446.—" jam = oi /<m^.— la 751.— 13 in 
nwmher (amonnting) to twelve. — i* relinqnere. — ^'* 801, SBdes + facere.— 
w 713, Rem. 2.— 17 788, 3. — w sab-ffero.— 19 Bub+ire, gerundive, 739.— 
M when.-^^ 750.— s» 754. 

* CfiBBur ofben lues the historical present, ai in tliis fawtance, initead of the per- 
fectaoriflt If persuadet were used reafly as tbe preaent^ then conaretur 
wouM have to be c one tur, by 748 ; but, as the historical presenl^ it requires a 
past tense In the subordinate sentence' 



Digitized by 



Google 



VL 




Omnibot rebiis* ai protfc 
^■a<be ad ripam RkodmBi 






pcTvpoit. *^ D^ tjus advvaCaF Hfllwtii 

Lefstos ad evm mfttwH- — H e i i ctii a eat 
maleficio^ iter 

C«9ari ^««m id mmtmmam caaat»^ eoa per 

I pudkiwi , et qaam 

vlteriorem cqb- 

Ubi de «9aa •dfrat« Hel- 

ad aiafli nttuBt,^ qui diea- 

I, — <r» »— ^ w» ■ ^».w. tdU mmlffirio iUrperpmma^ 

€iam facert^ proptaraa qmod €kimd iUr h m h eamt nutbim; 
ngmrc, itf 9M wohmtaU id wMJaeere ImmL" 



maximla potaat 
teiidit, et ad 
▼edi tcitkii es facti 



Camn, caawil, ab Hehratiia oodaiia ersL — £xer- 

— awrab Ilel fe tMi prfw*^ eiat, et aob jogmn 

E& Caesar me m oi U" teaebat. — C o pcede Ddum'* oc 

Facaha^ per pnmnciam itinens fuaen^ dod dftta est. — 

' TA^<W*'*«'- — ' oao+renire ; subj. pra^ 766.— » 789, 5. — * 750. — » iter 
bctg^=to wuMkejourwtf = to aiondL — • 731- — ' 751. — 8 ^dveiiire (ftdTent-]^ 
789.— » 468, h.—» 800, 2.—" 754.— « 757, A. 2.— » histoncal present. 
— '* 761, 1- — ^ oWiqae namtiaa. — >• exercere, 789. — '^ peDere. — w me- 
iBsril t en eb st, hdd t» ig w oi j, i e., tvjmmJ mnJL^-^ 737 (esse undsfstood, 
904, a).— 9" power of wtof^iMg tkromgky or ^lenmmim to wrct Mi'si^A 
ftcolUB, 788, 1, from iKnMs, lacio.— » 496. 



Digitized by 



Google 



^^ ^!^^^VK 




READING Ldla^NS: " * * -v ^ ^^ j 

Homines inimico^ aoimo ab 
perant. 

Caesar, quod memoria tenebat, L. Cassium consulem occi- 
sum, exercitum q u e ejus ab Helvetiis pulsum et sub jugum 
missum, concedendum non putabat ; n e q u e,'' homines inim- 
ico animo, data facultate per provinciam itineris faciendi, tern- 
perataros ab injuria^ ^et maleficio, existimabat. 



VII. 



Hujus legationis Divico prioceps fuit. — Divico, bello Cassi- 
ano,* dux Helvetiorum fuerat. — ^Is ita cum Caesare egit.' — Hel- 
vetii in earn partem ibunt, atque ibi erunt, ubi Caesar constitu* 
erit.' — Caesar veteris incommodi* reminiscitur.* — Caesar pristinae 
virtutis^ Helvetiorum reminiscitur. 

(Oblique Narration^ present time J) Is ita cum Caesare 
a g i t : " iSi pacem populus Romanus cum Helvetiis facia ^,* 
in earn partem ituros^ atque ibi futures^ Helvetios, ubi eos 
Ciesar con&tituerit atque esse voluerit; sin bello per^ 
sequi persevere t,^^ reminiscatur^^ et veteris incommodi 
populi Romani et pristine virtutis Helvetiorum, 

Hujus legationis Divico princeps fiiit, qui bello Cassiano dux 
Helvetiorum fuerat. Is ita cum Ciesare e git (obi. narr., paU 
time) : *♦ Si pacem populus Romanus cum Helvetiis fa ceret^ 
in earn partem ituroa^ atque ibifuturos Helvetios, ubi Casar eos 
constituisset aique esse voluisset; sin bello persequi 
perseveraret, reminisceretur et veteris incommodi 
populi Romani et pristine virtutis Helvetiorum,^^ 



« 722.— » neqae existimabat = nor did he think.— ^ outrage. 

^ In the Cassian war, i. e., in which Cassias had been the Roman gen- 
eral.—'i ffe treated with Camar as follows.-^ 803, 1 ; subj. by 766.— < in- 
commodmn, disaster, in-fcommodtiB, 799, 5 ; con+modas, 799, 3, c ; gem- 
tive by 698, a, 2. — 6 rg+miniscor, stem of memini, weno.— » vir, gen., 699, 
a, 2. — T Observe carefully the tenses in this and the following paragraph. 
— B IftheRanum people will make peace.-* 484, ».— lo M8, *.— »» ««8, b. 



Digitized by 



Google 



348 READING LESSONS. 

His Cssar ita^* respoodet. — CsBtftri nihil dnbitmtidms" dator.'^ 
— Leg&ti Hehretii quasdam res commemoraTdrunt.^ — ^Eas res 
Cssar in memoria tenet.^ — £o'^ Cssari minus dubitationis 
datur, qnod eas res, quas legati Helvetii commemoraverunt, in 
memoria tenet. — Eas res graviter" fert.** — Eoe res non merito*> 
popilH Rom&ni acciderunt." — Eas res graviter fert, quod non 
merito populi Romani acciderunt. — Eo^ gravius fert, quo^ 
minus merito Populi Romani acciderunt. 

His Caesar ita responded* (oblique narroHont present 
time) : ^*Eo stbi minus dubitationis dari^ quod eas resj qtuts 
legati Helvetii commemoravirint, memoria ieneat: 
atque eo gravius ferre^ quo mintLS merito populi Bom^ini 
accidirinL** 

His Caesar ita respondit (oblique narration, past time) : 
** Eo sibi miniu c^l^bitationis dari, qw>d eas res, quas legati 
Helvetii commemor assent, memoria tenlret: atque eo 
gravius ferre, quo minus merito popuU Momani acct- 
diisenU** 



vm. 



Helvetii postdro die^ castra ex eo loco movent. — Idem' Caesar 
fiicit. — Quas in partes' hostes iter faciunt ?^— Equitfttum^ omnem 
prsemittit.^ — Hi videbunt, quas in partes hostes iter faciant.^ — 
Equitatus ex omni Provincia et ^duis atque eorum sociis coac- 
tus* erat. — Hunc equitatum praemittit, qui videant," quas in 
partes hostes iter faciant.^ — Hi cupidius^^* novissimum^^ agmen 
inseqtfimtur.^' — Cum equitfttu Helvetidrum proelium commit- 

w as foOowt.—'^^ 788, 3, dnbitare (dubita*.).-J* To C^ar nothing of 
doubt is given = Ceesar has no doubt. — ^^ con + memorare (memor). — 
i« holds in memory, i. e., remembers.^-^'^ On this aoconnt Casar heu less 
douht, because. — ^« 215, 2, a. — *» ferre graviter = to bear heavily, to be in- 
dignant at.—^ 7] 6.— 31 acddere = ad+cSdere, 803, 1, to happen. — « By 
so much. — 33 ify how much. — ^ Observe the moods and tenses carefi2% in 
tills and the following paragraph of oblique narration. 

1 725. — 3 150. — * Into what parts (of the ooontiy) 7 — ^ 765. — * Sqiutare 
(eqaitat-). 789.—^ 795, 8.— ^ 766.-8 had been collected ; oogere = oan+ag- 
ere. — 9 who may see, i. e., to see, 761, 1.— "> too eagerly, adv., 376. — ^^ novis* 
simom agmen s the newest rank, i. e., the rear rank. — ^^ in+se<|Qi. 



Digitized by 



Google 



READING LESSONS. 349 

tout. — Alieno^ loco pitBlinm committnnt. — Panel de nostra 
cadunt. 

Postero die castra ex eo loco movent: idem Caesar facit; 
equitatumqne omnem ad numdrum quattuor millium, 
quern ex omni provincia et iCduis atque eorum sociis coactum 
h a b 3 b a t, praemittit, qui videant quas in partes hostes iter iaci- 
ant. — Qui, cupidius novissimum agmen insecuti/'* alieno loco 
cum equitatu Helvetiorum proBlium committnnt, et pauci de 
nostris cadunt. 



Hoc prcelio sublati" sunt Helvetii. — Quingentis equitibus 
tantam mnltitudlnem equitum propnl^rant.^^ — ^Audacius^^ sub- 
8ist6re*« ccepSrunt. — Nonnunqoam^^ et** prcetio^^ nostros laces- 
s^re coeperunt. — Caesar sues a proelio continebat.** — Hostem 
rapinis,*' pabulationibnsqne prohib6re»* Tolebat. — Hoc satis 
habebat in praesentia.^ 

Quo proelio sublati Helvetii, quod quingentis equitibus 
tantam multitudinem equitum propulerant, audacius subsistere, 
nonnunquam et novissimo agn^ne proelio nostros lacessere coep- 
erunt. — Caesar sues a proelio continebat, ac satis habebat in 
praesentia hostem rapinis pabulationibusque^ prohibere. 



IX. 

Multa^ antdhac tacndraf Liscus. — Haec oratijhie' Caes&ris 
adductus proponit^. — Sunt nonnuUi,'^ quorum auctoiitas apud 
plebem plurlmum^ valet.— Hi priv&tim^ plus possunt? quam ipsi 

i* In apUux ncft tiieirownt 1. e., on disadvantageous ground. — ^* 451, c. — 
IB gdb+latiu, irreg. perf. of toUere : the Helvetians were elated. — ^^ they had 
driven qff, pro4T»ellere. — i^ 376. — 18 to halt, sab-Hristere ; inf., 731. — i^ non 
-f-nanqoam, not never, i. e., sometimes. — ^ also. — ^ by an assault. — ^ to 
hold together, i. e., to restrain. — 33 721, from plunder and from foraging 
parties. — S4 pro-Hbabere. — ^ aoc. pi. of prmenf ; in inrsaientia (tempora), 
for the present. — » 517^ «, 

I Many things, before this, Liseus had kept seer^.—^ tacere, intrans = 
to be sUent ; trans = to keep secret.-^ 788, 3, orare (ortt).— * prtH-p<mere, 
to set before, to relate. — ^ non+nolliu, not none, i. e., some. — ^ phmmom 
▼alet = aoails very much (has very great weightj.^^ 915, 3. — » plus poa- 
gnnfc = can more, i. e., have more power. 

Ga 



Digitized by 



Google 



8M KIADING LBSSOMS. 

magirtr&tiis.* — ^Hi seditiasa^ atqae impFdba^ onUwne muItitQ* 
dinem deterrent.^^^ — Fmmentam non confdmnt.*' — Hi moltltu* 
dinem deterrent, ne frumentam conferant.^^ — Ipsi quidem prin- 
cip&tum GrallisB obtindre non possunt. — Satius^^ eat Gallorum 
quam Romandram impwia perfeire.^' 

Si Helvetios superavdrint^^ Rom&iii, una^ emu refiqua Gallia 
^duis libert&tem eripient.^^ — Dubitare non debent, qain Koma- 
ni iBlduia Ubertatem aint erept&ri.3<> — Sati^s eat ai jam principa-. 
turn Galliae obtinere non possint, Gallorum quam Komanorum 
imperia perferre. 

Tum demum Liscua,^ oratione CaBsaris adduetua, quod aQtea 
tacuerat pri^nit.— (Oo^ obUpm) i ** E^sae nonnuUos, qw>rum 
auctoritas apud plebem plurimum valeat; qui pHvatim plus 
posaint quam ipai magistratus; hos seditioaa atque improba 
oratione multitudinem deterr^re, ne firumentum conferant, 
quod prsstare debeant. Si jam principatum Gallic obtinere 
non possint, Gallorura quam Romanorum imperia perferre 
satius esse, n e q u e dubitare debere, quin si Helvetios super- 
averint Roman!, una cum reliqua Crallia i£duis libertatem aint 
erepturi." 



X. 

Hac oratione Lisci, Dumndrix, Divitiaci frater, designabatur.^ 
—Id Caesar senti@bat.' — Pluribus praesentibus' eas res jactari* 
nolebat.—^Celeriter^ concilium d|mittit ; J^ii^um retlnet, — 
Quaerit,^ ex solo,^ ea qua^ in oonventuB di^rat* — ^Pioit Uberius^ 
atque audacius,^ — £&dem secrSto^® ab aliia q^usrit. — ^Repfirit" 
esse vera. 

« Th^magistrtUet tkemaehet.-^^ 7»1, 9 (•edi(ao).^^i in-HnrobaB, 799, 5.— 
18 de+ten*re.— J3 con+ferre, contribute.—^* ne oooferant, that they may 
not contribute^ i. e., deter them/rem coxtribiuting, 546, h. — ^ Satiiu, eom^ 
por. of satia, 376: it U better. — !• per+ferref to endure.-^'' 542, ft, 3.-!- 
iB they win wrest liberty from the^duans, together with the reet ofQauL — 
w 6+raper6, 803, 1.— so 754, 4.— ai Then, jinaUyf then, andnottiU then). 

1 wcu alluded to^ de+signare.-'-* woe aware of. — » 750, many being 
present, i. e., in the presence cf many. — ^ 794, 2, a; from j acio (jact-) : 
jactare s: to toss to and fro ; hence, to discuss. — ^ 215, 2. — ^ He inquires 
into.—i ex golo = ofhimahne.-** 78^.^^ 376.^^9 preo^tOy^^^ Hejhsde 
(the statements J are true. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BEADING UBSSOKB. 351 

Ipse est Bumodrix,^ summa auclacia," magna apad plebem 
propter liberalitatem gratia,^^ cupldus rerum^^ noT&nmi. — Com" 
pltires aDno9^^ portoria^^ reliqu^ue omnia ^duorum vectigalia 
habet,— Haec vectigalia parvo pretio^* redemta sunt.^^ — Vecti- 
galia^ parvo predo redemta habet, propterea quod^ illo^ licente,*^ 
contra lic^ri^ audet nemo. — His rebus suam rem familitrem 
auxit. — ^His rebus facuHates^ ad largiendum^ magnss compar* 
ftvit. — Magnum numerum equitatus suo sumptn^ semper alit.-^ 
Magnum numerum eqmtatus semper ebrcnm se habe!t.--T.^on 
aolum domi,^ sed etiam apud finitunas oiYitates largitei^ peCest 

Csesar hao oratione Lisci Dumnodgem, Diyiliaoi fratrem* 
design&ri sentiebat : sed, quod pluribus prsssentibus eas res 
jactari nolebat* oeleriter eoncUium dimittit, Liscum retinet: 
quaerit, ex solo, ea quae in oonventu dixerat* Dicit fiberius 
atque audaeius. Eadem secoreto ab aliis quaBrit ; repent esse 
▼era : ** Ipsum esse Dumnorigem, summa audacia, magna apud 
plebem propter liberalitatem gratia, cupidum rerum novarum : 
complures annos portoria reliquaque omnia iBduorum vectigalia 
parvo pretio redemta habere, propterea quod illo licente contra 
liceri audeat nemo. His rebus e t suam rem famOiarem aux- 
isse, et facultates ad largiendum magnas comparasse : magnum 
numerum equitatiis suo sumtu semper al^re et circum se 
habere : n e q u e solum domi, sed etiam apud finitimas civitates 
krgiter posse.'* 



XI. 

Ad has suspiciones certissimae res* accedebant. — Pumn5rix 
per fines SequanSrum Helvetios transdux6rat,' — Obsides inter 
eos dandos' curav^rat. — Ea omnia jussu^ CaBs&ris fec^rat. — £a 

13 Dumnorix is the very person, (a man) of the highest audacity, Ae.-* 
13 722.— 1* if^uence.—^^ 698, i.— i^ 712.— 17 transit dutieSf custom duties, 
— !• 719. — 19 were contracted for. — «> vectigalia . . . habel^ he holds ike 
taxes contracted for at a low price ; i. e., holds them under a very favour- 
able contract. — ** 456, a, when he bids. — » liceor, Uc6ri, to bid. — ^ 731. 
—8* Means for making largesses. — 36 439. — ae gao sximpta, at his own 
expense. Somptas, 789, from aumere.— *'' 726, R., at home.—^ largiter 
potest, he can largely, i. e., he has extensive power. 

1 certiB8im» res = most certain (or undoubted) faxts. — accedebant = 
were added ; ad+cectere, intransitive.—* t»M+dw««.-^ 504, a.— * 789 ; 
from jabere (joss*) : by ike command, 710. 



Digitized by 



Google 



READING LESSONS. 

omnia injoMu'^ CsMaris etfi eivitatis fecerat. — Ea omnia inscien- 
tibas ipsis' fecerat. — ^£a omnia n o n m o d o injussu Caesaris et 
ciritatis, sed etiam inscientibus ipsis fecerat. — A magistratu^ 
^dudrum accusab&tor. — Satis est caussse,* quare in eum ani- 
madvertat.^<> — Satis est causses, qoare in eum civit&tem animad- 
vertdre jnbeat. — Satis erat caussae, quare in eum aut ipse ani* 
madvertdret, aut civitatem animadvertere jubdret. — Satis esse*^ 
causssB arbitrab&tur. 

Quibus rebus cognitis," quum^' ad has suspiciones 
certissirosB res acceddrent— -q nod per fines Sequanorum Hel- 
vetios transduxisset^^— quod obsides inter eos dandos curasset 
— q u o d ea omnia non modo injussu suo et civitatis, sed etiam 
inscientibus ipsis, fecisset — q u o d a magistititu iBduorum accn- 
•ardtur; satis esse caussae arbitrabatur, quare in eum aut ipse 
animadverteret, aut civitatem animadvertere juberet. 

His omnibus rebus^* imum repugnabat.^^ — Divitiaci fratris*^ 
summum in populum RomS,num studium^^ cognoverat Caesar. 
— Divitiaci summam in se voluntatem cognoverat. — Divitiaci 
egregiam fidem, justitiam,*^ temperantiam,^^ cognoverat. — Dum- 
noilgis supplicio^ Divitiaci animum offendet. — Ne^ Divitiaci 
animum offendat, ver3tur.' — Ne^ Divitiaci animum offenddret, 
verebatur. 

His omnibus rebus unum repugnabat, quod Divitiaci fratris 
summum in populum Romanum studium, summam in se vol- 
imtatem, egregiam fidem, justitiam, temperantiam cognoverat : 
nam ne ejus suppUcio Divitiaci animum off enderet, verebatur. 

B without the command ; in+jossa. — ^ The Engiiib idiom demands or 
instead of and : toithout the command of Casar or the state. — ^ themselves 
not knowing it, i. e., without the knowledge of Caesar and the ^duan 
government. — » By a magistrate, 93, II., b. — » 697, b. — ^^ in emn animad- 
vertere, to animadvert -upon him, i. e., to punish him. — ^^ 751, jR. 2. — 
w Cloibus rebus cognitis = Which things being knmon by inquiry ^ i. e., 
after he had inquired into these things. — ^^ Since f seeing thatj, 757, A, b. 
— ^* transduxisset, carasset, &c., are snbjanctives, because they express, 
not Caesar's own sentiments or knowledge, but what he had heard from 
others : certissima res accederent. — ** 704, To all these considerations otic 
(thing) opposed itself — ^^ re+pugnare. — '^'^ Of his brotfter Dvoitiacus, i. ©., 
the brother of Dumnori^. — 1« zeal. — i* 785, 2.— ao By the punishment of 
Dumnorix he will hurt the feelings of Divitiacus. — ^^ veretur ne . . . he 
fears that he shall.—^ verebatur ne . . . he feared that he should. 



READING LESSONS. 353 



XII. 

Cssar gravlter* in' Dtimnorigem statuet. — Divitiacus CaesH- 
rem complectitur. — Divitiacus multis' cum lacrymis Caesarem 
complectitur. — ^ObsecrEre incipit ne"* quid gravius* in' fratrem 
statuat. — Scit Divitiacus ilia esse vera. — Nemo ex eo^ plus 
quam Divitiacus doloris^ capit. — Divitiacus gratia® plurimum 
domi atque in reliqua Gallia poterat. — Dumndrix minimum' 
propter adolescentiam poterat. — Dumnorix per Divitiacum 
crevit.^o — His opibus" ac neiTis*' ad minuendam^^ gratiam Divit- 
iaci utitur. — His opibus ad pemiciem*'* Divitiaci utitur. — Qui- 
bus opibus ac nervis non solum ad minuendam gratiam, sed 
pene ad pemiciem Divitiaci utitur. — Divitiacus tamen et^* 
amore fratemo et existimatione^^ vulgi commovetur." — Divit- 
iacus summum locum amicitiae apud Caesarem tenet. — ^Nemo 
existimS,bit non ejus voluntate factum.^® — Ex hac re totius Gal- 
fias aMmi a Divitiaco av6rtentur.^^ 



(Direct Narration, Present TimeJ^) Scit Divitiacus ilia < 
▼era, nee quisquam ex eo plus quam ipse dolons capit, 
propterea quod, quum ipse gratis, plurimum domi atque 
in reliqua Gallia, iUe minimum propter adolescentiam posset, 
per se crevit; quibus opibus ac nervis non solum ad minuendam 
gratiam, sed pene a4 pemiciem ipsius utitur. Divitiacus tamen 
et amore fratemo et existimatione vulgi commovetur, quod, 
si«* quid fratri a Caesare acciderit, quum^* ipse 
t a 1 e m locum amicitiae apud eum teneat, nemo existimabit non 

1 graviter Bt9taet=wiU decide severtly. — * against. — ^ 89, II. — ^ 548, a. 
s quid grayins = anything more severe (fhan usualj : anything at all se- 
vere. — * from hinif i. e., Bnxmiorix. — "^ pin* dobris, more pain, 697. — » by 
his ti^ftfuence (popiilarity).— » miniTniim poterat = ^<2 very little power. — 
'0 crescere: grew (in power). — ^^ resources. — *« sinews, abl. by 716.— 
18 739, for diminishing the it^fiuence of Divitiacus. — i* 790, 1. — ** 517, c. 
— 16 exlBtim&re, 788, 3 : existimatione vnlgi ^ by the opinion of the public. 
— ^^7 con+mov6re ; canmioy&tm=: is strongly moved. — *® No one will think 
it was not done loith his (Divitiacns's) consent. — ^^ a+vertere : the affec- 
tions ofaU Oaul wiU be turned away from Am.— » Obsenre carefally 
the moods and tenses in the foBowing paragraphs of direct and obliqae 
narraticm.— »i if anything happen to kis brother from Casar.-^ qaum 
ipse teneat, seeing that he himself holds. 
Go2 



Digitized by 



Google 



354 READING LEflSOKS. 

ejus ToluntBte factam; qua ex re fiet^ uti totins GaUis 
animi ab eo avertantur.'* 



{Direct Narration^ Past Time,) Sciebat Divitiacus ilia ( 
vei-a, nee quisquam ex eo plus quam ipse doloris capiebat, prop- 
ter ea quod, quum ipse gratia plurimum domi atque in reliqua 
Gallia, ille minimum propter adolescentiam possett per se crev- 
drat; quibus opibus ac nervis non solum ad minuendam grati- 
am, sed psene ad perniciem ipsius utebatur. Divitiacus tamen 
et amore fraterno et existimatione vulgi commovebatur, quod si 
quid fratri a Caesare gravius accidisset, quum ipse talem locum 
amicitiae apud eum teneret, nemo erat existimaturus non ejus 
voluntate factum, qua ex re futurum erat uti totius Galliae 
animi ab eo averterentur. 

Divitiacus, multis cum kcrymis Caesarem complexus obse- 
crare incipit {phliqv^ narration^ present time)^ ** Ne quid gravius 
in fratrem statuat ; scire se, iUa esse vera, nee quemquam ex eo 
plus quam se doloris capdre, propterea quod, quum ipse gratia 
plurimum domi atque in reliqua Gallia, ille minimum propter 
adolescentiam posset, per se crevdrit; quibus opibus ac nervis 
non solum ad minuendam gratiam,<sed paene ad perniciem suam 
nt&tur : sese tamen et amore fratemo et existimatione vulgi 
commovfiri, quod, si quid ei gravius a Caesare acciddrit, quum 
ipse earn locum amicitiae apud eum teneat, nemlnem existima- 
turum non sua voluntate factum ; qua ex re futurum uti totius 
Gallias animi a se avertantur.*' 

Divitiacus multis cum lacrymis, Caesaren^ complexus, obse- 
crare coepit {oblique narration, past time), " Ne quid gravius in 
fratrem statudret; scire se, ilia esse vera, nee quemquam ex 
eo plus quam se doloris capere, propterea quod, quum ipse 
gratia plurimum domi atque in reliqua Gallia, ille miniinum 
propter adolescentiam posset, per se crevisset; quibus opibua 
ae nervis non solum ad minuendam gratiam, sed paene ad per- 
niciem suam uteretur : sese tamen et amore fratemo et exist- 
imatione vulgi commoveri, quod si quid ei a Caesare gravius 
accidisset, quum ipse eum locum amicitiae apud eum teneret, 
neminem existimaturum non sua voluptate factum ; qua ex re 
futurum, uti totius Gallie animi a se averterentur." 

*3 from which thing U vfiU retullr-^ 754. S. 



Digitized by 



Google 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



Digitized by 



Google 



864 



LATIH-BH0LI6H VOCABULAEY. 



DiBert-vi, t, tan, Jkieni, doquent. 
DuipHc-«re (diipHca-, diipUcit-, dil 

-f plaoere), to dupieme, with dat. 
Disp(m-«ro (diapotii-, diipotit-. dii-f- 

ponere), to place ti» dijferent di- 

rtetioni, arrange, di$po$e, 
Ditpot^ra (tr-, i*-), to dispute, di$- 

euu. 
Diuent-ire (difieni-, fliMem-, dirf 

sendre, 4S7, UL), to differ in 

opinion, diueni. 
Ditter-«re (diMem-, aMert*, 407), to 

treat of, discuss, 
mamAr-er^ (dtN^-, diMolat-, dirh 

Bolyere), to dissolve. 
Piflt-tte, <o ^ liMidN^, or apari (di+ 

itare). 
Distriba-ere (diattibo-, HtHribSA-), to 

divide or distriimte among, 4«a. 
DitiMinrag, iapeii of difM. 
Ditt, «dy^ Iwv' campvn dkaAuB, 

longer, 
Diverf-QB, % mn, differtnt* 
Divaf, (divtt) it, 371, B- 1, r<<^ 
Divioo, (Divicdn) it, Divioo, proper 



]>ivid-«re (dhiiw, ditii-), to divide, 
Divin-iui, a, mn, divine. 
DiTitia<HW, i. mvUiacus, ptop^r 

TMSM. 

Divitie, arom, 57, R., rtcAe», veaHk. 
Doc-^n (docn-, doct-), to <«icA. 
Bocilis, is, e, 104, docHe, ieaekaiU, 
I)o1-ere (ddla-, dolh-), to grieve. 
Dolor, (dol6r) is, 319, grief, pain. 
l)ol-as, \, frond, deceit. 
Dom-ftre (domtt-, dolni^, 387, It.), to 

subdue. 
Domicili-mn, i, dwelling. 
]>omiii-iu, i, master, of house or 

slaved. 
Dom-us, i and ns, 112, 3, house, 

fame; domi, at home; domxiin, to 

on^s house. 
1>orm-Ire (dormiv-, dormlt-), to sleep. 
Draco, (dracOn) is, 331, dragon. 



Dmides, am, Druids, priMtf of lb* 

dent Britain. 
Dobit-ftre (av-, a^), to doubt, kui- 

tote. 
Dnbitatio^ (dabitati6n) is, 333, B.^ 

doubt. 
Dobi-os, a, tun, doubtfuL 
Doc^re (dax-, duct-), to lead* 
Dnkis, is, o, 104, sioeet. 
Dnm, coiij., ufkiJ^, so long oi, nmtO, 
Domnorix, (DHmHodn) ith Duii^>l^ 

rix, proper name.- 
lywi, two, 194. 
Dnodecim, indecL, twdve* 
Duplic^ftre (at--, a*-), ta double. 
Dttr-Are (av-, at-), iiitratii., to eMtare; 

last; tnia., to harden* 
Ditr-ns, a, mn, hard. 
Dax» (due) is, kadet, guiiA, earn- 

mander. 



B or ex, preji. with abl, cwl of, 

from. 
Ecquis, interrog. pron., Vl8, i, Utif 

one? 
Bld-6W, or 6H6 (ed-, (81-, 601), to eat. 
Educ-Are (av-, at-), to train, educate. 
Bduc-«re (edux-, edtict-), to lead out. 
Effect-US, us, effect. 
Bffemin-ftre (av-, a^, ei-f-feniina), t9 

geminate, make womaniih. 
Ego, /, 120. 
Bgregi-us, a, mn, excellent, teUiOrh 

able. 
Eleganji, (elegant) is, 107, degdiU. 
Eloquens, (eloquent) U, 107, do 

quent. 
Em-6re (em-, empt-), to buy. 
Emic-&re (emictt-), 367, H, to shiim 

cfrjlash forth. 
Ehim, coiy.,ybf, 442, e. 
Enunti-are (av-, at-), to dividge. 
Eo, adv., there, to thatplade, on ^at 

account, by so much. 
Eodem, adv., to the same fiaee. 



Digitized by 



Google 



liATIN-BNOUlBH VOCABUI^AEY, 



365 



ji;piftol-«, », k^er, 

Eques, (equit) is, Jiorse soldier* 

Eqaester, tiis, tre, 428, a, belonging 

to cavalry. Eqaestri prtalio, in a 

battle of cavalry. 
Equit-ire (ay-, at-), to ride on hor*^ 

back. 
Itquitat-as, ds, cavalry. 
Eqn-os, i, horse. 
Erip-Sre (eripu-, erept, e+rapore)* to 

take awayfromt snatch away. 
Err-ftre (av-, at-,) to err, wander, 
Erump-Sre (erfip-, erapt-), to burst 

forth, sally out. 
Esse, to be, 650; esse, to eat, $ee 

edere. 
Et, coDJ., and* Et — et, both — aud. 
Etenim, oonj., for. . 
Etiam, coi\j., also, even. 
Etsi. conj., although, 
Enrop-a, m, Europe, 
Evoc-are (av-, fit-, e+vocare), to caU 

out. 
Ex, prep, with abL See E. 
Exced-dre (excess-, excess-, ex+ce- 

dere), to go away, depart out of. 
Exdam-ftre (av-, a^), to cry out. 
Excip-6re (excep-, except-, ex+ca- 

per^), to receive. 
Bxcit-ftre (av-, at-), to raise, kindle, 

excite. 
Excasatio, (excnsation) is, 333, It^ 

excuse. 
Exe-dere (exed-, exes-, ex+edere), 

to eat up, consume, corrode, 
Exempl-Tim, i, example. 
Exerc-ere (ea^ercu-, exercit-), to ex- 
ercise, practice. 
Exercit-ns, us, army. 
Exig^-os, a, Tim, smaU, 
Ex-Ire (exiv- and exi-, exit-), to go 

out, depart, 
Existim-Sre (av-, at-), to think, judge. 
Existimatio, (existimatidn) is, 333, 

B'M opinion, 
Expec^are (av-, at-), to wai^fots 

H 



Expedit, impen., 583, \t is expedient, 
Expeditio, (expedition) is, 333, B*., 

military expedition, 
ExpeU-ere (expal-, expnls-, ex+po^* 

lere), to expd, drive out. 
Expert, (expert) is, 107, devoid of, 

with gen. or aU., 336. 
Expet-dre (expetiv-, expetxt-), t0 

covet, desire eamettly, 
Explorator, (exploratdr) is, 319, scout, 
Expon-dre (exposn-, exposit-, ex+ 

ponere), to place out, set forth, es> 

plairu 
Expugn-flre (av-, at-, ex-l-pQgiuure), 

to take by storm. 
Extra, prep, with accos., outside of, 

without, 
£xtrem-ns, a, lun, snperL of extems* 

370, the last, outermost. 
Exor-dre (exuss-, exost^, «x+ur«Pe), 

to bum up* 

F. 
Faber, bri, artificer, workman* 
Fabnl-a, aa, fable, story. 
Fac-ere (io, fee-, fact-), to make, do, 
Facild, adv., casUy, 
Facilis, is, e, 104, easy. 
Facnltas, (facultat) is, 293, power of 

doing ; hence means, resources. 
Facnnd-us, a, nm, eloquent, 
FaJl-ere (fefeU-, fals-), to deceive, 
Fam-a, 8b, rumour, fame. 
Fames, (fam) is, 300, hunger. 
Famili-a, m,famxly, gang of slaves, 
Familiaris, e, belonging to the fami- 

lia. Bes fainiliaris, property. 
Fat-6ri (fass-), dep., to confess, 
Fat-nm, \,fate, 
Fav-ere (fav-, feut-, 395, v.), to fa\ 

vour. 
Felix, (fellc) is, 104, happy. 
Femin-a, 8B, woman, 
Fer-a, », wild beast. 
Fere, adv., almost. 
Ferre (tnl-, lat-, 596), to bear* 

h2 



Digitized by 



Google 



866 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCAPULARY, 



FexDcnl-iu, a, mn, tuHy. 

Ferox, (fer6c) is, lQ7,Jieree, 

Ferr-om, i, iron, 

Feitm-are (av-, at-), to Juuteiu 

Fid-et, e\,faitJL 

Fieri (fact-), 600, used as pass, of fa- 
cere ; to be made, to become, 

Fignr-a, m^Jigure, 

Fili-a, », daughter, dat and abL pL 
filiabas. 

Fili-us, i, son, 62, R., S. 

Fin-is, (fin) is, m., end, boundary; 
fines, boundaries, territories, 

Finitim-os, a, mn, neighbouring, 

Firm-ns, a, mn, strong, Jirm, 

Fit, it happens, pres. indie, of fio, 
fiert 

Flagiti-nm, i, disgraceful crime, in- 
famy, 

Flamm-a, m,JUime, 

Fl-ere (flcv-, fl6^, 395. XL), to weep. 

Flet-ns, As, weeping, 

Flos, (flOr) is, 331, b,Jlower. 

Flaet-ns, ds, wave, 

Flomen, (flomin) is, 344, a, river, 

FlQTi-ns, i, river, 

FoBdas, (fisder) is, 344, b, treaty, 
league, 

Foli-run, i, leaf, 

Fons, (fimt) is, m., 293, "EL, fountain. 

ForiB, (for) is, 300, door; used most- 
ly in plnr., fores. 

Form-a, ft, form, 

Formid-ire (av-, at-), to fear, be 
afraid of. 

Formos-ns, a, am, haiidsomie, 

Forsitan, adv., perhaps. 

Forte, adv., by chance. 

Fort-is, is, e, 107, brane, 

Fortiter, 215, 2, b, bravely, 

Fortitado, (fortitodin) is, 339, forti- 
tude, courage. 

Forton-a, m, fortune, 
I Fortnnat-us, a, urn, fortunate, 

For-um, i, forum. 

Fossa, «, ditch. 



Fmn-un, i, bridie, 396; pi., fntsei 

andfrsna. 
Frater, (fratr) is, brother, 
Fratem-ns, a, xan, fraiemcU, 
Fr^ns, (fraad) is, ^183, fraud, 
Frigos, (frigdr) is, 344, b, cold, 
Fnict-ns, ta, fruit, 
Frament-iri (fnimentat-), dep., to 

coUectcom, 
Framentmm, \,com, 
Frastra, adv.. in vctin, 
Fng-a, m, fight 
Fag-«re (av-, a^), to rout, put to 

fight. 
Fog-ax, (fugac) is, 107, fugitive, 

feeting. 
Fug-«re (io, fiig-, fogit), to fee. 
Folgnr, (falgdr) is, 325, lightning. 
Fnnd-ere {fid-, fSa-), to pour out, to 

overthrow, discomfit. 
Fnnditor, (fonditdr) is, 319, slinger, 
Fatmr-Qs, a, run, future. 

G. 

Gkdb-a, ss, Oalba. 
Galli-a, as, GavL 
Gallin-a, oe, Jien. 
Gall-OS, i, a OauL 
Garomn-a, as, Oaronne (river). 
Gaod-ere (gavisos som), to r^oice. 
Gaodi-om, i,joy. 
Ghener, i, son-in-law, 
Genev-a, w, Geneva. 
Gens, (gent) is, 293, nation. 
Genos, (gener) is, 344, b, race, doss, 
Ger-€re (gess-, gest-), to carry on; 

gerere bellom, to carry on war. 
GI«rman-os, i, a German, 
Gladi-os, i, sword, 
Glori-a, qb, glory, 
OrtBc-xM, a, om, Cheek. 
Ghrando, (grandin) is, 339, hail 
Grati-a, ss, influence, favour, popu- 

larity, 
Gratol-sri (gratolat-), dep., to eon 

gratulate. 



Digitized by 



Google 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



367 



Grat-as, a, um, agreeable. 

Gravis, is, e, heavy, severe, 

Graviter, adv., heavily, disagreea- 
ble ; graviter fert, he is indignant 
a*. 

Grregatim, adv., injlocks, 
. Gabem-Are (av-, at-), to steer, direct, 
govern. 

Gabemator, (gnbematOr) is, 319, pi- 
lot, governor, 

H. 
Hab-ere (habu-, habit-), to have, hold, 

esteem, 
Hannibal, (Haxmib&l) is, Hannibal, 
Hand, adv., not. 
Helveti-ns, i, a Hdvetian. 
Herb-a, ae, herb. 
Hercyni-us. a, um, Hercynian; Her- 

cynia sylva, the Hercynian forest. 
Heri, adv., yesterday. 
Hibem-a, omm, winter-quarters. 
Hiberni-a, sb, Ireland. 
Hie, hflBC, hoc, this, 156. 
Hiem-are (av-, at-), to winter. 
Hiems, (hiemj is, 293, winter. 
Hirando, (hirundin) is, 339, swallow. 
Hispani-a, bb, Spain. 
Hispan-us, i, a Spaniard. 
Histori-a, bb, history. 
Hodie, adv., to-day. 
Homer-as, i. Homer. 
Homo, (homin) is, m., man. 
Honest-e, adv., honourably. 
Honest-as, a, nm, honourable. 
Honor, (hon6r) is, 319, honour. 
Hor-a, 8B, hour. 
Horati-us, i, Horace. 
Hort-ari (hortftt-), to exhort, dep. 
Hort-ns, i, garden. 
Hospes, (hospit) is, c, guest, host. 
Hostis, (host) is, c, enemy. 
Human-US, a, nm, human. 
Humanitas, (humanitftt) is, 293, cul- 

tivation, refinement, humanity, 
Hnmilis, is, e, 107, low. 



Ibi, adv., there. 

Idem, eadem, idem, the same, 150. 

Idone-ns, a, nm,^, suitable. 

Idas, idmim (4th deden.), the Ides. 

112,2. 
Ignavi-a, bb, indolence, cowardice. 
Ignav-ns, a, mn, indolent, cowardly. 
Ignis, (ign) is, m., 302, R.,Jire. 
Ignomini-a, 8b, disgrace, ignominy, 
Ignor-are (av-, at-), to be ignorant. 
IgDoratio, (ignoratidn) is, 333, B*., 

igTiorance, 
Die, iUa, illnd, this, that, 158. 
Imago, (imagin) is, 339, image. 
Imber, (imbr) is, 320, shower of rain, 
Immemor, (immemor) is, 107, «»• 

mindful, with gen. 
Immens-ns, a, van, immense. 
Immortalis, is, e, 104, immortaZ. 
Impediment-um, i, hinderance; im- 
pedimenta, pi., the baggage of an 
army, 
Imped-ire (iv-, i^), to hinder, tm- 

pede. 
Impend-dre, to hang over. 
Imper-are (av-, at-), to command, 

with dat. 
Imperator, (imperatOr) is, 319, eom^ 

mander, general. 
Imperi-um, i, command. 
Impetr-are (av-, at-), to accomplish, 

^ect, obtain. 
Impet-us, us, onset, attach ; impetom 

facere, to make an attack. 
Impie, adv., 215, 1, impiously. 
Impi-us, a, um, impious. 
Impl-ere (implfiv-, implet-), tofiU up. 
Implor-ftre (av-, at-), to ifi^date. 
Impon-€re (imposu-, im^sit-, iii+ 

ponere, 407), to place in or upon. 
Import are (av-, at-), to bring in, 

import. 
Improb-us, a, um, wicked, dishonest. 
In, prep, with ace., into, against, 
with abL, in, among. 



Digitized by 



Google 



d68 



LATIN-BN6U8H VOCABUI*ARY. 



Incend-dre (incend-* incena-), to $et 
jirt to, to bum. 

Incert-os, a, nin, doubtful, nnctr- 
tain, 

locip-dre (io, incX^p-, incept-), to i*- 
gin, 

Incol-a, 0, inhMt€mt, 

Incol-^re (incola-, incull-), dveU in, 
inhabit 

Inoommod-um, i, inconcenienee. 

Incredibilif, is, e, 104, incredible. 

Increp-ftre (increpa-, ixKarepit-, 390), 
to chide. 

Incusftre (ay> at-), to blame. 

Inde, adv., thence. 

Indicium, i, private information. 

Indign-tu, a, um, unworthy. 

Indnc-dre (indux-, indact-), to lead 
to, induce. 

Indolg-^re (indnls-, indnk-), with 
dat., to indulge. 

Ineptioe, arom, 57, "SL, folly. 

Inerti-a, », idlenesi. 

Infans, (infant) is, c, infant; (in+ 
fari, that cannot tpeak). 

Inferior, (inferidr) is, comp. of inie- 
rns, 370, inferior, lower. 

Inferre (intol-, illat-, inrKerre), to 
bring upon; belhiin alicui ioferre, 
to wage war upon any one. 

Ingeni-om, i, talent. 

Ingens, (ingent) is, 107, great, enor- 
mous. 

Inimiciti-a, m, enmity. 

Inimic-ns, a, nm, hostile, unfriendly, 
with dat. 

Initi-om, i, beginning. 

Injuri-a, IB, injury, outrage. 

Ii^astns, a, am, wyust. 

Innocens, (innocent) is, 107, inno- 
cent^ 

Innocenti-a, s, innocence. 

Innomerabilis, is, e, 104, innumer- 
able. 

Inops, (inop) is, 107, poor. 

Inquam, / say ; inquit, says he, 610. 



Insdens, (inscient) ib, 107, not know^ 
ing. 

Insect'tuB, i, vutet. 

Inseqn-i (insecnt-), dep^ to pfuxpne. 

Insidi-a, aronv 57, B^, Mnare*, ami- 
bush. 

Instig-are (av-, at-), to inUigate. 

Institat-nm, i, purpose, pia^. 

Instnk-Sre (instrox-, instroct-, in+ 
stroere), to draw up in battle or- 

Insnl-a, m, island. 

Intellig-ere (intellez-, intellect), to 

perceive, understand. 
Intent-OS, a, am, intenf, bent upon. 
Inter, prep, with aocns., between, 

among. 
Interced-^re (intercesa-t intexcess-)» 

iointarvene. 
Inteidio, ady., by day. 
Interdun, adv., sometimes. 
Inter-esse (interfo), to be among, to 

differ; nihil interest, it makes no 

difference. 
Interfector, ( interfpctAr ) ii, 31% 

slayer. 
Interfic-dr« (interftc-, intellect-, inr 

ter+-facere), to slay, kill. 
Interim, adv., t» the wfian whUe, 
Interitos, As, perishing, destruction^ 

death. 
Interregn-om, i, interreign. 
Interrog-ftre (av-, &t-)» to ask, inter' 

rogate. 
Inta-eri (intnit-), dep., to look upon* 
Inven-ire (invfo-, invent-)* to find, 

discover. 
Invoc-&re (av-, at-), to call upon, tn- 

voke. 
Ipse, a, nm, 159, self. 
Ir-a, 86, anger. 

Iracondi-a, «, wrathfulness, wraih. 
Ire (iv-, Xt-), 605, to go. 
Imimp-6re (irrup-, irropt-, in-hmm 

pere), to break into. 
Is, ea, id, this, that, he, she, it, 153. 



Digitized by 



Google 



LATIN-KNQUSH YQCABULAUT* 



Iste, % ad, thai, 157. 
Ita, ftthr^ #0^ thM$. 
Itali-a, a», Ji^y* 

Ifcei^ (itiiMr) ii^ o., jaumejf, wajf, 
march. 



Jac-Sre ( jdc-, jact-)i ^ catt, hurl, 

Jact-Are (av-, a^), to discutt. 

Jacnl-am, i, dart. 

Jam, adv., now, alread^^ 

Jan-US, i, Janus. 

Jnb-dre ( joss-, juss-), to order. 

Jacnnd-iu, a, urn, pleasant. 

Judex, (judic) ii, 306, judge. 

Jadic^e (av-, at-}, to judge. 

Jadici-nm, i, trial, judgment. 

Jugortb-a, m, Jugurtha. 

Jog-om, i, yoke. 

Joment-um, i, beast of burden. 

Jung-Sre ( jtmx-, junct-), to join. 

Jwao, (Junon) u, f., Jwno (goddess). 

Japiter, Jems, 351, Jupiter. 

Jur-a, e. Jura (mountam east of 

Gaul). 
Jor-ftre (av-, at-), to svear. 
Jos, ( jur) is, 344, laiw, right. 
Juss-us, iM, command. 
Justiti-a, 0, justice. 
Just-US,, a, um,just. 
Juv-ftre ( juv-, jut-), to help. 
JuYenis, is, a yotUh. 
Juventus, ( juyeutat) is, 293, youth. 
Juxta, prep, with aoo., near. 

K. 

Kalend-ae, arum. Kalends. 

L. 
LaUems, i, Labienus, oom of C»- 

gar's lieutenant-generals. 
Labor, (labOr) b, 319, labowr, toil 
Labor-are (&▼-, U-), to labour, 
Lac, (lact) is, 346, 2, milk. 
Lacesf-dre (iy-> it-^ 406, in., b), to 

provoke, harass. 
Laorym-a, 0, tear. 



Lac-US, us, lake. 

Lapis, (lapid) is, 895, 3, $tome» 

Larg-iri ^-), dep., to give largess, 

to bribe, 515. 
Larg-iter, adv., 215, 2, b, largely! 

largiter potest, he ean largely, 

L e.,heis quite powerful. 
Lat-6, adv., 315, 1, widely (lat-us, 

wide), 
Latin-US, a, um, Latin. 
Latitude, (latitodin) is, 340, bretuUh 

{bom latus, broad). 
Latins, adv., more widely (oomptr 

of latd, 376). 
Latro, (latron) is, 331, a, robber* 
Lat'US, a, um, broad, wide. 
Laud-are (av-, at-), to praise. 
Laus, (laud) is, 293, praise. 
Legatio, (legation) is, 333, Bn, ess- 

bassy. 
Legat-us, i, lieutenant, ambassador. 
L6g-dre (ISg-, lect-, 416, a), to read. 
Legio, (legion) is, 333, B^, legion. 
Lemann-us, i. Lake Leman, or Ge- 
neva, 
Leo, (leon) is, 333, lion, 
Lepus, (lep5r) is, m., 345, 4, hare. 
Lev-are (av-, at-), to lighten, aUe 

viate. 
Lex, (leg-) is, 293, law. 
Libenter, adv., willingly, gladly. 
Liber, libri, 64, book. 
Liberalitas, (lib^ralitet) is, 993, lib 

erality. 
Liber-e, 215, 1, freely (fixm Uber, 

free). 
Liber-i, omm, 65, R., cMUren. 
Liber-tas, (libertat) is, 293, freedom, 

liberty. 
Libet, 583, Ubebat^ libuit, or libitum 

est, impers., it is agreeable, it 

pleases, it suits. 
Lic-€ri (licit), dep., to bid money, to 

qferaprice. 
Licet, licuit, licitum est, it is allow- 

ed,itis lawful, one must, 583. 



Digitized by 



Google. 



870 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



LiU-Qm, i, Uly. 

Linga-a, a, language, 

Litter-a, m, a letter (aa of the alpha- 
bet) ; litter-«, aram (pL), a letter, 
i. e., an epUtle. 

Littoa, (littor) ia, 344, b, shore, 

Livi-iii, i, Livy, a Homan historian. 

Loc-os, i and a, 309, pleux, 

Long-d, adv., 215, 1, far, long : (kmg- 
w.) 

Longitado, (longitodin) is, 339, 
length: (longoa.) 

Long'Oa, a, am, long, 

Loqa-i (locdt-), dep., to epeak. 

Labet. See libet. 

Luct-uB, fifl, grief. 

Lad-«re (Ins-, Ids-, 401, 3, b), to 
play. 

Lud-U8, i, eport, game, piMf, 

Lnn-a, ss, moon. 

Lnp-iis, i, wolf. 

Lux, (hic) is, 293, light, 

Macol-are (av-, at-), to stain, 
Magis, adv., vmore. 
Magister, tri (64), m4ister, teacher, 
Magistrat-os, ds, a magistrate. 
Magnanimms, a, nm (magn-us+ani- 

mus ), high-spirited, magnani- 

mow. 
Magnitado, (magnitodin) is (340), 

extent, greatness, 
Magnus, a, um, great; comp., ma- 
jor, greater, 
Male, adv. (215, 1, R.), badly. 
Maleficinm, i (800, 2), evil deed, 

crime, 
Malle (592), to be more willing, to 

prefer ; perf., maloi. 
MiQom, i; evil, misfortwie, 
Man-6re (mans-, mans-)^ 665, HE., 

to remain. 
Mantis, us (f., 112, 2), hand, band 

of soldiers. 
Mare, (mar) is (314), sea. 



MassUia, se, MarseiUet, 
Mater, (matr) is (f., 25, 2), mother. 
Matrimonium, i, m^itrimony. 
Mationa, e, the Mame, a river of 

GauL 
Matur-flre (av-, at-), to hasten, 
Mazim-e (adv., 376), most, most 

greatly, in the highest degree. 
Maxim-US, a, um (sup. of magnns, 

370), greatest. 
Me {ace. and abl. of ego, J), me; 

mecum, tot^ me (125, II., b), 
Medicin-a, ss, medicine. 
Mediterrane-us, a, um, MediterrO' 

nean (medi-us+terr-a). 
Medi-us, a, um, middle. 
Meli-us, adv. (376), better. 
Memini (defect., 611), J remember; 

meminisse, to remember. 
Memori-a, 83, memory ; memoilA te- 

nere, to hold in memory, to rv- 

member. 
Mens, (ment) is, f., mind. 
Mercat5r, (mercator) is (319), mer- 

chant, 
Meridi-es, ei (m., 115), mid-day, 

noon. 
Merit-um, i, merit, desert, 
Metall-xmi, i, metal. 
Met-€re (messu-, mess-, 666, IL, b), 

to reap, 
Met-iri (mens-), dep., to measure. 
Metu-6re (metu-, 666, VL, a), to fear. 
Me-us, a, um (122), my, mine. 
Mic-ftre (micu-, 664, II.), to glitter, 

shine. 
Migr-&re (av-, at-), to migrate. 
Miles, (milit) is, soldier. 
MiUe (sing, inded, pL miUia, ium), 

thousand. 
Minerv-a, ib, Minerva. 
Minim-US, a, um, least {superL of 

parvus, 370). 
Minor (minus), 358, less (compar. of 

parvus, 370). 
Minu-dre (minu-, minclt-), to diminieh. 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



371 



Mirabil-is, is, e, wonderful 

Mirific-os, a, um, causing wander, 
astonishing (mir-us+facere). 

Miser, a, um (77, J), miserable, 
wretched. 

Miseret (impers., 579, a), oTie pities ; 
me miseret, I pity. 

Mitig-ftre (av-, at-), to mitigate. 

Mitt-6re (mis-, miss-, 401, 3, h), to 
send. 

Mod-US, i, meeisure, manner. 

Moania, ium (used only in pi.), watts. 

McBror, (moerdr) is (319), sadness. 

Mon-dre (monu-, monit-), to advise, 
warn, remind. 

MonstT'&re (av-, at-), to show. 

Mord-6re (momord-, mors-, 395, IV.), 
to bite, champ. 

Mor-i, and mor-Iri (mort-), dep., to 
die. 

Mortal-is, is, e, mortal. 

Mors, (mort) is, 293, death. 

Mos, (mor) is, 331, 1, b, custom, man- 
ner. 

Mot-US, as, motion, moving. 

Mov-ere (mdv-, mOt-, 395, V.), to 
move. 

Mulier, (mulier) is, (f.), woman. 

Mnltitudo, (multitudin) is, 340, mul- 
titude. 

Mult-US, a, xmi, much, many. 

Mund-us, i, world. 

Mun-ire (iv-, it), to fortify. 

Munitio, (monition) is, 333, 'BL, forti- 
fication. 

Mnnus, (muner) is, 344, 3, b, office, 

Mums, i, walU 

Mut-are (&v-, at-), to change, 

N. 

Nam, coi\|.,/or. 

Nasc-i (nat-), dep., to be bom, spring 

from. 
Nat-are (av-, at-), to swim. 
Naut-a, 89 (m.), sailor. 



Natio, (natidn) is, 333, R., nation. 

Natur-a, aj, nature. 

Naval-e, (naval) is, 314, a dock-yard: 

Navigatio, (navigatidn) yh 333, B., 
navigation, voyage. 

Nav-is, (nav) is, 300, ship. 

N6, interrogative particle, 135, n., a. 

Ne, adv., not, -used imperatively, 
634, a; oHg., that not, 548, b. 

Nee, coiy., nor. .*- ' 

Neg-are (av-, at), to deny, refuse. 

Neglig-6re (negiex-, neglect^ 666, 
v., a), to neglect. 

Negligens, (negligent) is, 107, neg- 
ligent. 

Negoti-xmi, i, matter, business. 

Nemo, (nemin) is, c, no one, 

Neque, conj., neither, nor, 515. 

Nequidem, adv., not even, 217; al- 
ways separated by the wordi 
vehich have the emphasis ; e. g., 
ne Socrates quidem, not even Soc- 
rates. 

Nervi-us, i, a Nervian (people of 
Gaul). 

Nerv-us, i, a sinew. 

Nesc-ire (iv-, it-), to be ignorant, not 
to know (ne-|-scire). 

Neuter, tra, trum, 194, 1, neither of 
the two. 

Nidific-are (av-, at-), to build a nest 
(nidus+facere). 

Niger, nigra, nigrum, 77, a, black. 

Nihil, n., indecL, nothing. 

Nimi-us, a, um, too much. 

Nit-i (nis- and nix-), dep., to strive. 

Nisi, conj., unless, if not. 

Nobilis, is, e, noble, illustrious. 

Nobilitas, (nobilitat) is, 293, nobil- 
ity. 

Noc-€re (nocii-, nodft-), to hurt, with 
dat 

Noctu, adv., by night. 

Nolle, nolai, to be unwilling, 592. 

Nomen, (nomin) is, 344, a, name. 

Ndn, adv., not. 



Digitized by 



Google 



372 



LATIN-£NGLISH VOC4^BULAEY. 



Nonne, intefrogative particle (ex- 
pects answer yes). 

Nonnulliii, a, jun, tome; nonnulli, 
gome {persons), 

Koonanquam, adv^., sometimes. 

Non-US, a, niUf ninth. 

Nos, toe, 120. 

NcMSO-Sre (nOv-, ndt-), to learn, know. 

Noster, tra, tram, 122, our. 

N6v-i (gen. of novas), news, 174 (vo- 
cab.). 

K6y-i, defective, / know, 611 *, no- 
visse, to know. 

Novissimas, a, am (saperl of no- 
vas), newest, latest; noviisimam 
agmen, Me rear-rank. 

Novitas, (novitat) is, ^3, novdty 
(novas). 

Kov-as, a, am, new. 

Nox, (noct) is, 293, night. 

Nub-es, (nab) is, 300, doud. 

Nad-as, a, am, naked. 

KuHas, a, um, gen. nallios, dat. 
nalli, 194, 1, no one, none. 



Occidens, (Occident) is, m. (sol im- 

derstood), west. 
Ocd[d-6re (ocdd-, occiB-, 6b + ca- 

dere), to fail, set, die. 
OccAd-6re (oocid-, occis-, ob-hcsa- 

dere), to slay, kiU. 
Oocap-are (av-, St-), to seize, takf 

possession of. 
Oceanos, i, ocean. 
Octavas, a, am, eighth. 
Octoginta (indecl), eighty. 
Octoni, SB, a, eight each, eight at a 

time, X»7. 
Ocal-as, i, eye. 
Odi (defect., 611), I hate; odisfe» to 

hate. 
Odi-am» i, hatred, 
Offend-6re (offend-, ^ieos-, ol>-f fen^ 

dere), to qffend. 
Olim, adv., once upon a time, for- 
merly. 
Omnino, adv., altogether, in all. 
Onyiis, is, e, all, every, the whole; 

omnis res, the whole affair. 



Qroer-a, to, toil, labour. 
JVportet (impers., 



Nam (interrog. particle), wJ^e^ier Opas, (oner) is, 344, b, burden, load. 

(expects the answer no, 174). 
Kama, e (m.), Numa. 
Namer-as, i, number. 
Nanti-ftre (&v-, fit-), to announce. 
Nunti-as, i, a messet^er. 
Kanqaam, adv., never. 
KaptisB, ftram, 57, R., a marriage. 
Katrix, (natric) is, 293, nurse. 



O. 

Ob (prep, widi ace.), on account of. 
Obaeratas, a, tun, a debtor. 
Obscor-ftre (ftv-, at-), to obscure. 
Obsecr-ftre (av-, ftt-), to beseech. 
Obses, (obsid) is (c), hostage. 
Obstring-dre (obstrinx-, obstriot-), to 

bind: ob+stringere. 
Obtin-dre (obtina-, obtent*), to hold, 

maintain :^ ob+tendre. 
Occas-as, tls, setting, e. g.,o{ the fiun; 

oocasA Bolis, sunset, 118, II., c. 



583), oportebat, 
oportait, it behooves, one ought. 

Oppidan-os. a, am, of or belonging 
to a town, a townsman. 

Oppid-am, i, a town. 

Opprim-6re (oppress-, oppress-, ob 
+premere), to repress, crush. 

Oppugn-are (av-, at-), to attack, be- 
siege (ob+pagnare). 

Ops, opis, 299, power; opes, resour- 
ces, means. 

Optim-as, a, am, best {superL of 
bonas). 

Opolens, (opalent) is, 107, rick, opu- 
lent. 

Oj^ps, (oper) is, 344, b, work. 

Oiracol-om, i, orade. 

Or-ftre (ftv-, ftt-), to pray, beg, besee^ 

Oratio,^OEati6n) is, 333, &., onOstm, 
speech. 



LATIN-BNGLW^ VOCABULARY* 



378 



OiBtor, (orat<hr) u, 319, oraior. 
Orb-is, (orb) is (ml, 302, IL), orb, dr- 

cle ; orbis tei^anuD, the world. 
Ordo, (ordin) is (m., 340, exc.)» order. 
Qngetorix, (Orgetorig^) is, Orgetorix, 

a Helvetian cbieftain. 
Origo, (origin) is, 339, origin. 
Or^uri (ort-), d«p., to rite. 
Orn-are (ftv-, at-), to adorn. 
Onmtas, i^ xxm, adorned, part, of ^r- 

nare. . 
Ostend-fire. (ostwid-, Ofteoi-, ob+ 

tendjare)^;^ thaip, 
p«t«n9i^^-^,4^), ta va/unU 

."'^- ■■ P. 

Pabtdatio, (pabalation) ii^ 3^3, &., 

foddering, foraging. 
P»ne, adv., almost 
Pag-os, i, village, canton. 
Pains, (palod) is, 993, inonA. 
Par-&re (ftv-, ftt-)^ to Tprepcare. 
Parat-iu, a,^ uq, prepared, ready 

(part. pass, of parare). 
Parc-«re (pop^rc-, pan- and parcit-, 

666, IV., b), to spare, with dot 
Par-dre (pam-), wi& dat., ^ obey. 
Pars, (part) is, 293, part 
PariiiBOoi-a, e, pareimony, frugal. 

Parv-ns, a, vm, mmeZZ, httle. 

Pastor, (pastdr) is, 319^ shepherd. 

Pater^ (patr) is,/a^A€r; patres, urn, 
patricians of Homo. 

Pat-6re (patd-), to be open, extend, 

Pat-i, (pass-), dep., to staffer. 

Patienter, adv., 215, 3, b, patiently. 

Patientipa, e, patienee, endurance. 

Paocitas, (pancitat) is, ii93, fewness. 

Pauci, », n,feto. 

Panllisper, adv., for a little while. 

Panllo, adv., a little; paoUo longios, 
a Utile too far. 

Banpv, (pauper) is, 107, poor. 

Paopertas, (paapertat) is, 993, pov- 
erty. 

I 



Pax, (pac) is, ^Z,peaee, 

^6Qc-^Q (ftv-, at-), tQ em. 

Pecoat-nm, i, sin. 

Fecuai-a, m, money. 

Pedes, (pedit) is, Z06, foot-soldier, 

PeU-«re (pepnl-. puis-, 411, b), Uf 

drive, rout, expel, drfeai. 
Fellis, (pell) is, 300, hide, skin. 
Pend-«re (pepend-, pens-, 66«, IV., 

a), to weigh, pay, 
Pene, adv., almost. 
Peninsula, e, peninsula (pene+in- 

sula). 
Per (prtp, with accos.), through, 

during. 
Perdivea» (peidivit-) ia, 107, very 

rich. 
Ferdnc-6re (peidu^-, perduct-, pei^ 

ducere), to lead through, bring 

along. 
Perfacilis, is, e, very eaey. 
Perferre (pertul-, perlftt-, perfferre), 

to convey, bear through. 
Perfic-dre (perfoc-, perfect-, peH- fib- 
cere), to accomplish, Jinishj bring 

to pass. 
Perfring-Sre (perfreg-, peifiraot-, per 

H-firangere), to break through. 
Perfog-a, », deserter. 
Perg-6re( (pen-ex-, pereect-), to go 

on, go straight, 
Pericul-um, i, danger, 
Per-ire (peri-, perit-, per+ire), fa 

perish. 
Peritus, a, urn, skilful, skilled in 

(with gen*). 
Penni^v-^e (permOv-, permit-), to 

move thoroughly, to induce, 
Pemici^, ei, destruction, 
Perpauci, 8B, a, very few, 
Perpetu-ua. a, um, perpehud. 
Perrump-«re (perrup-, permpt-, per 

-f nm^^re), to break through, 
Pers-a, m, a Persian. 
Penequ-i (persecdt-, per+Mqoi), 

dep., to follow cffter, pureue. 
1 



Digitized by 



Google 



874 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



Peraever-are (tv-, it-), to penevere. 
Perioly-^re (penoly-, penolut-, per 

-Holvere), to pay up, pay in full ; 

poBnsB penolvere, to 9t{fer fuU 

punukment, 
Perapic-^re (perapex-, perapect-), to 

observe, get Hgkt of, see plainly. 
Penraad-dFe (peraaas-, penuas-), to 

persuade, convince. 
Perterr-ere (pertemi-, pertenit-), to 

frighten thoroughly. 
PertTn-«re {pertina-, peH-tenere), to 

reach, belotig to, extend to. 
Pertarb-&re (av-, at-), to disturb, con- 
found. 
Penrdn-ire (vSn-, rent-), to arrive at, 

come to. 
Pes, (ped) is (m., 295, 3), foot ; pe- 

dem referre, to draw b€uk the 

foot, to retreat. 
Pet-Sre (petiv-, petit-), to seek, aim 

at, strive after. 
Petr-a, as, rotk. 

Phalanx, (phalang) is, 293, phalanx. 
Pharsalas, i, Pharsalus, a town in 

Thessaly. 
Philosoph-Ari (&t-), dep., to phUoso- 

phize. 
Piget (impeni., 579, a), pignit, it 

grieves, pains, disgusts ; I am 
Pil-om, \, javelin. [grieved at. 

Pisc-is, (pise) is (m., 302, IL),^«A. 
Pius, a, am, pious. 
Plac-gre (placU-, placit-), to please 

(with dat). 
Placet (impers., 584, a), placoit, it 
pkcues; Csesari placoit, C<Bsar 

determined. 
Placid-OS, a, om, calm, placid. 
Plant-a, ae, plant. 
Plan-OS, a, om, lev^, plain. 
Plato, (Platdn) is, Plato. 
Plebs, (pl€b) is, 293, common people. 
Plen-os. a, om,/tt2Z. 
Pleriqoe, plersaqoe, pleraqoe, most, 

the greater part. 



Pleromqoe, ady.,/or the most pari. 

Plom-a, m, feather. 

Plorim-os, a, om (soperL of moltos), 

most, very many. 
Plorimom, adv., very much, in the 

highest degree. . 
Pocol-om, i, cup. 
PoBn-a, 8B, punishm^t; poenas per- 

solrere, pay the full penalty. 
Posnitet (impers., 579), poenitoit, U 

repents ; me pcsnitet, / repenL 
Poet-a, IB (m.), poeL 
Pompeios, i, Pompey. 
Pon-«re (posd-, posit-), to plaee, 

castra ponere, to pilch the camp: 
Pons, (pont) is (m., 295, 1), bridge. 
Popol-ftri (at-), dep., to plunder, lay 

waste. 
Popol-os, i, people. 
Port-a, le, gate. 
Port-Are (ftv-, at-), to carry. 
Port-tis, ds, harbour. 
Portori-om, i, tor, customs duty. 
Posc-dre (pqposo-, 411, a), to demand 

(admits two accosatives). 
Posse, potoi, to be eUde, can, 587. 
Possessio, (possessidn) is, 333, B*., 

]9ossession. 
Possid-Sre (poMdd-, possess^), <• 

possess. 
Post, prep, with ace., after, bdUnd. 
Postea, adv., afterward. 
Poster-osv a, om, after i postero die, 

(m the day after, on the next day. 
Postqoam, adv., after that. 
Postol are (avr, at-), to demand. 
Potens, (potent) is, 107, powerfuL 
Potestas, (potestat) is, 293, power. 
Pot-iri (i^), dep., with gen. or abL, 

to acquire, get possession cf. 
PrsB (prep, with abl.), b^ore. 
Praeb-ere (pnebo-, prsabit-), to <^ 

f(n'd. 
Praeced-ere (cess-, cess-), to go be- 

fore, exceL 
PrsBceps, (prsBcipit) is, 107, headlong. 



Digitized by 



Google 



LATIN-ENOLISH VOCABULARY. 



375 



PraBceptor, (pmceptdr) ii, a teadier, 
preceptor, 

Pnecept-om, i, precept 

Pr»cip-gre (c6p-, cept-, pra+ca- 
pere), to command^ engoin. 

PrsBclar-tui, a, urn, iUustrious. 

Pneco, (praecon) is, herald, 

Pned-a, 8B, booty, prey* 

Pr»d-Ari (at-), dep., to plunder, get 
booty. 

PraBdic-are (ftv-, at-), to declare, 

Predo, (priBddn) is, pirate. 

Praeesse, ppsfoi, to be over, com- 
mand (pr»+eMe), with dat. 

Praeferre (t»5l-, lat-), to prefer. 

Prasfic-^re (Ific-, feet-, inrao-Kacere), 
to place over. 

Praemitt-ere (mis-, mias-), to tend be- 
fore. 

Pnemi-um, i, reward. 

PrsBnunti-a, or premmcia, ae, har- 
binger. 

PnBsertim, adv., especially. 

Pnesidi-um, i, garrison, defence. 

Praestans, (pneatant) is, 107, excel- 
lent. 

Praest-ftre (stitt-, stitt-), to stand be- 
fore, excel. 

Pmter, prep, with ace., besides, ex- 
cept. 

Praeter-iro (iv- and I-, It-, priBteH- 
ire, 605, 2), to pass by. 

Praetor, (praetdr) is, apratar (Roman 
magistrate). 

Preti-nm, i, price, reward, 

Prex, (pree) is, 293, prayer. 

Primus, a, van, first. 

Princeps, (prineip) is, 107, cAtef (used 
only as a nonn). 

Prindpat-fis, As, chieftainship, chief 
authority. 

Principi-nm, i, beginning, principle. 

PristZa-QS, a, mn, ancient, former, 

Privatim, adv., privately. 

Privat-ns, a, nm, private. 

Priosqaam, adr^ btfore that. 



Pro (prep, with abL), before, for, in 

view of. 
Prob-§re (ftv-, it-), to prove, 
Prob-itas, (probitat) is, 293. honesty. 
Prob-os, a, am, honest. 
Proced-€re (eess-, cess-, 401, 3, b), to 

advance, go forward, 
Procell-a, ae, tempest. 
Procnrrwfire (eurr-, cars-, pro+car- 

rere), to run forward. 
Prod-esse (pro-^esse), to profit, vnth 

dat. 
Prceliam, i, battle, fight. 
Pr^fectio, (profectidn) is, 333, R., 

setting out, departure, 
Proficisc-i (profeet-), dep., to set out, 

depart. 
Prohib*6re (prohiba-, prohibit-, pro+ 

habere), to reetrain, keep off. 
Projic-6re (j€c-, ject-, pro+jacere), 

to throw forward, throw, 
Prope (prep, with ace.), near, nigh 

to; propios, nearer j prozime, 

nearest, 
Propell-fire (pal-, pals-, pro + pel- 

lere), drive on, drive away. 
Proper-ire (ftv-, at-), htuten. 
Propinqoos, a, am, near to, related 

to ; propinqaos (osed as noan), a 

relation. 
Propias. See prope. 
Propon-«re (posa-, posit-, pro+po- 

nere), to set before, propose. 
Propter (prep, with^ accos.), on ac- 
count of, 
Propterea, adv., therefore i propte- 

rea qaod, because, for the reason 

that. 
Propols-ftre (av-, ftt-), to ward qff, 

emert, repd, 
Prorsas, adv^ straight on, truly, pre- 

cisdy. 
Prosequi (proseca^), dep., to pursue, 
Proverbi-am, i, proverb, 
Providenti-a, m, Providenee (pro+ 

yiddre). 



Digitized by 



Google 



876 



liATIN-ENOLISH VOCABULARY. 



Provinci-ay ti^provtnec* 
Proxim-us, a, nm (saperL, 371), ntxi, 

nearest. 
PtolenuBiu, i, Ptolemy. 
Padet (impera., 579, a), piidint» it 

ihames, one it aaihamed. 
Paell-a, ee, gid. 
Paer, i, boy. 

Pugn-are (av-. At-), to fight. 
Polvis, (polver) u, 331, d, ^^u$t. 
Pan-ire (iv-, it-), to punisk. 
Pot-ftre (&y-, &t-), to suppose, think, 

reckon. 
PyrensBi (montea), the Pyrenees, 

moontaina between Gaol and 

Spain. 

a. 

Claadringenti, as, %four hunifrei^ 
Ctasr-Sre (qa»aiT-, qiUBsit-), to $e^ 

ask, inquire into. 
aoalis, is, e, of what kind; talia— 

qualiB, such — as, 184. 
Ctoam, coxg., than. 
dnanidin, adv., how long. 
Claamvis, cox\j., although. 
daando, adv^ when. 
dnantas, a, tun, how great, 184. 
daantoscunqne, -aconque, -nmcun- 

que, however great, 184. 
dnaai, adv., as if. 
daatem-i, qb, 9^ four apiece, four at 

a time, 189. 
daattuor, mdecl,,four. 
due, conj., and, 517, a. 
daeo, I am able, 606. 
dner-i (quest-), to complain. 
dui, qoe, qaod, who, which, what, 

164. 
daia, cox^., because. 
Q,aid, nent. of qois, qsed interrog., 

what ? as adv., why 1 
daicimqne, whosoeiveTt 164, IL 
daidam, qanedaznt qnoddam, or qoid- 

danm, a certain one; plnr>i 9ome, 

178, 1. 



dmdem, adv., indeed. 

doilibet, qoaslibet, qnodUbet, ONjr 

one, any you please, 178, S. 
dnin, coi^j., but that, that not, 558, & 
doindeoim, indecL,^i£ee«». 
dningent-i, m, SL,five hundred, 
dninqne, inded.,^oc. 
dnint-as, a, ma, fifth. 
doire, to be able, 606. 
dais, quae, qnid, intenogf., who, 

which, what? 170. 
dnisnam, qoaoam, qoidnam 7 pray 

who? what? 171. 
doispiam, qnsspiam, qoodpiaa, quid 

piam, somebody, some, 178, i, 
daisqnam, qoioqnam, or gnodqnam, 

any, any one, 178, 3. 
dnisque, qoaeqae, qnodqae, quid* 

que, eeuA,, every one, 178, 6. 
doisquis, whoever, «oAa#eo«r, 637, 3. 
doivis, any one you please, 176, S. 
dad, adv., whither, in which direc' 

tion? 
dad, coi\}., to the end ihat^ that, so 

that, 558, a. 
duod, conj., because. 
daod, rel. pron. neut. of qui. 
duominus, that the less, that not, af- 
ter verbs of hindering, dec, 558, e» 
dnondam, adv., formerly, ai one 

tim^. 
dooQiam, coi^j., since, because. 
duoque, co^j., also. 
daot, so many, how many 1 184. 
dnotannis, adv., yearly. 
daotidian-us, a, mn, daily* 
doot-us, a, um, what on$ ? quota 

bora, iphat o^dock ? 
duum, co^j., whcTi, since, 561. 

K. 

BApin-a, », rapine, plunder. 
BAtio, (ratkni) is, 333,' &., reasonj 

manner, plan. 
Bauzacus, i, a Mauraeian, pec^la of 

Gaul. * 



Digitized by 



Google 



LAflH-BMGLlSH VOCABULABT. 



877 



BebeSio, (rebdliaa) is, 333, IL, t«- 

2eoed-«re (oeu-, omi-, 401, 3, b), to 
give way, retreat. 

B«cip-6re (cdp-, cept^ rH^capcre, 
io, 4X6, 0, 199), to receive back, 
take back; se recipere, <# take 
one? 9 te^ hock, to go back. 
} Kert-e, adv., 315, 1, rightly. 

Eedd-^e (reddid-, reddit-, re+dave), 
666, rV., c), give back, return, re- 
store. 

Itedinteg[r-§r8 (ftv-, M-), to renmo. 

Kedim-^re (red6m*, redempt-, re+ 
emere), to buy back, redeem, farm 
(as revenaes). 
I Beditdo, (reditidn) is, 333, R., return 
(redire). 

Bednc-^re (dux-, daot-, re-hducere), 
to ^^^t bring back. 

Befenre (retol-, relat-, re+ferre), to 
bring back, to draw back ; pedem 
referre, to retreat. 

Befert, it matters, it concerns, U in- 
terests, 584, d. 

Befic-Sre (fBc-, feet-, re-Hkoere), to 
^ renew, rebuild, 

Beg-dre (rex-, rect-) to rule. 

Begin-a, ib, queen, 

Begn-Are (av-, at-), to reign. 

Begn-mn, i, kingdom, royal power. 

Belinqa-%re (reliqa-, relict-), to leave. 

Beliqui-fB, anun, 57, B, remains, 
remnaiU. 

BeUqa-us, a, am, remaining. 

Beminisc-i (dep.), to remember (with 
gen.). 

Bem6v-ere (remdr-, rem6t-), to re- 
move. 

Benonti-flre (av-, at-), to bring back 
word, report. 

Bepell-dre (repul-, repnls-, re+pel- 
[ lere), to repel, drive bade. 

' Bepente, adv., suddenly. 

Bepentin-ns, a, am, sudden ; repen- 
tina res, the stidden occurrence. 



Beper-Ire (reper-, repert-, 427, V.), 

to find OHt, to discover. 
Bepet-«re (repetiv- and repeti-, re- 
petit-), to demand back, to ask 

again. 
Bepugn-Are (av-, at. re+pognaw), 

to oppose, resist. 
Bes, rei, thing; rem ©oTae (pL), *»p- 

olution ; res familiaris, private 

property. 
Bescind-dre (rascidr, reseiss-), to cut 

down, to cut in pieces. 
Besist-£r» (restitt-, restit-), 390, in- 

trans., to halt, stop; with dat, to 

resist, 
Bespond-^re (raspood-, irespoas-, 665, 

IV.), to answer. 
BespablicH^ veipaUicaB, 351, 3, f- 

pubUc, state. 
Bet-e, (ret) is, 313, net, 
Betin-Qre (retimi-, ratent-, re-fto- 

nere), to restrain, hold back, re- 
tain. 
Bevert-€re (revert-, rovem-, 498), to 

turn back, return. 
Bevert-i (revere-), dep., to return, 
Bevoc-are (av-, at-), to cdU back, r» 

call 
Bex, (reg) is (m.), king 
Bhen-os, i, Rhine (river). 
Bhetoric-a, sb, rhetoric 
Rhodan-us, i, Rhone (river). 
Bid-Sre (rls-, ris-), to laugh, 
Bip-a, m, bank of a rher. 
Bis-os, fls, laughter, 
Bobar, (robor) is, 344, a, strengik 
Bog-Are (av-, at-), to ask. 
Boman-os, a, am, Roman; Boma- 

nus (osed as noon), a Raman, 
Bomtd-os, i, Romulus, 
Bos-a, SB, a rose. 
Bot-a, », wheel. 
Baber, bra, bram, 77, a, red, 
Bamor, (nundr) is, 319, rumour, re* 

port. 
Bursas, adv., backward, again. 



Ii2 



Digitized by 



Google 



878 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



8. 
Bacer, crtt cnmif 77, <i, Mierei. Mods 

Sacer, the Saertd Mounts ■•€», 

onim, Moeredritet. 
Baepe, adv^ often. 
6«viti-a, m, cruelty. 
Sagittari-ua, i, tnreker. 
Sagant-mn, i, Sagunium, a town in 

Spain. 
Salt-&re (ar-, at-), to dance, 
Baloa, (salut) ia, 293, $<tfety. 
6alv-as, a. nm, safe, 
8an-ftre (av-, at-), to heal, cure. 
Sanct-na, a, um, usered, 
Bangais, (sangnin) is (sl), blood. 
Bapiens, (aapient) if, 107, m$e, a 

vise man. 
Bapienter, 215, 2, b, witely. 
Bapienti-a, as, wUdom, 
Batia, adv., enough. 
Batina, oomp. of satia ; aathu eat, it 

u better. 
Bcbol-a, ae, tchooL 
Bcienti-a, m, science, knowledge. 
Bcind-dre (add-, adaa-), to cut, cut 

down. 
Sdpio, (Scipidn) is, Scipio. 
Bc-ire (sciv-, scit-), to know. 
Bcrib-^re (scrips-, script-), to write. 
Bcriptor, (scriptAr) is, 319, writer. 
Be, ace. of soi, 142. 
Bec«d-6re (secess-, secess-), to se- 
cede. 
Becret6, adv., secretly, privatdy. 
Becund-us, a, mn, second, faUowing. 
Bed, buL 
Bed-dre (86d-» sess-, 394, Y.), to sit, 

sit down. 
Beditios^is, a, nm, seditious. 
Bemel, adv., once; semel atqae ifee- 

ram, once and again. 
Bementis, (sement) is, a sowing (of 

corn). 
Semper, adv., always. 
Bempitern-us, a, nm, eternal. 
Benat-us, ds, senate. 



Benex, (sen) is, 107, old, old main. 
Senectos, (senectdt) is, 293, oid age. 
Sen-i, fB,SL, six each, six at a time^ 

distrib., 189. 
Sententi-a, e, opinion. 
Bent-ire {senB-, sens-), to feel, think, 

percewe. 
Bepar-are (av-, at-), to separate, 
Septem, indecL, seven. 
September, bris (m.), September. 
Septentrion-es, urn, the north, the 

seven stars composing Ursa Migor. 
Beptim-ns, a, am, seventh. 
Beptaaginta, indecL, seventy. 
Bequan-a, e, Seine (river). 
Beqaan-as, i, Sequanian (people of 

Gkol). 
3eqa-i (secat-), dep., to follow. 
Ser-£re (s€v-, s&t-), to sow, plant, 
Sermo, (sermon) is, 331, speech. 
Serv-are (av-, at-), to keep, preserve. 
Serv-as, i, slave. 

Beveritas, (severitat) is, 293, sever- 
ity. 
Bex, indecL, six. 
Sext-as, a, am, sixth. 
Si, conj., if. 
Sic, adv., so, thus. 
Bicat, conj., so as, just as. 
Sidas, (sider) is, 344, b, star, con-. 

stdUUion. 
Sign-am, i, standard, signaL 
Simil-is, is, e, 104, Uke (with gen. or 

dat). 
Simal, adv., together, at the same 

time; simolac, simalatqae, as soon 

as. 
Bin, conj., but if 
Sine, prep, with abl, without. 
Sitis, (sit) is, 300, thirst 
Socer, i, 65, R., father^n-law. 
Societas, (societftt) is, 293, society, 

fellowship. 
Soci-as, i, companion, ally. 
Socrates, (Socrat) is, Socrates, 
Bdl, (Sol) is. the Sun. 



Digitized by 



Google 



LATI1V-EN6LISH VOCABULAEY. 



379 



Bdlmn, adv., otdy; ncm solum — sed 
etiam, not only — but also. 

Bdl-os, a, um, gen. soliafl, 194, R. 1, 
alone. 

Somn-os, i, sleep, 

Sordid-US, a, um, sordid, mean, 

Soror, (sordr) is, sister, 

Bors, (sort) is, 293, lot. 

BpsLd-xunHf i, space, opportunity ; spa- 
timn anna capiendi time for to- 
king up arms, 492, a. 

Speci-es, ei, appearance. 

Spect-are (av-, at-), to look, look at, 

Bpes, ei, hope. 

Splendid-OS, a, mn, brUUant, splen- 
did. 

Splendor, (splendor) is, 319, splen- 
dour, glare. 

St-ftre (stet-, Stat-, 387, m.), to stand. 

Btatim, adv., immediately, 

Statio, (station) is, 333, IL, station, 
post. 

6tata-6re (stata-, stat^), to appoint, 
Jix, decide. 

Stell-a, 88, star. 

Stipendi-nm, i, tribute, tax. 

Stipendiari-os, a, nm, tributary, 

Stoicns, i, a Stoic, 

String-dre (strinx-, strict-), to draw 
(as a sword). 

Stadiose, 215, 1, zealously, studi- 
ously, 

Stndi-om, i, zeal, study, desire, 

Stnltiti-a, m, folly, 

Stolt-ns, a, am, foolish ; stoltas, a 
fool. 

Soad-ere (snas-, suas-), to advise, to 
persuade, 

Baay-is, is, e, 104, sveet. 

Bab, prep, with ace., up to, under; 
with abL, under, 

Sabesse (sab+esse), to be under, to 
be near. 

Babig-6re (sabfig-, sabact-, sab + 
agere), to subdue. 

Bob-ire (iv-, it-), to go under, to un- 



dergo ; ad pericola sabeonda,/or 

undergoing perils, 
Sabito, adv., suddenly, 
Sabjic-«re (sobjdc-, sobject-, sob + 

jacere), to throw under, to throw 

up. 
Soblatas, a, am, part of toUere, eUi- 

ted, piaffed up, 
Sobsist-Sre (sobstTt-), to stand still, 

to halt, 
Sabsidi-om, i, assistance, a reserve 

of troops, 
Soev-ns, i, a Suevian (people of 

Germany). 
Sofferre (sostdl-, sobUt-, sob+ferre) 

to bear, sustain. 
Soi, reflex, pron., 142, himsdf, her* 

self, &c. 
Sxmi, I am. {See esse.) 
Sam-€re (somps-, sompt-, 401, 4, b), 

to take, 
Bomm-os, a, om (soperl. of soperas, 

370), highest, top of a thing ; in 

sammo monte, on the top of the 

mountain. 
Sompt-os, lis, expense ; somptfl so5, 

at his oton expense. 
Soper-are (av-, at-), to overcome. 
Soperior, oris (compar. of soperas, 

370), higher. 
Soppet-^re (soppetiv- and soppetit-, 

suppel^t-), to be at hand, to be in 

store, 
Sopplici-om, i, puni^ment, 
Soscip-^re (soscSp-, soscept-, sob-f- 

capere), to undertake, 
Sospicio, (sospicion) is, 333, "Bl, sus- 
picion, 
Sastin-€re (sostina-, sostent-, fob-f- 

tenSre), to sustain. 
Boos, a, om, one^s own, 143. 



Tac-dre (taoo-, tacit-), intrans., to te 

silent; trans., to keep secret, 
Tfodet, pertflBsom est (Impers., 576), 



Digitized by 



Google 



380 



LATfN-ENOXilSH YOOABUMRY. 



it teeariet, it ii»gust$ ; ma tiidet, 

/ am disgusted. 
Talis, is, e, 184, such, 
Twn, adv., so, 
Tamen, coiy., nevertheless 
Tang-fire ( tetig-, tact-, 411), to 

touch. 
Tanquam, adv., eu, like. 
Taotom, so mttch (neat of tantas) ; 

tantom aori, so much gold, 186. 
Tant-os, a, om, 184, so great, 
Tard-§re (av-, at-), to delay. 
Taor-us, i, bt^. 
Tel-um, i, weapon, dart. 
Temere, adv., rashly. 
Temeritas, (temeritftt) is, 293, rash- 
ness. 
Temper-are (av-, at-), to r^rain 

from; ab injuria tempeyare, to 

refrain from outrage. 
Temperanti-a, se, temperance, 
Tempestas, (temp^t&t) is, 293, storifn, 

tempest. 
Tempi-am, i, temple; templom de 

marmore, temple of marUet nuir- 

ble temple. 
TeiBil)as, (tempdr) is, 344, b, tim^ 
Tenax, (tenic) Is, 107, temitious, 

firm. 
Tener, a, um, 77, b, tender. 
Ten-ere (tenu-,tent-), to hold. 
Terg-ui^, i, bach. 
Tend, ae, a (distrib., 189), three apiece, 

three at a time. 
Terra, ae, earth i ten^. mvique, ^J 

land and sea. 
Terr-Sre (term-, territ-), to terrify. 
Terti-ns, a, tun, third. 
Tiberi-os, i, Tiberius. 
Themistocles, (Themistocl) is, The- 

mistocles. 
Tigurinus pagus. The canton of Zu- 
rich. 
Tim-€re (timu-), to fear. , 

Timid-ofl, a, nm, timid. ^ 



Timor, (timor) if, 319, /e<w. 

Tiro, (tiron) is, 1Q7, ineaeperieMed, 

raw. 
Toler-Are (av-, at-), to endure. 
ToU-fire (snstftlr, sablftfe-), to lift up, 

take away. . 
Tot, so many, 184. 
Tot-US, a, um, gen. ;i!i, 194, |U I, 

whole, till. 
Trabs, (trab) is, beam, 283. 
Trad-€re (tradid-, tradit-), to surrtn- 

der. 
TraguJ-a, as, a dart (used by tbe 

Gauls). 
Trab-6re (tnw-, trac^, 401, 8), ta 

draw. 
Trajic-6re (tngic-, tnyect-), traiudt., 

to throw or convey over ; intoaiis., 

to cross over^ 
Tranquill-iter, adv., calmly, <ra»- 

quiUy (215, 2, tranqmllos, trem- 

quil), 
Transduc-I^ (transdox-, fcranadoct*) 

to lead across. 
Trans-ire (iv-, it-), to eros$ or pats 

over. 
Transn-Are (av-. At*), to itom aeros$, 
Tredecim, indecl., thirteem. 
Tres, tria, 194, three. 
Tribun-us, i, tribune. 
Tngmt% thirty. 

Triplex, (triplic) is, 107, tr^ale, three- 
fold. 
Tripartita, adv., in three dioisiant. 
IVistiti-a, DB, sadness. 
Tti, thou, 130. 

TuUni Hostiliufl, TuUus BostUiue. 
Tom, adv., theii. 
Turbo, (turbin) ia (m., 840), vAvi- 

wind. 
Turp-is, is, e, 104, base. 
Turpiter, adv., 215, 2, a, ha^eiy, 
Turris, (turr) is, 302, tower. 
Tut-us, a» nm, stzfe. 
Tu-us, a, am, thy, thine, 134. 



LAtm-BNOLtdH VOOABULAftT. 



d8i 



u. 

Ubi, adv., ioh^fti ipkek, 
Ufnnamf wJm-e in ths i$&rld 1 197^ eL 
U11-1UI, a, mn, gen. ios, 194, 1, Onf. 
VltenoT, iOB ^mpw^ of iiltr% 371), 

farther, 
TTltrd, adr^ tffoiu^s own iMOfA. 
UlyMes, (Ulyss) is, Ulygses. 
Umbr-a, ae, shade, shadow* 
Una, adv., iogdhet. 
Unde, adv., whence. 
UndeciiB^ l&dee)., e2^«in. 
UndicpM, adv^/^0«i m Mu. 
Univera-os, a, mn, universal, the 

whole. 
Unqoam, adv., ever, 
Un-os, a, mn, ge^ muas, 194, one. 
Uniuqaigqae, 178, 6, each one. 
Urbs, (orb) is, 293, city. 
Usque, adv., as far as ; asqae ad, 

even vpto. ' 
Ut, or nti, coi^., ibdi, 546. 
Uter, atra, atrom, 194, which of the 

two. 
Ut-i (fls-), dep. (with abL, 316, IL), to 

use, employ. 
Util-is, is, e, 104, useful. 
Utinam, coi^)., would that, O that, 

528. 
Utmin, ccmj., whether; atrom — an, 

whether — or. 
Uxor, (oxdr) is (f.), wife. 



Vac-Are (av-, at-j, to be empty, to re- 
main unoccupied. 

Yag-ftri (vagftt-), dep., to wander. 

Yal-^e (valti-), to avail; plurimum 
valet, is most powerful. 

Valid-OS, a, nm, strong. 

Valde, adv., greatly, very much. 

Yaletado, (valetadin) is, 339, health. 

Vall-um, i, rampart. 

Vast-fire (av-, at-), to lay waste. 

Vast-OS, a, om, vast. [ute, 

Vectigal, (vectigftl) is, 325, tax, trib- 



Veh-^re (vex-, ved-), to corrf, drive, 
Vehementer, adv., v^temently, 215, 

2,*. 
Vel^ oot^., or, 519, 8. 
Velle, vohii, 592, to wish, to be able. 
Veknt, (vetee) \», 107, swift. 
Venator, (venatOr) is^ hmnttr* 
Vener-ftri (at-), dep., to redtrt, to 

veneratif. 
Venetos, a, om, VeneiiafL 
Veni-a, to, pardon. 
V6n-Ire (v6n-, vent^, 42d, IV.), Uf 

come, 
Vent-OS, 1, mnd, 
Ver, (ver) is, n., 325, spring, 
Verber-ftre (ftv-, it-), to flog, 
Verb-om, i, word. 
Ver-€re (verft-), dep., to fear. 
Verg-«re (vers), to incline, tend. 
Vero, <xfy., but, truly, certainly, 173. 
Verryr (Verr) is, Verres. 
Vewre (vert-, vers-, 421, b), to turn, 
YM-us, a, om, true. 
'ersuB, prep, with ace., towards. 

ester, tra, tram, your, 134. 
Veteran-OS, a, um, veteran. 
Vetos, (veter) is, 108, B*. 2, old. 
Vexill-om, i, standard. 
Vi-a, SB, way; Via Bacra, the Sacred 

Way, a street in Bx>me. 
Victori-a, m, victory. 
Vic-OS, i, village. 
Vid-Sre (vid-, vis-, 394, V.), to sees 

videri, pass., to seem, appear, 
Vigilanti-a, ib, vigilance. 
Vigil-ftre (av-, at-), to watch, 
Vigili-a, ae, watch ; de tertia vigilia, 

about or after the third watch. 
Viginti, indecU twenty. 
Vil-is, is, e, 104, cheap, vile. 
Vinc-*re (vie-, vict-), to conquer. 
Vincol-om, i, bond. 
Vindex, (vindic) is, avenger. 
Vin-om, i, wine. 

Viol-fire (av, at-), to violate, lay wast^. 
Vir, i, man. 



Digitized by 



Google 



382 



LATIN-BNOLISH VOCABULARY^ 



VirgiH-ni, i, VirgiL 

Virgo, (virgin) ia, 339, virgin, 

Viriliter, adv., manlyf courageously. 

Virttbi, (virtftt) ii, 293, valour, vir- 
tue. 

YiMf vim, vi, 301, 3, girength, force ; 
pL, viref f inm. 

Vit-a, ae, life. 

Vit-are (av-, at-), to shun, avoid, 

Viti-um, i, vice. 

Viv-€re (vix-, vict-), to live. 

Vix, adv., scaarcdy. 

Voc-are (av-, at-), to call 



Vol-«re (av-, at-), tojly. 
Volo, / toish. {See veUe.) 
Voluntas, (volonttt) Uh 293, loiH 

unsh. 
Vc^ptai> (volaptftt) is, 293, pUas- 

ure. 
Volv-«re (volv-, volat-), to roU. 
Voa, you, 130. 
Vox, (voc) if, 293, voice. 
Vnlg-ns, i, n., 63, K. I, the common 

people. 
Vulner-ire (av-, at-), to wound. 
Vuhnis, (vvlner) i«, 344, b, wound. 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY. 



AbiUiy, facnltas, (facoltat) is, 293. 

AMe (to be), poese, qnire (qaeo). 

Abode, domicifimn, i 

Abtmnd, abtmdlre. 

About, circiter (conceming) ; de, abl. 

Abrogate, abrogflre. 

Absent (to be), abesse. 

Abstain from, abitindre (abstinn-, 

abstent-). 
Accuse, uMmsftre. 
Accustomed (to be), conraescSre 

(suev-, Buet-). 
Acquit, absobere, 421, a. 
Act, agere. 

Act ef kindness, beneficiiun, L 
Add, addere, 411, c. 
Admire, mirftri, admiriri (dep.)* 
Admonish, mondre. 
Adore, adorftre. 
Adorn, ornfire. 
Adoice, consiliiun, L 
Advise, mondre, admondre. 
^duan, MdwoB, i. 
Afair, rei, 117. 
Affectum, afiTectio, 333, B. 
Affirm, bonfirmftre. 
Aff<yrd, prsBbSre, 527. 
After, post (with aocus.) ; de (with 

abL). 
After that, postqaam. 
Again, mrsus ; iterom, ado. 
Against, contra ; adversns (with ac- 

cns.); against Cicero, in Oioero- 

nem. 
Age (time of life), BBtas, (aetat) is, 293. 
Agree, consentire, 427, III. 
Agreeable, gratus, a, nm (with dat) ; 

it is agreeable, Hbet, or Inbet, 583. 

K 



Aid, aoxiliom, i; to aid, a^juyare, 

390. 
Alarm, perlurbftre. 
AU, omnis, e; cimctas, a, nm; in aU, 

adv., omnino. 
AUofoed (it is), licet, 583. 
Ally, socins, i 
Almost, fere ; pene, adv. 
Alone, sofais, 194, IL 1 ; omu. 
Already, jam, adv. 
Also, etiam, adv. 
Altogether, omnino^ adv. 
Although, quamvis, coi\j. 
Always, semper. 
Ambassador, legatns , i. 
Ambush, insidiss, 57, IL 
Amiable, amabilis, e, 104. 
Among, inter (with ace.). 
Ancients (the), veteres; pL of vetas, 

old. 
And, et, qae, ac, atqae; and not^ 

neqae. 
Anger, ira, sb. 
Animal, animal, 325. 
Announce, nnntiflre. 
Answer, responddre. 
Antony, Antonios, i. 
Any, uUns, a, nm, 194, IL 1; any 

one, any you please, &c. See 178. 
Apart (to be), dist&re. 
Apiece, nse the distrib. numerals, 189. 
Apply, adhibSre (n-, it-). 
Appoint, oonstitaere, 421, a. 
Approach, adventtis, lis ; to ap-^ 

proach, appropinqnflre : accedSre. 
Archer, Sagittarius, i. 
Arise (as a storm), coorxri (ooort-), 

dep. 
Arm, aimftre. 
K 



Digitized by 



Google 



386 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY. 



Amtt, arma, orum. 

Army, exercitos, us. 

Arrange, disponfire, 406, b. 

Arrival, adventoB, ns. 

Arrive at, pervonire, 427, IV. 

Art, ars, (art) is, 293. 

Artificer, faber, fabri, 77, a. 

Am, ooiy., xjA, a$,cf what kind, qaa- 

lis, 184 ; as far as to, usqae } as 

soon as, simolatqae. 
Ashamed (one is), pad^t, 579. 
Ask, rogftre, postulfire. 
Assemble, conveiure, 427, IV. 
Assist, adjuvftre, 390. 
Assistance, aoxiliam, i 
Association, societafl, (sodet&t) is. 
Assure, confirm&re. [293. 

At, ad, apod; at home, domi; at 

length, denram. 
Athenian, Atheniensis, is. 
Athens, Athense, aroin. 
Attack (notm), impetus, is; (verl^, 

oppognare. 
Austeritjt, sereritas, (severit&t) is, 

293. 
AwpUiwries, auxilift, Dram. 
Avail, valgre. - 
Avaricious, avaros, L 
Avoid, vitare. 
Await, expectflre. 

B. 

Back, tergom, i 

Badly, male, adv-^ 21^, E. 

Band (of meo), mamis, os. 

Barbarian, barbama, i. 

Base, turpis, e, 104; basely torpi- 

ter» 215, 2, a. 
Battle, pralium, i. 
Be, esse; be among, interesse, 174; 

be over, pneesse ; be wanting, de- 

esse, witbdat 
Beam, trabs, (trab) is, 293. 
Bear (verb), feire, 596. 
Beast, bestia, e ; beast of burden, 

jomentom, i 



Beautiful, pulcher, cbra, chruu, 77, a. 
Becaiise, conj., quod, qma, propterea 

quod. 
Becoming (it is), decet, 583. 
Bed, cubiie, (cubil) ia, 312, bed- 
chamber, cubiculum, L 

Before, prep., ante (ace.) ; adv., an- 
tea ; b^ore that, antequam. 

Beg, rogftre, orfire. 

Begin, incip&e, 416, Cf I begm, 
ccepi, 611. 

Beginning, initium, i* 

Behold, spectAre. 

Behooves (it), oportet^ 588. 

Belgian, Belga, n. 

Believe, credSre, 411, c 

Belong, pertindre, 394, L 

Benevolent, benevolus, % vol 

Benevolence, benevolentia, «• 

Beseech, obsecrare. 

Besiege, oppagntre. 

Best, optimus, a, um, 370. 

Betake omfs se^, »e reoip«re, 41Q, a 

Better, melior, 370. 

Between, inter. 

Bind, obstringere. 

Bird, avis (avis), 300. 

BU, frsBuum, i; pi., i and a, 3918. 

BiU, mordere, 395, IV. 

Black, niger, gr«, gnua, 77, a. 

Blame, incusftre, vitaperttre. 

Blood, sanguis, (sanguin) » (m.). 

Blooming, flsrem, {Aoncut) is» 16?. 

Boast, prsBdicare. 

Body, corpus, (cocpor) i«, 9H- 

Bond, vincolumy i 

Book, liber, brL 

Booty, prasda, as. 

Bom (to b^), nasci ^at), de|u 

Boundary, &m, (fin) is (m.). 

Boy, paer; i. 

Brave, fortis, e; bravely, fintitflr 
«15, 2. 

Bravery, virtus, (virtnt) is, 293. 

Break through, pexfiriugSre (p^a 
^ i pamm^Sra, 666, V^ «. 



Digitized by 



Google 



EWSUSHrLATIN rOGAB^LA&T. 



387 



Bridge^ pciiB, [^fosA) is, ^IM, E. L 
Bring, duc6re, agdref Arifi^^<idb,re' 

ducfire ; bring back word, renan- 

tiflre ; bring te pcui, perficfir^ ; 
, hinf iogeAar, ofl«?foe, 416, h, 
Britain, Britannia, 8B ; Briton, Bri- 

tannns, i 
Broad, latxis, a, ubl 
Brother, frater, <fiwtr) k. 
£iei^, aedifiottBe^ bmOd « fMt^ 'Bidi- 

ficfire. 
Bvll, tannu, i 
Bum^ incead&e ; hum Mp, exvH^ 

^»r^n, oncis, ^«iei^ ii, S44. 

Burst into, IranapirQ, 606, V ., -o. 

Business, negotium, i 

Bui, sed, aotom. 

Btty, entire ; buy up, eoemdre. 

B^, prep, with i^ a «w* cb, 93, li. 

d^ mght, zMcta, adv^. 



Casar, 0»sar, (Cesar) is. 

Call, Yocare ; to name, appeBire ; 

^ be called, aaoimftri, appeOkl 
Call together, «oiHroeare. 
CaU-upon, in^sdefire. 
Camp, eastra, ^inuB. 
C<»7» (to be 9kk^, po«e, 56T ; / eem- 

moif man patmm, ntqaea 
Captive, captiyns, 1 
Care (noun), com, «; (reri^, 43QX«ee. 
Carefully, diligeniw; atndiose. 
Ciwry, fiorttoia, vehSr*; carry i», 
. ^gmfin, 401, 4, A 
Varihage, €«tiiagpo, (Cactii^fia^ is. 
CcusitLS, Cassias, L 
Casticus, Casticns, i 
Catiline, C«tiliiia« MS. 
Cause, caasa, «. 
Cautious, cavtns, a, mL 
Caoalry, eiqpzitetBS, «f ; Adiwisvn^ 

to cavalry, eqniettris, «, 104. 
(kiebrate, celdnAre. 
CfZ^, Celta, «. 



Cemsure, i 

Ceai/i«9«on, centario, (c ea i UnK Wi) is. 

Certmn, certos, a, mn; a certain 

one, qoidam, 178. j 

Certainly, adr^ isarfet : pra£Kto,Tero. 
Chain, vincolmn, L 
Change (dooh), oom n wi ta tio, (eom- 

mntatkm) is ; (r«i4»), iMitare, eom> 

mntare. 
Champ, mordere, 995, IV. 
C&iie, iacKpaiae, 396. 
Cid^, pnnDeps, (piincip) is, i07. 
CAt^ infans, (infant) is, 107 ; €Jka. 

ilncn, jilMri, ocwa. 
CiMae, driigtei, 666, V., «. 
Christ, Christas, i 
Cicero, Cieeio, (Cioeeta) is. 
0»&iidil acK, (are) ia, 993. 
Citizen, civis, (ciy) is, c, 25, a. 
City,mAB,(^)iM,^3. 
Cloud, nubes, (nab) is, 300; domd 

ofdmMt ▼k palreria. 
Cokaii, iooboo, (ooftiast) is, 5»8. 
Cold, Mgidas, a, am ; (noon), itvgas, 

(fii«Dr)iB^3i4. 
Collect, colligere (leg-, laet^); <x>- 

gere (coeg-, coaet-) ; eoUeet com, 

framentftri, dep.; collect into a 

Jlock, Goagregin. 
Colour, color, (colAr) is, 519. 
Come, rewatOt 4S7« IV.; c^me near, 

ai^ropinqoftre ; come to, parre- 

Dire ; come tegt^Om-, eonraidra. 
Coming, adventa^ tm» 
Command, inq>erare, wiiii dat 
Commemderr VBOfesnXat, (imperaMr) 

is, 319. 
Commit, committfira; eaeimt^ sal- 

cide, mortem sibi oosHcisedre. 
Common, commamis, a, KM. 
Cammunhpecpb, iddbs,. (ipkl^ is, 1»3. 
Companion, socitis» i; alNnes^ (co- 

mit) is. 
Compel, cngfea, 416, h 
Cprnpiain, qaeri (quest), dap. 
Oomplete, conficdre. 



Digitized by 



Google 



888 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULART. 



Concerning (prep, widi abl), de. 
Coneerm (it), intereit, re(iBr% 584, d. 
Co ndemn, damnire, oondemnlre, 

348. 
Cottfennce, ooQoqaojam, i 
Confess, fittfiri, dep. 
Con^net, &aiM,pL of&oaM. 
Coi^/Uet, ooogreftofl, ta, 
Cot^rm, oonSmare. 
Coirfound, pertnrbire. 
Congratulate, gntaltai, dep. 
Conquer, vinoArft (vio-, Tict-) ; rape- 

rire. 
Conqueror, victor, (yictOr) U, 319. 
Conepiraey, coDJanik), (ooi\jimtite) 

is, 333, B. 
Comul, ooofii], (coDsiil) if. 
Consult, ootMolfire (oonraln-, ccm- 

ralt-). 
Contemplate, oontempliri, dep. 
Contend, contendere. 
Content, ccmtentiu, a, nm (witb abL). 
Continuous, cootineni, (continent) 

if, 107. 
Continuance, continnatio, (cootinna- 

tiOn) if. 
Com, finuneotnni, L 
Council, condlinm, i. 
Counsel, consiliom, L 
Course, cnxias, tB. 
Covetous, cnpidof , a, am. 
Cow, vacca, n. 
Cowardice, ignavia, ». 
Creak, crepare, 390. 
Create, creAre. 

€irime, crimen, (crimin) is, 344, a. 
Cross over, transire, trajicdre. 
Crow, connu, i. 
Crown, corona, ob. 
Cry out, exclamtre. 
Cultivation, coltas, tB \ homanitas. 
Cup, pocolmn, i. 
Cure, sanftre. 

Custom, mm, ^mor) if, 331, b. 
Cut down, refdndfire (reacid-, re- 

scisi-). 



Cut to pieces, o»d«ie, 411, b. 
Cyrus, OyvoBfi, 



Daily, ad^,, qnotidianns, a, nm ; siii9^ 

qootldie. 
Dance, aaltire. 
Danger, pericohmi, i. 
Danube, Danabina, i 
Dare, anddre (auras sum). 
Dart, telmn, i ; pilun, i. 
Daughter, filia, ». 
Dixy, dief , ei, 116, B.., by day ; in- 

terdio, ady. ; to-day, hodie, adr. 
Dragon, draoo» (dracdn) is. 
Z>e<u2, mortoos, a,iim. 
Deesr, cams, a, nm. 
Death, mora, (mort) is, 293. 
Deceive, falLBre (fefell-, fids-). 
Decide OH, wHetaeire. 
Decree (verb), deceiqfire (deerdr-, 

deoret-) ; (noon), decretnm, i ; <2e- 

cree of the senate, senatos congul- 

tcLm._ 
Deep, altos, a, am. 
D^eat, peUdre, 411, b. 
Defend, defenddre, 421, c. 
Defence, monitio, 333. 
Defender, vindez, (vindic) is, 306. 
Defiles, angostiie, amm, 57, &. 
Delay, conctlri (dep.); active, tar- 

dare (to retard). 
Deliberate, delibeiAre. 
Delight, delect&re. 
DeUght (with), libenter, adv. 
Demand, posc6re, 411, a; postolftre, 

imperare, 390; demand bade, re- 

petdre. 
Deny, negAre. 

Depart, discedSre, 401, 3, b. 
Depart out of, exceddre. 
Departure, discessos, As. 
Dependant, diens, (client) is, c. 
Descend, descendfire. 
Desert, deserdre, 406, a; a desert, 

desertom, i. 



Digitized by 



Google 



ENGLISn-LATIN VOCABULARY. 



369 



Deterter, perfiig^ ob. 

Desire, capiditas, (cupidit&t) if; 
(verb), cupere (io) : stadiam, L 

Desirous, cupidas, a, am. 

Despair (verb), desper&re; (aonn), 
desperatio, 333, R. 

Despise, Bpem6re, 406, TTT., a: cxm- 
temndre. 

Destroy, delfire, 394, n. 

Destruction, interitns, us. 

Determine, (xmstdtadre, statoSre. 

Devoid, expers, 336. 

Die, moiiri, or wan (morta-), dep. 

Difference (it makes do), xiibil inter- 
est, nihil refert. 

i>t^eren^,diversas, a,mn; alias, 194, 
R. 1. 

DifficuU, difficilis, e, 104. 

Dignity, dignitas, (dignitftt) is, 293. 

Diligence, dUigentia, 8b. 

Diligent, diligens, (di%ent) is, 107 ; 
diligently, adv., diUgenter. 

Diminish, minaSre. diminadre. 

Direct (of a ship), gabemftre. 

Disagree, dissentire, 427, III. 

Discipline, disciplina, a. 

DiscomJU, fag&re. 

Discover, invenire, 427, IV. 

Discourse, disserSre (disseni-, dis- 
sert-). 

Discretion, oonsiliam, i. 

Dismiss, dimittdre (mis-, missr). 

Displease, displicSre (displica-, dis- 
plicit-), with dat, 161, R. 

Dispute^ dispatfire. 
Dissolve, dissolv^re, 421, a. 
Distant (to be), dist&re. 
Distribute, distribaSre, 406, a; ar- 
range, dispon^re. 
District, pagas, i 
DividCi dividSroi 401, 3, a; divide 

among, distribaere, 423, c. 
Divulge, enanti&re. 
Do, agSre, fac6re. 
Dock-yard, navale, (naval) is, 312. 
Dog, canis, (can) is. 

K 



Door, (ana, (for) is, 300. 

Double, daplicftre. 

Doubt, dabitare. 

Doubtful, incertas, a, am; dabiifl^ 
a, am. 

Dove, colomba, se. 

Draw, trahdre (traz-, tract-) ; dn- 
cdre (dor-, dact-); draw up, ixt* 
straSre, 401, 2 ; draw as a sword^ 
stringere, 401 ; droM out, edocdre. 

Dread, formidare. 

Drive, agSre ; drive back, repellftre ; 
drive on, or together* oompeUdre. 

Druids, Draides, am, pi. 

Duty, manos, (manor) is, 344. 



Each, qaisqae, 178 ; omnis, e ; eoe^ 

of the two, vterqae. 
Eagle, mqpila, ». 
Earth, terra, ». 
Easily, facile (adv.). 
East, Oriens. 

Easy, facDis, e ; very ea<y,perfacilia. 
Educate, edacftre. 
Egypt, Bgyptas, i (£). 
Eighty, octoginta. 
Eloqtient, {&caxiidam, B., umi diseititf, 

a, am ; eloqaens, 107. 
Embark (apon), conscendSre, 309. 
Embrace, amplecti (aDq>lex-), dep. 
Emperor, imperator, (imperatdr) is, 

319. 
Employ, ati (as-), dep., with ablt 
. adhibdre. 
End, finis, (fin) is (m.). 
Endeavour, conari (conflt-), dep. 
Endure, dor&re ; to bear, tolertre. 
Enemy, hostis, (host) is, c. 
Enjoin upon, proecipSre. 
Enmity, inimicitia, as. 
Enough, satis, adv. 
Ertrol, conscribfire. 
Entreat, rogare. 
Equanimity (with), seqao i 
Erect, commanire.^ 

k2 



Digitized by 



Google 



wa 



BBrausa-LATm rocABULAitr. 



Err, errftre. 

EipeeiaUy, adv., pnMeitiiii. 

EiiabUthf oonfirm&re. 

£ven up to, luqae ad. 

Ever, muicuun. 

Ev0rla9ting, sempltenHa, a, nm. 

£«9r)f, omniM, e, 104. 

£««7, malum, i. 

E^H-deeA, maleflciam, i 

Example, exemplom, i. 

Excd, pnMtiro (pnMtit-), witk dat. 

ExeOUni, ptwStai^ a, nm; prm- 

tans, 107. 
Excite, exeictre. 
Excuse, excoaatio, 333, B>. 
Exercise, exercere. 
EsOmt, hoffM, dep. 
Expedient (it ia), especQt; 583. 
Expel, expellSre. 
Expense, anmptiu, ta; ai kis own 

expense, a ompts aoa 
Eye, oculua, i. 



Fable, fabnla, ». 
Fot^, fides, ei 

Fa2/, cad6re, 411, ^. 

Fame, fama, n. 

Family of slaves, lAiuilia, to* 

Far, ]OBge> adtr. 

Farm (as revenues), redimfire. 

Farmer, agrie^i. 

Father, pater, (patr) is. 

Father-in-law, socer, i 

FattZ^, culpa, ffi; peccatum, l;^»kf 

/att2^ i9«^, culpflre, incnsftre. 
Favour, vekria, s; (verb), fkvSre, 

395, V. 
Fear, timor, (timOr) is, 319 ; (verb), 

timere, metuSre. 
Feather, pluma, m. 
Fell (cut down), cadere, 413, €^. 
Fetff, paud, m, a; very fsw, p«r- 

paucL 



Fidelity, fides, ei 

J^feW, ager, gri. 

Fierce, feiDz, (feroe) iff, 107 1 atnuL, 

107. 
JV/1^ quintas, t, mnw 
Fight, pugnare. 
.Rgw^figara^ a. 
FiU, implere ; Jill up, oompttfire, 

395, n. 
Finally, demfjue, adv. 
Find, i uvenire , 427, IV. ; find out, 

reperire, 487, V. 
Findfaidt with, incusAre. 
Fiwtsn, conficeTe. 
Fire, ignis, (ign) is (m.). 
F%rmafnent, ccalum, i* 
First, primus, a, um. 
Fish, piscis, (pise) is (m.). 
Fit for, idoneus, a, um, with dat. 
Five, quinque ; fifoe at a time, quini, 

189. 
Flag, vexillum, i 
Flame, flamma, m. 
Flee, fag&re (io), 416, e. 
Fleet, classic, (class) is, 30a 
ITesh, caro, (earn) ia ^.). 
Flight, foga, ». 
Flock, grex, (greg) is (m.) ; iiijtodkt, 

gregatim, adv. 
Hog, verberftre. 
Flow, fluSre ; Jlow toge^er, oottflu- 

«re, 401, 2, 422. 
Flower, fios, (fldi) is, 331, & 
Fly, volare. 

Follow sequi (seciEt'), dep. 
Folly, stuftitia, tbi ineptin^ amm, 

57, R. 
Fool, stultuB, i;fooH^ atnltus, a, 

um. 
Foot, pes, (ped) is fm.). 
Foot-soldier, pedes, (pedit) is. 
For, conj., enim, etenim; /or flijr 

saA«, mea causa. 
Force, vis, vim, vi, 301, 1; forces 

(tnx>ps), oopin, arum, 57, a. 
Foreign, alienus, a, um. 



EI«GLI8H*LATIIf YOCABITLART. 



391 



Forest, sylva, ae. 

Forever^ in setemnm. 

Forget., obliviscly wkli §[eik 

Fonot forma, m. 

Forti/icationf 

Fortify, maxaro, 

Fortunatet ftntiuiMiu, a, qii» 

Fortmne, foctooa, m. 

Forum, forum, i. 

Four, qxiBiixxor',four ixpiaet^ 169. 

Founder, conditor, 319. 

Fountain, forui^ (fo&t) is (m.)- 

FraU, 0r««^li«, e, 104. 

Free from (to be), cai«re, 34& 

Friend, amicus, i. 

Friendship, amicitia, «. 

Frighten, terrere ; frighiem com- 

jdekly, peiterrere. 
From, a, ^ifrom every »ide, wadi' 

qae, adv.; from my boyhood, a 

puero. 
FntgoUty, parsisionia» «. 
Fruit, fractEts» as. 
FvJl, pleaoB, a, vm, 348, &. 
Futwre, fntwpu, a» vm. 



Giotto, GbOba, «. 

Gain^ potiri, 209; gain for 

coDciliare. 
Game, ladus, i 
Oondfen, faoctos, i. 
Garrison, prmiidiiiiii, i 
Gaie, porta, se. 
Gather, coIHg6r«, 41«, d^ 
G^ati^, Gallia, sb; «Jbe QmiU, QtSJi, 

orom. 
General, imperator, 319. 
German, Oermamu, a, vm. 
Get sight of, oonspiettre (oonipex*, 

conapect-). 
Gift, donum, i 
Girl, paella, ae. 
€H.ve, dare, 387, m. 
Give largess, largiri (It-), d^ 
Glare, splendor, 319. 



Glory, gloria, e. 

Go, ire, 605 ; go itraight, petgitf ; 

go away, disceddre, 401, 3, b; go 

forward, proc^dire,* go forA, or 

out, exire. 
Goad, ooncitasa. 
God, Dens, i, 62, E. a. 
Gold, aomm, L 
Good, bomu, a« «m; j«0Mi <ieei2, ben^ 

eficiom ; good^will, volnotas, 293. 
Govern, gubemftre. • 
Grant (verb), ooQced&re, 401, 3, ft, 

dAre : (dooh), coiie«Miia, d». 
Great, magnus, a, uin; comp,, ma^ 

jor ; superL, maximal. 
Greatly, vaM«. 
Greatness, magnitado, 339. 
Greek, Graecus, a, urn. 
Ors^, moeror, 319 ; lactus, na,113,N. 
Grieve, dolere<; it grieves one, piget, 

579. 
Guardian, coMos, (costod) ia, o, 

2S,a. 
Guest, hoBpes, (hof pit) i§,e,fiS,eh 
Guide, dioz, (due) is. 



Hail, grando, (graodi^ is, 838 

Halt, 

Hand, vanas, us (£). 

Hannibal, Haombal, (Hannibal) if. 

Happen, acciddre; it hty^pens, ao- 

cidit, 530. 
Happily, beate. 

Happy, beatua, a, am; feHz, 107 
Harass, laoesstee, 406, IH., b. 
Harbinger, pranontia, a>. 
Harbour, portus, Ha, 
Hard, dwnu, p, am. 
Hasten, festinftre, contender©. 
Hate (to), odisse, 611. 
Haired, odtom, i 
Have, babfire (haba-, habit). I have 

a book, est mihi liber, 125. 
He, is, bic, ille. 
.fiSMu22o?i^,precep8,(pr8Bciplt)is 107. 



Digitized by 



Google 



892 



ENOLISH*LATIN VOCABULARY. 



Healt sanire. 

Hear, sodire. 

Heart, fsor, (oord) is (n.y. 

Heaveiit ccBlam, i 

Heavy, gravi*, e, 104. 

Hdp, aaxfliam, i. 

Helvetian, Helvetiafl, «, vm. 

HereUdf pmoo, (pnwxm) ii. 

Herb, hcffba, e. 

Hentate, dnbitire. 

HigK altWi m lun ; higher, fiq>erior, 

comjx c/'«apenu, 370i 
HiU, conii, is (m.}w 
HiUock, tamnlai, i 
Hinder, impedlre, prohibdre; 
His, mmB, a, nm: ejiu. 
History, histoiia, n. 
Hold, tenere, obtindre : hold back, 

retindre. 
Home (at), domi, gen. of domiii. 
Honest, probuf , a, am. 
Honour, honor, 319; (Teib), coUre 

(oolo-, colt-). 
HonourtMble, honostns, a, uk 
Hope, spes, eL 
Horn, coma, 113. 
Homed, oorniger, a, woo, Tt, b. 
Horse, eqaiu, i 
Horse-soldier, eqnes, (eqoit) ii. 
Hostage, obses, (obtid) if, c, 95, a. 
Hour, bora, ». 

House, domos, i and as (£), 118, 3. 
Household, familia, n. 
How great, how manyt qowntos, 

186, obe. ; however great, qaan- 

tascanqae, 184 ; how long, qaam- 

dia, adv. 
Humanity, hamanitas, (hamanitat) 

u. 393. 
Hunger, fames, (fam) is, 300. 
Hurl, cingicere, 416, c (coi\)ec-, con- 

ject-). 
Hurt, 



I, ego, 120. 

Ides, Idasr idaam (£). 

If,BL 

Ignorance, ignoratio, 339. 
Ignorant, ignaras, a, am; to be ig^ 

norant of, ignortre, nesdre. 
Illustrious, daras, a, am; pmcUu 

ros, a, am. 
Image, imago, 339. 
Immediately, Statim. 
Immense, immensas, a, am. 
Immortal, immortalis, e, lOi. 
Impious, impios, a« am. 
Implore, implorftre. 
In, prep., in, with abL 
Ineess€mt, oontinens, (continent) is^ 

107. 
Increase, aag@re (aax-, aact-). 
Incredible, ineredibilis, e, 104. 
Indeed, qoidem. 

Indolence, inertia, n ; ignaria, m. 
Indolent, ignaras, a, am. 
Induce, indoc^re, addaclire. 
Indulge, indalgdre, dat 
Infant, infans, (infant) is, c. 
Influence, aactoritas. 
Inform any one, aliqaem certioreni 

facero. 
Inhabitant, incola, ». 
If^ure. yiol«re. 

Injwry, injaria, n ; incomaodam, i 
Innocence, ionocentia, se. 
Insect, insectam, i. 
Instead of, pro (prep, widi abL). 
Instigate, instigftre. 
In the mean time, interea. 
It interests, interest. 
Intrust, committ6re (with dat)* 
Invoke, invocftre. 
Ireland, Hiberaia, SB. 
Iron, ferram, i. 
Island, insula, m. 
Italy, Italia* a. 
Itself, IS». 



Digitized by 



Google 



EN6USH-LATIN 



Javdin, telum, i ; tntgola, s. 
Join, jnngSre (jimx-, jaxtct-); join 

together, conjxmgSre. 
Journey, iter, (itiner) ii (n.). 
Junior, junior, 370. 
Jupiter, 351. 
Just, Justus, a, vm;juU to many, 

totidem. 
Jutiiee, justitia, m. 



Keep, tenure, servflre. 

Kind, bemgnds, a, urn, with dat: 

saayis, e, 335. 
Kindle, excit&re. 
King, rex, (reg) is. 
Kingdom, regnum, i. 
KiU, occidSre, interficdre, 390. 
Know, scire, noscdre, 525; oognos- 

c3re : not to know, nescnre. 
Knowledge, scientia, aib 



Labour (zKran), labor, 319 ; (verb), 

laborare. 
Lamb, agnus, i. 
Land, terra ; by land and tea, terra 

mariqae. 
Language, lingua, e: seimo, 331. 
Large, magnus, a, um. 
Last (to), dnr&re. 
Latin, Latinus, a, um. 
Laugh, riddre ; laughter, risus, iis. 
Imw, jus, ( jur) is (n.). 
Lawful (it is), licet. 
Lay aside, depondre, 406, b. 
Lay waste, populari (at-), dep. 
Lead, ducSre (dux-, duct-); lead 

back, reducQre ; lead out, edu- 

c6re ; lead together, conducdre ; 

lead over or across, transducdre, 

113, n. 
Leader, dux, (duc^ is. 
Leaf, folium, i. 
League, fosdus, (fosder) is, 344. 




Learn, f"^^'^ "— -^' ^- ^i- — ^^- 
Leave, relinqudrer 
Legion, legio, (legion) is, 333, B. 
Letter, epistola, 8b; Utters, arum, 

58, N. 
Level, planus, a, um ; aqons, a, am. 
Levy, conscribSre. 
Lieutenant, legatus, i. 
Lightning, fulgur, (fulgur) is, 3S5. 
Life, vita, sb. 

Like, similis, e, 104 (with dat). 
Line of battle, acies, ei 
Lion, leo, (leon) is. 
Literature, litters, arum, 57, R. 
Little, parvus, a, um. 
Live, viv6re. 
Living - being, animans, (animant) 

is. 
Lofty, altus, a, um. 
Long, bngus, a, um; adv., longe; a 

long timet diu. 
Look at, intueri, dep. 
Lose, amittSre, perd^re. 
Lot, SOTS, (sort) is, 293. 
Love (verb), amftre, diligfire ; (noon), 

amor, 319. 
Low, humilis, e, 104. 
Lycurgus, Lycurgus. 

M. 

Magnanimous, magnanimus, a, um. 
Maidservant, ancUla, ». 
Maintain, al6re. 
Make, facSre, 199; make wa/r, bel- 

Ifire ; make war upon, bellum in- 

ferre, with dat ; make an attack, 

ixx^etum facdre. 
Maker, faber, bri. 
Maltreat, viol&re. 
Man, homo, vir. 
Many, multus, a, um. 
Marble, marmor, 325. 
Master (of school), magister, tri ; (oC 

slaves), hems, domious. 
Matters (it), interest, refert, 583. 



Digitized by 



Google 



984 



BITflLUnHLATIN VOCABULAXT. 



MMiein^ medieuia, n. 
Mediterranean, Madkemito8a% i 

JnlOKt OUBV Qum. 

Memory, memoria, e. 

AArcsAtfn^ MawalBr, 319. 

Messenger, mmtios, i. 

Metal, metallmii, L 

jtfui-cbiy, mendieB» oi 

Middle, medias, «, am. 

Migrate, migrtre. 

Mile, millia (pMMam), 191, ^; 

Military command, imftixua, L 

itfil^A. lac, (laek) is (n.). 

Mind, mens, (mant) if (C); am- 

mas, i. 
Mine, mens, a, onk 
jtftnerro, Minerva, sb. 
Miserable, miser, a, mn^ 77, h, 
MiHgute, mitigftre. 
Moderation, modos, L 
Money, peconia, m. 
Moon, lona, 8B. 

More, plas, plnrts ; adv., Magia. 
Afortei; mortaUfl, e, 104. 
Most, plorimos, a, xmi; mosit mm, 

pleriqae, 195. 
Mountain, mons, (loaDt) it (iil). 
Move, movere. 
jlfttc^, moltas, a, am; much money. 

Magna peosBio. 
Multitude, m«lt2ttacko^ sat. 
Jliy, meas, a, am. 

N. 
iMndt Budatf, % am. 
Name, nomen, (nocoii^ ia, 344, «; 

to name, nominHra. 
Narrow, angastas, a» watL 



Neighbouring, fimtimaa, a, am: 

proximns, a, am. 
Nmther, coi\}. — n^r, aeo — neqoa; 

neither (of two), iiMtor, tra» tnuo, 

194, B. 1. 
Neb, rete, (ret) is. 
Never, nanqaam (adv.). 
Neverikelus, tamflD» oenj. 
New, novas, a, am. 
Next, posterns, a, am, 118; pnni* 

mas, 371. 
Nigkt, nox, (noct) ii, 293. 
Nine, novem. 
Ninik, oonns, a» am. 
NobilUy, nobiUtas, (nobniitat) ia 903. 
Ab^fe; nobilis, e, 104* 
Nobody, nemo, (nemiB) is, ^ 
Ainse, clamor, 319. 
No one, wnlkuh tt, am, 194, B» 1 
JNfoi, Bdn ; with tamper., nd. 
Nothing, mhiL 
Notice, (see) QpniqE»o6re. 
Nourish, aldre. 

Novelty, novitas, (aovitat) is, 293. 
iNfivvem^, Novembar, bris. 
Nurse, natriz, (natric) is, 293 



Oath, josjorandam, 351, 4. 

Obe^, parSre (with dat.). 

Obscure, obscaitre. 

Obtain booty, prsdAci (ds|^.>. 

Obviously; proraQS. 

OoBsn, ooaamu, i. 

Of, de. 

Of owls own accord, altro. 

Old, vetos, (vetei) ia, 107. 

Old man, senez. 

OM a^e, seoectoa, 293. 

Oft <Ae otfter side cf, traaa (aoo.) j 911 



Digitized by 



Google 



BNOLira-LATIir TOCABDLART. 



SOS 



opportunity of (wiA genmd in 

gen.), spfttittm, i. 
Oradty oracnlain, i. 
Oration^ oratio, 333, B» 
Orator, orator, 319. 
Order J ordo, (ordin) is (m.); to or- 

der, jub^re. 
Orgetorixt Org^etorix, (Org e to rig ) is. 
Origin, origo, 339. 
Other, alias, a, od, 194, B>. 1. 
Otherwise, aliter. 
Ought (one), oportet, 583 
Our, noster, tra, tram. 
Out of, e, or ex (abL). 
Chyertome, snpertee. 
Oxt bos, 351, 2. 



Pain, doknr, 319. 

Paltry, vilis, e, 1«4. 

Pardon, venia, ae. 

Parents, pareutei, ium. 

Part, pars, (part) is. 

Pass, iter fao&-e, 310. 

Pcusage, iter, (itiner) is (■.). 

Patience, patientia, ». 

Patiently, patienter, adr. 

Pay, pendSre. 

Peace, pax, (pac) is, 293. 

Peninsula, peniasqla, m. 

People, popalas, i. 

Perceive, animadvert^re. 

Perchance, forsitan, forte, adv. 

Persian, Persa, ae. 

Persuade, saaddre, penroadire. 

Phalanx, phalanx, (pliaiang) is. 

Philosopher, philosophas, i 

Philosophize, philosoph&ri, dep. 

Pilot, g«bemator, 319. 

Pious, pins, a, am. 

Pirate, prs^o, 335. 

Pity, miserere ; I pity, me miserdt^ 

579. 
Place, locfiM,ii pL,ianda: toplaee, 

p(»Are. 
Place into, im] 



! Plmeid, placidns, a, mn. 
Plain, planus, a, urn; e<]piafl, a, vin: 

a plain, seqaor, 327. 
Plan, oonsilian^ i. 
Plant, planta, m; toptemt, seHMre. 
Plato, Plato, 834. 
Pleading, dictio, 333, B. 
Pleastmt, jueoiidas, a, aa. 
Please, placdre (with dat.); iipteai* 

es, placet, 583. 
PUoMUM, Totaptas, (tat^ is, t93. 
Plough, arlre. 

Plunder, dii^>Cre s pzvidtri, dep., 491. 
Poet, poeta, m (m.). 
Pompey, Pompetns, i 
Poor, aegens, inops, paaper, 107. 
Port, portas, ds. 
Post, statio, 333, R. 
Possess on^s self of, potiri (with 

gen. or abL). 
Power, vis, vim, vi, 301, 1 ; jxitestas, 

(tat) is, 293. 
Powerful, potems, (poten^ is, 167. 
Praise, laos^ (land) k, 293 ; toprmse, 

laadare. 
Prayers, preces, am, pL of prax. 
Precept, prMoeptani, i. 
Preceptor, praeceptor, 319. 
Precious, cams, a, am. 
Prefer, anteponfire. 
Prepare, par&re. 
Present (to be), adessA ; isAenwe, 

267. 
Preserve, servftre ; prtterve moderth 

Hon, modam habere. 
Preside over, pneesse. 
Prevail upon, permovOre. 
Prevent, profaibere, ofastare. 
Principle, prlncqnom, i 
Prisoner, captivus, L 
Private information, indicivii, L 
Proceed, perg^re, 447. 
Proclaimer, prseco, 331, a. 
Procure, oomparftre. 
Promise, fides, ei ; to p i vmite , tpoo* 

dfire, 395, IV. 



Digitized by 



Google 



896 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY. 



Property, res fiuniliarif : funUia, a. 

Providence^ Providenti*, «. 

Province, provincia, e. 

Prudence, prodentia, «. 

Pmdeni, pradenf , (prodent) ii, 107. 

Ptolemy, Ptolemnaa, t 

Punish, pmiire. 

Pumshment, poena, »: snppUoi- 

Qin, L 
Pursue, perseqcd (dep.)- 
Put-toJUgJii, fogAre : dire in fiigam. 
Pyrenees, Pyren»i (montea). 
Pythagoras, Pythagonui, a. 



Queen, Teginti, »• 
Quickly, cito, adv. 



Jtace, genoB, (gener) is, 344; gens, 

(gent) is. 
Rain, imber, bris. 
Raise, tollSre : exciMre. 
Rank, ordo, (ordin) is (m.). 
Rapidly, celeriter, adv. 
Rashly, temere. 
Rashness, temeriUs, (temeritat) is, 

293. 
Reach, pervenire. 
Read, leg^re. 
Ruxp, metdre. 
Reason, ratio, 333, B.. 
Rebellion, rebellio, 333, &. 
ReeaU, reTOOftre. 
Receive, accipfee; fvoetve back, re- 

cipSre. 
Reckon, dnc^re. 
Recollection, memoria, a. 
Red, ruber, bra, bmm, 77, a. 
Refrain, temperare. 
Refuse, recusAre. 

Reign, regnnm,!', to reign, regiOre. 
RjQoice, gaodere. 
Rdnte, narrftre : oommemorare. 
Reliece, levftra. 
Religion, religio, 333, R,. 



Remain, man&re. 

Remains, reliqain, anun, 57, &. 

Remove, removgre. 

Renew, renovftre : redintegrfire. 

Repair, refic6re. 

Repel, propnls&re (ward oflf ). 

Repent, pasnitere ; I repent, me pea 

nitet, 579. 
Repress, opprim6re. 
Reprove, increpftre. 
RepubUc, respnblica, 351, 3. 
Resist, resistere, with dat. 
Restrain, retindre. 
Retreat, recedCre. 
iZe^um (restore), reddSre; (go back), 

revertare, or reverti. 
Revenue, vectigal, (vectigal) is. 
Revere, veuerftre. 
Revoke, revocftre, abrogare. 
Reward, pnemiimi, i. 
Rhine, Khenns, i. 
Rhetoric, rbetorica, a. 
Rich, dives, (divit) is, 107. 
Riches, divitisB, anun, 57, B*. 
Ride (on horseback), eqnitAre. 
Right, jus, (jur) is; rightly, jure 

(abl. of jus) : recte, adv. 
Rise, oriri, dep. 

River, flavins, i ; flomen, (flumin) is. 
Robber, latro, 331, a. 
Rockf^petn, a. 
Roll, volv6re. 
Roman, Bomanos, a, nm. 
Rome, Bx>ma, a. 
Rose, rosa, a. 
Rouse up, ezcitftre. 
Rov^, fhgire, pellSre : fandSre, 416, a. 
Royal-power, regnnm, i. 
Ride, regfire : imperSre, with dat. 
Run, corrdre. 

8. 
Sacred, sanctos, a, nm ; sacer, era, 
omm; S€Kred rites, sacriK, oram; 
Sacred Way, Via Sa^-a; Sacred 
Mount, Mens Sacer. 



Digitized by 



Google 



EKGUSfl-LATIN VOCABULARY. 



397 



8adnet$, triftitia, m : aaoaror, 319. 
St^fe, salvag, a« um; tatiu, a, am. 
Safety, fains, (sahit) ia, 293. 
Sailor, naata, e. 
Sake— for the sake of, canat, abL, 

135^ n., b. 
Same, is, ea, id; the very $ame, 

idem, 150. 
Sand, aridom, i 
Say, dicSre ; / say, too, inquam. 
Scarcely, vix. 
Scatter, nptirgSTe. 
Scholar, diicipaliUy L 
School, MckkoU, m. 
Scout, exploratnr, 319. 
Sea, mare, 312 ; mqaor, 325. 
Secede, BecediSre. 
Second, aecondiia, a, wn. 
SedUion, aeditio, 333, B. 
See, vidfire ; (notice), eonapioire. 
Seek, qaarere. 

Seize, occapAre ; seize up, aniptee. 
Self, ipse. 
Senate, senatas, As. 
Senate-house, oioria, n. 
Senator, senator, 319. 
Send, mittere; send away, dimit- 

tdre ; send for, azcess£re. 
Senior, senior, (senior) is, 107 (oomp. 

of senex), 370. 
Separate, separtre : dirid^e. 
Sepulchre, sepulchmm, i. 
Sequanian, Seqaanos, i. 
Serve (worship), colore. 
Set (as heavenly bodies), oooid«re. 
Set out, profioisci ; set forth, expo- 

nSre ; set up, propondre. 
Setting (of heavenly bodies), occa- 

sus, ds. 
Seven, septem; seventh, septimos, 

a, nm. 
Seventy, septaaginta. 
Severe, gravis, e, 104. 
Severity, severitas, (severitit) is, 

993. 
Shadow, umbra, a. 

L 



Sharp, acotos, a, nm. 
Shdrpiy, acriter, adv. 
Shine, mictre, 389, |y j shine forth, 

emicAre. 
Ship, navis, 300. 
Shore, littns, (littor) is, 344. 
Short, brevis, e, 104. \ 
iS^A^nc, monstrare, ostenddre ; (noon), 

species, ei. 
Shower, imber, bris. 
Shun, vitftre. 
Shut, claoddre. 
Sick, aBger, gra, gram. 
Sig^n, signam, i. 
Sight, conspectas, us ; in sight of, 

conspectu. 
Silent (to be), tac«re. 
Silver, argentum, i. 
Similar to, similis (dat). 
Sin, peccatum, i; to sin, peoctre. 
Since, quum, quoniam. 
Sing, cant&re. 
Singing, cantus, us. 
Sister, soror, (8or6r) is (£). 
Sit, sedgre, 394, V. 
Six, sex; sixth, sextos, a, urn. 
Slave, servus, i. 
Slay, occidere, interficdre. 
Slayer, interfector, 319. 
Sleep, Bomnus, i ; to sleep, dozmlre. 
Slinger, fimdiUn:, 319. 
Small, parvus, a, um. 
Snatch up, airipdre. 
So, itSL, tam; so great, taatoa; $o 

long, tamdiu ; so many, tot 
Socrates, Socrates, is. 
Soldier, miles, (miht) is. 
Some (persons), nonnullL 
Somebody, some, 178; some one, all- 

quia. 
Sometimee, inteidnm, noananqoami 
Somewhat great, aliquantos, 184. 
Son, filius, i. 
Soninrlaw, gener, L 
Song, carmen, 344, a. 
Soul, animus, L 
L 



Digitized by 



Google 



898 



ENOLMHoI.ATIN VOOABUI^AKT. 



Spain, Higpania, a. 

Spaniard, HiBpftMui, L 
A Sport, paroSre (dat). 
^ Sparta, Sparta, n. 

Speak, dicSre, loqoL 

Speech, sermo, 331. 

Spend, conanmfire. 

Spiritedly, - aoriter. 

Splendid, splendidiu, a, viBk 

Spoil, pneda, n. 

Spur, calcar, 325. 

Stag", cervos, L 

Stain, macalftre. 

Stand, stare ; stand in ike way, ob> 
■tare. 

Standard, signum, i 

Star, aidos, (aider) is, 344; Stel- 
la, ae. 

State, civitas, (civitftt) is; respaUi- 
ca, 351, 3. 

Station, statio, 333, U; to station, 
constitnere, collocftre. 

Stitnulaie, indacdre. 

Stir up, instigtre. 

Stoic, Stoicas, i. 

Stone, lapis, (I^P^) ^ {^'Y 

Stormy t tarbidas, a, qui. 

Strange, aovas, a, lun. 

Strength, vis, 301 ; robv, 344. 

StTet^then, connnnAre. 

Strive after, peraeqni, S06. 

Strong, valjidiis, a, nm. 

Strong desire, capiditas, 893. 

Study, stadiiuM, i. 

Subdue, subigdre. 

Succour, sabsidioiB, L 

Such, talis, e, 184. 

Sudden, repeiitinos, a, urn. 

Suddenly, sabito, adv. 

Svffide^Uly, satis. 

Sum of money, peovnU, «. 

Summer, nstas, (estat) is, 903. 

Sun, sol, (sol) is (m.). 

Sup, csnare. 

Superior, superior^ orw.. 

Support, aldre. 



Swnrenier, ^^ditie, 333, B- 
Sv/rreund, eircamreiiire ; eacnm* 

8t«re, 391 ; eingCre, 401, 9. 
Sure, certos, a, am. 
Suspicion, snspieio, 333, B. 
Sustmn, sustintee. 
SioeiUow, hiroBdo, 339. 
Sioeet, dolcis, e, 104. 
Swift, celer, velox, 107. 
Swiftly, celenter, 917. 
Swim, natire; swim across, tms- 

nftre. 
Sword, gladias, i. 
Syracuse, Syracas», i 



Take, somere ; take awmy, ei^»in; 
take back, recipere; take caftive, 
cap^re ; take care of, coran ; tait 
by storm, expoguttre ; iabt pos- 
session of, occapare. 

TaUni, inge&imiv L 

Tame, domare. 

Teach, docdre. 

Teacher, magisten txU 

Tear, lacryma, m. 

TeU, dioAw, nontiire. 

Tempest, proceUa, m: tempeslwi. 

Temple, temphun, L 

Tenacious, tenaz, (temtc) is, 107. 

Tender, teuer, % iiagt 

Tent, pellis, 339. 

Tenth, deeiaos, a, vm^ 

Terrify, terrdre. 

Tervitiifryt finis (m.). 

Tha», qaam. 

That (proB,), ille, is, isto. 

That, ooiy., in order that, ut; that 
not, ne. 

Themselves, nm, 149. 

Then^ torn, adv. 

There, ibi. 

Thick, densas, a, tun. 

Thine, tons, a, run. 

Thing, res, rei; this thmg-, Inc} 
these things, hoo. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BUGLBH-^LATIN VOOABULAST. 



899 



JTUnk, puttt*, oogitftre, ae 

sentire, censdre. 
Third, tertios, «, Qm. 
Thirst, flitis, 300. 
Thirteen, trediodm* 
Thirty, triginta. 
This, bic, Ihbc, hoa 
rhither, eo. 
rJ^yvc^ traiy ift. 

rhraugh, pet (prep, witk eefc). 
i'fenw, jacdre ; ^f«Ht b^»re, pa>- 

jicCre. 
TA«Mwi0r (Verb), tanir& 
TAt«, ita. ' 

TA^, taas» a, vm* 
TtboTr T&eria, is. 
Time, tempns, (teupai^ is, 344. 
Timid, timidas, a, nm. 
To, ad (prep, with aoo.). 
Te-dxuf, hodie. 
Together, xma (adr.). 
T<»i; labor, 319: epera» «. 
To-morrow, eras (adr.). 
Tongtte, lingnar 0. 
T(0o mtMT^ nimixis, a« vttk 
Tooth, dens, (dent) is (m.)* 
Top of, Btimnms, 297, a. 
Totuih, tanggre; touch upon, attin- 

gSre. 
Tower, ttirris, 300: casteUom, i. 
Tovm, oppidom, i. 
TotcmMnan, oppidanas, i. 
Treaty, foedus, (foeder) is, 344. 
Tree, arbor, (arbor) is (£.). 
Trial, judiciam, i. 
Tribune, tribunus, i. 
Tributary, stipendiarins, a, urn. 
Tribute, stipendinm, i. 
True, yems, a« xun. ^ 
Truce, indatin, vnm, 57, B*. 
TruBt to, oredSre (with dat). * 
Turbid, torbidns, a, am. 
Turn, vertfire. 
Tioen/y, viginti. 
3\po.a^pieoe^ biiii, 189. 



Uly$$et, Uljsses, is. 
Uncertain, iaoertos, a, nm. 
Under, sub, prep., 3S3. 
Underttandt inteUigeve. 
Undertake, suscipSre. 
Unfriendly, iiili]iie«a, % vm. 
Unjtut, injnstas, a, am. 
Unless, nisi (oonj.). 
Unmindful of, imttemor ( wiA 

gen.). 
Until, donee, dam (eeii|.). 
Use, nans, As ; ta um, oti^ dep. ri)!., 

316,*. 
27MfieA atilis, e, 104. 

V. 

Vacant (to be), yacftre. 
Fa»n^-wt ©oin, firostra (ady.). 
Valour, virtos, (yirtttt) is, 293. 
Value, jyretinm, i; to vcdue, nsti- 

Vast, yastos, a, am. 

Vaunt, ostentftre. 

Vehemently, ycbementer (ady.). 

Venetian, Venetos, i. 

Very, vslde, admodom; veiry easy, 

petfaeilis, e-, very few, perpaad; 

very near, prozinras. 
Vice, vitiam, L 
Victory, victoria, a. 
Vile, vilis, e, 104. 
Village, vicas, i. 
Violate, violare. 
Virgifi, virgo, 339. 
ViHue, yirtus, (Virtut) is, 293. 
Virtuous, probas, a, am. 
Voice, vox, (vOc) is, 293. 
Vow, spondere, 395, IV. 

W. 

Wage (e. g., »<w), ger^re: bellom 

inferre. ^ 
Wagon, camis, i. 
Wait for, expeettre. 



Digitized by 



Google 



400 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY. 



Walk, ambnlire. 

WaU, moras, i ; watts, moenia, mn. 

Wander, Tagftre, errtre. 

Want, CBi&ce, 348. 

Wanting (to be), deesse, 267, b. 

War, belloxn, i 

Warlike, bellioorai, a, om. 

Warn, mondre. 

Wash, alladre. 

Waick, watching, TigUia* n ; to 

watch, vigil&re. 
Water, aqua, a. 
Waioe, flactoa, ta. 
Way, via, 8B ; to make (their) way, 

iter facere. 
Wearied, defessoa, a« nm. 
Weary of, taedet, 579. 
Weep, flere. 
Well (to be), valere. 
West, Occidens. 
Wh4Mt (in number)? quotas ? what 

is the difference t qaid interest? 
When, qnom (ooiuO- 
WAewcc, ande (adv.). 
PVAc^Aer, nam, 174 : atrom. 
Where, ubi (adv.). 
Which of the two, nter, 194, B. 1. 
WJiirlioirid, turbo, (turbin) is (m.). 
WA<>, qui, quae, quod; who? quis, 

qase, quid ? 
Whole, omnis, e; nniversus, a, um; 

totas, a, um ; cunctus, 441. 
Why? c6rl 

Wicked, improbus, a, um. 
Wide, latus, a, mn; widely, laid; 

more widely, latius. 
Wild beast, fera, m. 
Wind, ventus, i. 
Willingly, libenter. 
Wine, vinum, L 
Wing, ala, ». 
Winter, hyems, (hyem) is, 293; to 

winter, biem&re ; winter-quarters, 

bibema, orum (pL). 
Wisdom, sapientia, 89. 



Wise, sapiens, (sapient) it, 107 1 

wisdy, sapienter. 
Wish, velle, cupftre. 
With, cum (prep., abi). 
WHkout, sine (prep., abL); to be 

without, carSre. 
Withstand, resistfire, 390. 
Wolf, lupus, i 

Woman, femina, as ; nralier, is (£). 
Wonder at, admiraii, dep. 
Wonderful, mirabilis, e, 104. 
Wood (a), sylva, aa. 
Word, verbum, i ; ward is brought, 

nuntiatum est. 
Work, opus, (oper) is, 344. 
World, mundus, i : orbis tararam. 
Worse, pejus, adv.; worst, pessi- 

mus, 370. 
Worship, colore, adorSre. 
Worthy, dignus, a, um (with abL). 
Would-that, utinam, 526. 
Wound, vnbms, (vulner) is, 344; to 

wound, vulnerftre. 
Wretched, miser, 77, b. 
Write, Bcnbdre, 
Writer, scriptor, 319. 

X 

Xenophon, Xenopbon, (Xenopbont) 



Year, annus, adv. 

Yearly, quotannis, i. 

Yes, immo. 

Yesterday, beri. 

Yet, tamen. 

Yoke, jugum, i. 

Young-man, juvenis, is (m.): ado- 

lescens. 
You, vos {sing.i tu). 
Your, vester, tra, trum, 134. 
Youth, juventus, (javentat) is, 293; 

a youth. Bee young tftan. 



Zeal, studium, i. 



Digitized by 



Google 



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. 



What Im a monosyUahle 7 a dissyUahle f b: polysyllable ? (8.) — ^What is 
in/Uetion ? — ^Wbat is the inflectkxi of nouns called ? of verbs T (21, 2 R.) — 
Name the vowels : the liquids : tiie <;-«ottfM2« .• p-sounds : t-sounds : double 
consoTiants : diphthongs^ (23.) — ^Repeat the general rules of quantity, (24.) 
— ^Repeat the general rules of gender, (25, a.) 



Has the Latin any article 7 (27.) — What is the stem of a noun ? (30.) — 
How many cases of nouns are there 7 (31.) — ^What is the use of the nomi- , 
native 7 the vocative 7 the genitive 7 (33.) — How many declensions ?— How 
distinguished ? (34.) — GKve nom., voc., and gen. endings of 1st decl. (nom. 
and YOG., ft short ; ahl., ft long). — What is the gender of 1st decl. ? (36, c.) 



Where do you put the unemphatic gen. 7 {After its noun, 38, a.) — ^The 
emphatic 7 {Before its noun, 38, b.) 

I What is the subject of a sentence 7 the predicate 7 (41.) — ^What is an 
active verb 7 transitive 7 intransitive 7 (42.) — ^What does the infinitive 
express 7 the indicative 7 (43.) — ^What does the present tense express 7 
the imperfect 7 the future 7 (44.) — What is the infinitive-ending of 1st 
conj. 7 — How do you find the stem of a verb 7 (45.) — Qire the 3d person 
endings of the indicative, (46.) — Are the personal pronouns necessarily 
nsed in Latin 7 (47, B.)— Where do you put the sxibject nominative in a 
sentence 7 (48, n.) 

WTiat is the case of the direct object 7 (51.) — Give the accusative-end- 
ings of 1st decL (52.) — ^Rule of position for the object accusative 7 (53, U.) 



What does the dative express 7 (54) : the ablative 7 (55.)~Give the 
case-endings complete, 1st ded. (618) : quantity of final syllables (618, B. 
1) : gender (618, R. 2) : rule of position for remote ol^ect (58, II., a) : for 
preposition and its noun (58, 11., b.) 

Case-endings, 2d decL, masc. (61.) — ^Name ihe feminine nouns of 2d decL 
(alvus, cdlus, htimus, vannus). — ^What nouns have t for vocative-ending 7 
(62, R. 2.)--When to implies motion, how do you render it in Latin 7 
(63, BT) 

What nouns of Sd decL reject the endings iis and « 7 (64.)— Which of 

Ll2 



Digitized by 



Google 



402 EXAMINATION aUESTIONS. 

these retain the H in the oblique cases 7 (65, B^) — ^What case is used wiA 
words oi abounding and wanting ? (66, XL, a.) 



Case-endings, 2d decL, neat. (68.) — Short final syllables in 2d dec!, (d s, 
6, dm, a). — Long final syllables (i, 6, is, 6s). — ^What is the infinitive-end- 
ing of verbs, 8d oo^i. Y (70.) — Give the 3d person eadings, indie, present : 
imperfect : fatare, (71.) 

Give the endings of adjectives of Class I. (76.) — What adjectives reject 
the endings fts and d 7 (77.) — Where do you pat the onempfaatic adjective 
in a sentence 7 (78, II., a.) — ^Where do yoa pot the adjective beloi^;uig to 
a noun which govema another in tike genitive 7 (B^9re the genitive, 7% 
IL. b.) 

' Give the 3d pers. endings of e s s e, indie. (79) : rale of syntax for predi- 
cate noon (80, a) : for predicate adjective, (81, b.) 



Infinitive-ending, 3d conj. (83.) — Indie, 3d pers. endings, present : im- 
perfect : future, (84.) — Infinitive-ending, 4th cory. (86.) — Indie, 3d peni.» 
present : imperfect : fature, (87.) — ^Where do you put the adjective be- 
longing to a noun governed by a preposition 7 (89, IL) 



What syllable forms the 3d pers. pass, ending, indie. 7 (90.) — In patting 
an active sentence into the passive form, what changes occur 7 (93, IL) — 
When is the preposition omitted 7 (93, II., B,.) 



Case-endings, 3d decL (98.) — ^What is the gender of most nouns which 
add s to form the nom. 7 (99.) — ^Decline sermo : urbs : lex. 



What is the gender of nouns in al, ar, e 7 (102, R. 2.) — Endings of ad- 
jectives of 2d class 7 (104.) — Decline brfivlg. (105.) — ^What adjectives 
take 8 instead of i in abL 7 (105, R. 2.) — What case is used with adjec- 
tives of advantage or disadvantage t of likeness or unlikeness 7 (106, 

n.. c.) 

Whafadjectives form Class nL7 (107.)— Decline felix. (108.)— Which 
ending do participles in as take in abL sing., <& or i 7 (108, R. 1, b.) 



What nouns belong to 4tfa decL 7 (110.)— Give the ca«e^ndingB, masa 
(111) : neut. (Ill) : quantity of final syUables, 4th decL (621, R. 1) : fenu 
nouns of 4th decL (621, R. 2.)— What nouns take ubus in abL plur. 7 (621, 
R. 3.)— Decline ddmfis, (112, 3.)— What does d6mi meant (112, 4.)— 
Rule of S3mtax for verbs cOmpoanded with trans, (U3,IL,a.) — Is trans 
ever repeated 7 

WTiat nouns betong to 5th decl. 7 (1 14.)— Case-endings. 5di decL 7 (116.) 
—When is the • in ei long 7 whan short 7 (116, R.)— What noons of Sth 



Digitized by 



Google 



EXAMINATION aUXSTIONS* 403 

decl have plnr. complete 1 (117, R.)— Time whm m put in what cue 7 

(118, IL, c.) 

Decline ego, (120.) — ^What is the adj. personal pron. of 1st pen. ting. 1 
of 1st pers. plur. 7 (122.) — Give 1st pers. endings, 1st conj., act indie. pre$- 
ent : imperfect : future. — Also, pass, present : imperfect : future. (123.)— 
What case is nsed with esse to denote the possessor? (125, II., a.) — la 
cum prefixed or sdfixed to the personal pronoons T (125, II., b.) 



What are the 1st person endings, act. and pass., for 2d conj., indie 
present ? imperfect I future ? (126.) — ^The same fiw 3d conj. (127.)— 
Fourth, (128.) 

Decline tu, (130.) — ^What are the 2d pers. endings, 1st conj., act and 
pass., indie, present ? imperfect ? future 1 (131.) — ^The same for 2d conj. 
(133.)^-What are the pottestive pronouns of 2d pers. ? (134.) — How is nd 
used ? (135, U., a.) — ^Where is causft placed in a sentence 7 (135, II., b.) 



Wltat are die dd pers. endings of verbs, 3d conj., act. and pass., indic. 
pres. 7 imperfect 7 future 7 (136.)— The same for 4th conj. (137.) 



Decline the rejUa^ne pronoun sui, (142.) — ^What is the at^ective-pertomU 
pranoun of 3d pers. 7 (143.) — What ease does imper&re govern? (147.) 



Why are demonttrative pronbuna soealled? (149.)-:— Decline is, eS, id, 
(150.)— Inflect esse, pres., impeif., and fat. indie. (151.) — ^Distinguish 
Buus and ejusr (153.)— What is the demonstrative of the 1st person? 
(156) : of 2d 7 (157) : <rf 3d 7 (158.) 

Decline qui, (164.)— Syntax of the relative, (167, b.) 



Decline quis, (170.)— How is the answer yes given 7 (173.)— What an- 
swer does num expect 7 (175, b.) 

Name tiie seven indefinite pronouns, (178.) — ^Honr nre inde£ prottduna 
used with a genitive t (180, a.) 



Name the correlative pronouns, (184.) — Give the Latin for much ffold 
(186, a) : for mv^ik money (186, a). — ^Distinguish tantum and tantus, 
(186, obs.) 

Bepeat the first twelve numerak in all four classes, (189.)— Give the 
rule for accus. of time or apacct (191.) 



Decline unas, djao, and tres, (194.)— What words are declined like 
anas 7 (194, R. 1.)— Is the penult of unius long cr short? 



Digitized 



by Google 



404 EXAMINATION aUESTIONS. 

Inflect capftre in prea., imperfl, and fat indie. (199.) 



What are deponent verba ? (206.1 — ^How are they ocmjngated t (Ana., 
like pasaiTes.) 

How do yon form derivative adverb* from adjectivea of Claaa I. ? (*215, 
1) : of Claaa XL ? (215, 2.) — ^What ia the general position of the adverb in 
a aentence ? (218, a.) — ^Where Ib ferd placed ? (218, h.) — How ia nequi- 
demnaed? (218, c.) 

What prepoaitiona govern the accoa. or ablat 7 (223.) — Give the role of 
appoiition, (225, a.) 

Give the peraon-endinga, pres. indio. act.: tenae-atem: connecting- 
vowel: let coig.: 2d: 3d: 4th, (234.) 

Imperfect tenae, peraon-endinga : tenae-atem, fijor conj'a. : connecting- 
vowel, (237.) — Future tenae, lat and 2d oonj., peraon-endinga : tense- 
Btema : connectmg-vowela (238) : 3d and 4th ooi^., fdt, peraon-ending : 
tenae-atem ; connecting-vowel, (240.) 



Paaaive-endinga, (243.) — ^Apparent irregnlaritiea, viz., lat pera. pres. 
indie. : 3d conj., 2d pera. aing. prea. : lat and 2d conj., fat., 2d pera. aing. 
(244.) 

Rules of Quantity. — ^Monosyllablea ending in a vowel (247, a.) : exoep- 
tiona.— Monosyllablea ending in a conaonant: exceptiona, (247, b.) — 
Oaantity of a final (248) : e final (249) : of t final (250) : of o final (251) : 
of u final, (252.) — Final ayllablea ending in a conaonant, (253.) — ^Final as, 
ea, 08 : exceptions, (254.) — Final is and ns r exceptions, (255.)— Increase 
of nonna (257) : of verba, (258.) — ^Pennlta of perf. tenae, (259.) — Adjectives 
inidaa, iena: in inn a: in ilia, bills, (^0.) 



What are the tenaea for action completed ? (262) : their endinga ? (263.) 
— Give the perf., plaperf., and fiit. perf. of eaae, (264.) — ^Diating^h pert 
prea. fix)m per£ aoriat, (265.) — ^What eaae do the compodnda of eaae with 
prepoaitiona govern ? (267, b.) 

How ia perf. stem formed in most verba of lat conj. T of 2d ? of 4th 1 
(270.) — Give perf. of amare, mondre, andire, (271.) 



How ia perf. atom formed of moat verba of 3d conj. 1 (276.) — ^Enphonic 
rules : (1) k-aoond before a : (2) b before a : (3) t-aoand before a, (277.)— 
What answer does nonne expect? (280.) — ^How ia the pluperf. formed? 
the fat. perf. ? (283.) 



EXAMINATION aUESTIONS. 405 

Kame the six dasses of nomui of 3d ded. (291.) — ^Eaphonic rales, (292.) 
— ^How do yoa expreas "on the top of the mounUdn" in Latin 1 (297.) 



Bedine Japiter: Bos: Respublica: Jnsjarandnm, (351.) 



Kepeat the roles of gender, 3d ded., from nominatiye formation, with 
tiie exceptions under each, (355.) 



Comparison of Adjectwet.—What is the eompar. ending ? (357.)— -If the 
stem ends in a vowel, how is the eompar. formed ? (357, K.) — Syntax of 
eompar., when qnam is omitted, (360, c.) 

Superl. ending, (363.)— Stems in er add what ending ! (364.)— Stems 
in 1, what ending ! (365.)— What case is nsed with sapetlatives ? (367, b.) 

Compare bonus, mains, magnns, multns, parvns, senex, jare- 
His, exteras, inferns, snperns, posterns, (370.) — Comp. dives, 
benevolns. * 



Are adverbs compared T — ^How T (376.) 



What is the supine 7 (377.) — ^Fonn supine-stem, 1st conj. : 2d : 3d : 4th, 
(378.) — ^How is snpine in nm nsed 7 (379.) — ^How is supine in u used 7 
(380.) — ^Name the supines in u which are in common use, (381.) — ^What 
case answers die question whither ? (383.) 



What are the^Jwr ways of forming per£ stem, 1st conj. 7 (387.) — ^How 
many verbs does each class contain 7 (387.) — How do you form perf., 
pluperf., or fat. perf. of these verbs 7 (388.) 

What are the Jive ways of forming the perf. stem, 2d ooi^j. 7 (394.) — 
How many verbs does each class contain 7 (395.)— What roles of euphony 
are to be applied here 7 (395, III., a, b, c.) 



Name the six ways of forming the perf. stem, 3d conj. (400.)— What 
rales of euphony are to be applied in forming perf. stems of verbs of Ist 
class 7 (401, 1, &c.) 

How do verbs of 2d class form perf. stem 7 (406) : verbs of 3d class 7— 
In what sense is ad often used by CsBsar? (408, c.) 



How do verbs of 4th class fbnn perf. stem 7 (411.)— What vowel chan- 
ges must be observed here 7 (411, a, b, c.)— Give the rale for verbs of de- 
manding (413, 1) : for verbs of sparing (413, 4.)— What is the perf. of 
cAddrfi? ofcnd«r6 7 (413,^7*.) 

Mm 



Digitized by 



Google 



406 EXAMIN ATIOlf aUXSTIONS. 

How do verbf of 5tfa clais form perf. stem t (416.) — ^Form the perf. 
itemi of the io verbi in (416, c).— What u Mid of the pr^momen 1 (418, c.) 



■f 

'; How do TtriM of 6th dasfl fivm perl stem ? (481.)— What caaes are 

J ased after distrXbadre ? (423, c.) 

f ■ 

:T What are tbe^tw wayi of forming the per£ stem in 4th coDJ. 7 (426.)~ 

How many verbs does each dass rontiin ? (427.) — How is the manner of 
n^ an actien expreiaed in Latin ? (428, a.) 

!' How are the passive tenses for completed action formed ? (431.)— How 

\ is the perf part formed 1 (432, b.) — How is it inflected 7 (432, a.)— Inflect 

'.[ the perf., {daperf., and fiat. per£ pass, of imAr^, {433.) — How is the perf 

pass. part, sometimes used with est? (435, c.) 

How manj participles are latere in Latin, act and paas. 7 (438.)-^i7e 
'l the endings of the present part act in the four oonj^^^tions, (439, o.)^ 

I How is it declined? (440i|^Has the Latin any tMctive part, to express 

.* complete action? (None, excepting ini2epon«M/ verbs, 440, a, d.)— What 

i is the nse of the part, in disconrse ? (448, «.)— Give the words in which 

cannot stand first in a clanse or sentence, (442, c) 



Hew is tiie Alt part net formed ? (445.)— Ii^eot the periphraitio pres.« 
put and flit of imAr«, (446.)--Give the role for the nse of IIm fot part 
with verbs of motion, (448.) 

How is Ihe perf. pass. part, formed? {4.51, a.)— ^How is it inflected? 
(451, &.) — How do deponent verbs asethe perf. part, form? (451, c.) — ^What 
is the case of the place where 1 (453, a) : of the plaoe vKence ? (453, b) : of 
the place whither ? (453, c.) 

When is Ibe part nsed in the ablative with a noon ? (456.)-^How is 
the want ef a pecC act part supplied in Latin? (4K.)'—CMi « iMwnho 
nsed in the ablative absolute with another noon t (Yes : 458.) 



Hew does the infin. express action ? (465.) — Give the infin. forms, act 
and pass., in all the conjugations, (466.) — Give the role for the oomple* 
mentary infin. (468, a.) 

Name the classes of verbs which take after them the accns. and infin. 
(471.) — Give the method of changing English sentences commencing with 
that into the Latin accos. and infin. (472, 1, 2, 3.) 



Give Ihe fonnation of tiie perf. infin. pass. {478.)— When the 
Bted witii tiiis infin., with vfy^ does its pert ^pree ? (476.) 

How is the infin. fat act. formed ? (481^ : the infti. fat pats. ? (483.) 



EXAMINATION aUBBTIONS. 407 

Under what form does the gerund express the action of the rerb 1 (487, 
a.) — How is the gerund-stem formed f (467, 6.)-^How the eases of the ge- 
rund 1 (487, c.) — ^What rules applj to the eases of the infin. and gerund 1 
(489.) — Is the infin. or the aocus. ger. used with a preposition ? (489, R.) — 
What case does the ger. govern ? (490^ 



How does the gerundive express die action of a verb t (495, a.) — ^How 
are its cases formed 1 (495, b.) — How is it used ? (496.) — ^When mvst tbe 
gerundive be used instead of the gerund ? — When may it be so used 7 
(496, R.) — ^After what verbs does the genmdiTe express a purpose or ob- 
ject ! (498, S^,) 

> What does Ae gerundive in the nom. neut. with esse express 7 (501, 
a.) — ^What does it express when used with esse as a verbal ai^eetive T 
(502.) — What is the case of the person in both these constructions ? 
(The dative.) 

Hew does imper. mood exproM the aotimi ^ the veib T (507.)— What is 
mt witii the imper. f (516, Rule.) 



When is a sentence compound f (513, a.) — Give an example of a prin- 
cipal sentence : of a subordiaate senftenoe, (513, c.)-*^Give some of the 
classes of subordinate seBtences, (514, a, See,) 



Repeat the eopulative conjunctions, (515.)-^How are e t and que usedf 
(517, a): ac? (517, &.)— What does et IbUowed by anodter et meant 
(517, c.)— What is the Latin for again and again ? for not only— but 
also? {517, d.) 

Name the disjunctive conjunctions, (519.)— What does aut indicate ? 
▼elt (519, R. 1 and 2.)— How is ve used? (519, R. 3.)— What do these 
conj. mean when repeated ? (519, R. 4.)— Give the adversatives, (520.) — 
What does sed express ? (522, a): aut em? (522, b.) 



How daes the sabjune. mood express affirmation 7 {9M.) — ^iflect subjmie. 
pres. of esse, (525.) — ^laflect sul]9nne. i>res. met. and pass, of ftmftrfi, 
mdndrC, rSgfirS, audire, (526, b.) — How may a wish be expressed in 
Latin 7 (528, a.) — How may a softened command be expressed 7 (528, b,) — 
How do you express a direct question when dmtit is implied ? (528, c.) 



Infleotsubjunc. pert of esse, (531.)— HowdoregaiarreAsformsubjunc. 
perf. act. 7 (532, 1) : subjunc. perf pass. 7 (532, 2.)— Inflect the subjunc. 
perf. act. and pass.of ftmftr6,mdnerfi, rdgdrd, aud!r£, (532,3.)— How 
is t^ aol^iine. perf. nsed imperatively 7 (534, a.)— How »ay a supposed 
case be «xpi«Med 7 <584, 6.)-^How may a tefiemd aswetHon be express- 
ed? (534, c.)— What interrogative sentences take the si^fajune. 7 (584, e.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



408 EXAMINATION aUESTIONS. 

How u the BTibjaiic. imperf. formed? (537.) — Repeat l^e paradigm 
(538.) — How is the snbjiiDC plaper£ act and pass, formed ? (539, a and b.) 
— Give the paradigm, (539, e.) — Repeat the conditional conjunctions, (540, 
a.)— What is a conditional sentence ? (540, b.) — ^In conditional sentences 
bow do yoa express a real condition 7 a possible condition 7 an unreal or 
impossible in present time 7 an unreal or impossible condition in past 
time 7 (542, 6, Role.) — Can the per£ or plaperf. indie, ever be osed with 
si 7 (Na) 

Inflect posse in snbjonc. pres. : imperf. : perf. : plaperf (545.) — State 
the composition of posse. — Repeat the final conjonctions, (546.) — ^How is 
purpose or aim expressed in English 7 bow in Latin 7 (548, a.) — How is an 
object to be provided against introduced in English? how in Latin 7 (548, 
o.) — Can a purpose or aim be expressed in Latin by an infin. 7 (No.) 

Give the primary tenses of the Latin verb : the historical, (551, 2, a, b.) 
— ^What is the role finr the succession of tenses 7 (551, 3.) — How is a result 
expressed in English 7 how in Latin? (553, a.) — ^What is the role for at 
signifying that ? (553, b.) 



How is the want of a fat subjonc. supplied in Latin 7 (556.) — Give the 
paradigm, periph. conj. subjunc. (556.) — ^When does quo express a pur- 
pose instead of at 7 (558, a.) — In what sense is qui n used 7 (1) after neg- 
ative sentences? (2) after non dubito, &c.? (558,6.) — ^When is quo- 
minus used in preference to ne 7 (558, e.) 



What are the two uses of quum 7 (561.) — What is the first use called ? 
the second? (561.) — ^When is quum followed by the indie? (563, a.) — 
When is quum temporal followed by the imperf. or plaperf subjuncf 
(563, b.)^WhtX is the rule for quum causal 7 (563, c.) 



When is the rel. pronoun followed by the subjunc. 7 (566.) — Give the 
rule for the use of subjunc. in a rel. sentence, (568, d.) — ^Is the rel. to ex- 
press a purpose very common in CsBsar? (Yes.) 



In what two ways may we relate the words of another 7 (571.) — What 
is each method called 7 (571.) — ^What kinds of sentences are introduced in 
oratio obliqua? (Either principal or subordinate.) — ^What mood is 
used in principal sentences in oratio obliqua? (574, a) : in subordinate 
sentences 7 (574, b.) 

What are impersonal verbs 7 (577.) — Give the classes of impersonals, 
(578.)~What impersonals are followed by the aocus. of die person and 
the gen. of tlie cause 7 (579, a.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



EXAMINATION aUESTIONS. 409 

Qive Hie rale for 5portet and decet (584, a) : for plftcet (584, 5)« 
for licet andlibet (584, c): for interest andrdfert (584, d). 



State the composition of possum, and repeat the paradigm, (587.) 



Give the composition of ndlo and mftlo, and repeat the paradigms 
(592.) — Give the three roles for veil e, nolle, and malle, in (594). 



Bepeat the paradigm of irregular forms of f erre, (596.) — ^How are the 
remaining tenses formed? (596, b.) — ^What is the meaning of ffirnnt? 
(598, b.) 

Of what verb does fieri form the pass.? (600.) — ^How are the tenses 
formed ? (600.) — Give the paradigm.— What is the quantity ofiin fieri? 
(600, B.)— What forms of edere are similar to those of esse ? (601.) — 
Give the paradigm. — ^What is the quantity of e s, from esse? of e s, from 
edere? (601, R.) 

What conjugation does ire follow ? (605.) — Give the paradigm. — ^What 
is said of the compounds ? (665, 1, 2.)— How are queo and nequeo con- 
jugated ? (606.) 

Inflect aio (609) : inquam (610) : n6 vi (611).— How do you distinguish 
between the use of aio and of inquam? (613, b, I^*.) — What form of 
cfspi is used with a pass, infin.? (613, e, ^p*.) 

Mm2 



THE END 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google